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# Chapter 2

Atomic Structure
LEARNING OUTCOMES
Describe the structure of atoms of atomic numbers
1 to 20 using illustrations
State the properties of electrons, protons and
neutrons
Define atomic number and mass number
Define relative atomic mass
Interpret notations of the form ab X
Define isotopy
List the uses of isotopes
Predict the likelihood of an atom forming an ionic
or covalent bond based on atomic structure
Chapter 2
Atomic Structure
Structure of Atoms
An atom is made up of a dense
centre called the nucleus, and a
cloud of electrons surrounding it.
The nucleus has two types of
particles called protons and
neutrons.
The protons are positively charged.
The neutrons have no charge (neutral).
Chapter 2
Atomic Structure
Structure of Atoms
The electrons are negatively
charged.
The number of protons is Particle Relative Relative
always equal to the number mass electric
of electrons, so an atom is charge
electrically neutral. Proton 1 1+
The relative mass and charge Neutron 1 0
of each particle is as shown __1_
in the table. Electron 1 836
0 1
Chapter 2
Atomic Structure
Proton number and Nucleon number

## The proton number of an

atom is equal to the number
of protons in the atom.
The proton number is also
called the atomic number.

## The proton number of the atom shown above is 3.

Chapter2
Atomic Structure
Nucleon number
The nucleon number of an
atom is equal to the total
number of protons and
neutrons in the atom.
The nucleon number is also
called the mass number since
the protons and neutrons give
the atom its mass.

## The nucleon number for the atom shown is 6.

Chapter 2
Atomic Structure
Atomic symbol
The structure of an atom can be written in symbol form as:

a
X
Nucleon
number

Proton
number b
E.g. What are the atomic particles found in
an atom of fluorine, 199 F ?
9 electrons
10 neutrons (19 9 =10 )
Chapter 2
Atomic Structure
Electron arrangement
The electrons surround the nucleus like a cloud and
move around it in fixed orbits or shells.
Each shell is numbered 1, 2, 3, 4 and so on, going
outwards from the nucleus.
Each shell can hold a certain maximum number of
electrons.
The maximum number of electrons each shell can hold
is given by:
1st shell = 2
2nd shell = 8
3rd shell = 8 ( for the first 20 elements in the Periodic Table )
Chapter 2
Atomic Structure
Electron arrangement
1st shell
The electron arrangement
of an atom is also called Na 2nd shell
its electronic structure.
3rd shell

## The electronic structure can also be stated as a

series of numbers called the electron configuration.

## The electronic configuration of the sodium atom

shown is: 2.8.1
Chapter 2
Atomic Structure
Outer Electrons
The electrons in the outermost shell are called the outer
electrons or valence electrons.

Valence electrons
Chapter 5
Atomic Structure
Isotopes
Isotopes are atoms of the same element which have the
same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
Isotopes are chemically alike in all aspects, except for their
masses. However, some isotopes are radioactive.
Hydrogen has three isotopes 11H, 21H and 31H.

Isotopes of hydrogen

## 21H is called deuterium, 3

1H is called tritium. Both isotopes are found in sea
water and the Sun.
Chapter 5
Atomic Structure
Isotopes
Chlorine exists as two main isotopes: 3517Cl (75%)
and 3717Cl (25%).
The average atomic mass of chlorine is given by the
weighted mean of the two isotopes:
0.75 x 35 + 0.25 x 37 = 35.5
Hence, in the Periodic Table the atomic mass of
chlorine is given as 35.517Cl.
Chapter 5
Atomic Structure
Ions
In an atom, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons,
so an atom is electrically neutral.
However, atoms can lose or gain electrons to form charged particles
called ions.

Atoms form ions so that they can have the stable electronic structure of
a noble gas such as helium, neon or argon.
A sodium atom (2.8.1), gives away its 1 outer electron to form a positively charged
sodium ion, Na+ (2.8), which has the same electronic structure as neon.
Chapter 5
Atomic Structure
Positive and negative Ions
If an atom gives away its outer electrons, then it has more
protons than electrons and becomes a positively charged
ion.
If an atom takes in electrons, then it has more electrons than
protons, and it becomes a negatively charged ion.
Examples:
Mg Mg2+ + 2e-
(Mg loses two electrons to form a positive ion, Mg2+)
Cl + e- Cl-
(Cl gains one electron to form a negative ion, Cl-)
Chapter 2
Atomic Structure
Positive and Negative Ions
Chapter 2
Atomic Structure
Ions of metals and non-metals
Metals e.g. sodium, calcium and aluminium which have
less than 4 electrons in their outermost shells, always
give away electrons to form positive ions.
Non-metals like chlorine, oxygen and nitrogen which
have more than 4 electrons in their outer shell, take in
electrons to form negative ions.
Chapter 2
Atomic Structure
Molecules of elements and compounds
A molecule is made up of two or more atoms chemically joined together.
Molecules of elements are made up of the same kind of atoms.

Molecules of elements

## Molecules of compounds are made up of two or more different kinds of

atoms.

Molecules of compounds
Chapter 2
Atomic Structure
Quick check 1
1. The nucleus of an atom contains ______ and _______.
2. A proton has a relative mass of _____ and a relative charge of
________ .
3. An electron has a ______ mass and a charge of ______ .
4. A neutron has a relative mass of _____ and a charge of _______ .
5. An atom of potassium is represented by the symbol 3919K. How
many protons, electrons and neutrons are there in a potassium
atom?
6. An atom of chlorine contains 17 protons, 18 neutrons and 17
electrons. Write the atomic symbol for chlorine.

Solution
Chapter 2
Atomic Structure
Quick check 2
1. What are isotopes? Give an example of an element
with isotopes.
2. The table below shows four atoms.
Number of Number of
(a) Complete the table.
Atom Nucleon Proton
number number neutrons electrons (b) Which two atoms
A 14 6 are isotopes?
B 15 7 (c) Which atom has the
C 15 6 greatest mass?
D 16 8
Solution
Chapter 2
Atomic Structure
Quick check 3
1. Calcium is in Period IV, Group 2 of the Periodic Table. Deduce
the electronic structure of calcium.
2. Complete the following equations:
(a) Li Li+ + __e-
(b) Mg Mg2+ + __ Element No. of No. of Formula
(c) Cl + e- ____ protons electrons of ion
(d) S + ____ S2-
(e) Al ____ + 3e- Na 11 10
3. Complete the table on the right. Ca 20 Ca2+
4. Draw the electronic structure Br 36 Br -
of the following:
(a) boron, O 8 O2-
(b) phosphorus,
(c) chloride ion,
(d) calcium ion. Solution
Chapter 2
Atomic Structure
Solution to Quick check 1
1. The nucleus of an atom contains protons and neutrons.
2. A proton has a relative mass of 1 and a relative charge of
+1 .
3. An electron has a negligible mass and a charge
of - 1.
4. A neutron has a relative mass of 1 and a charge
of 0 .
5. 19 protons, 19 electrons and 20 neutrons.

17Cl
6. 35
Return
Chapter 2
Atomic Structure
Solution to Quick check 2

1. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons
but different numbers of neutrons.
An example of an element with isotopes is hydrogen.
2.
Atom Nucleon Proton Number of Number of
number number neutrons electrons
A 14 6 8 6
B 15 7 8 7
C 15 6 9 6
D 16 8 8 8

## (b) Which two atoms are isotopes? A and C

(c) Which atom has the greatest mass? D
Return
Chapter 2
Atomic Structure
Solution to Quick check 3

## 1. The electronic structure of

calcium is 2.8.8.2 Element No. of No. of Formula
2. (a) Li Li+ + e- protons electrons of ion
(b) Mg Mg2+ + 2e- Na 11 10 Na+
(c) Cl + e- Cl-
Ca 20 18 Ca2+
(d) S + 2e S
- 2-

## (e) Al Al3+ + 3e- Br 35 36 Br -

3. Complete the table on the right. O 8 10 O2-

Return
Chapter 2
Atomic Structure
Solution to Quick check 3
4.

## (a) boron (b) phosphorus

Return
(c) chloride ion (d) calcium ion
Chapter 2
Atomic Structure