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# Chp-6:Lecture Goals

Serviceability
Deflection calculation
Deflection example
Structural Design Profession is concerned with:
Limit States Philosophy:
Strength Limit State
(safety-fracture, fatigue, overturning buckling
etc.-)
Serviceability
Performance of structures under normal service
load and are concerned the uses and/or
occupancy of structures
;
:Amplification factor
:Time dependent Factor
Solution:
See Example 2.2

Ma: Max.
Service
Reinforced Concrete Sections - Example

## Given a doubly reinforced beam with h = 24 in, b = 12 in.,

d = 2.5 in. and d = 21.5 in. with 2# 7 bars in compression
steel and 4 # 7 bars in tension steel. The material
properties are fc = 4 ksi and fy= 60 ksi.
Determine Igt, Icr , Mcr(+), Mcr(-), and compare to the NA of
the beam.
Reinforced Concrete Sections - Example

## The components of the beam

As 2 0.6 in 2 1.2 in 2
As 4 0.6 in 2 2.4 in 2

1k
Ec 57000 f c 57000 4000
1000 lb
3605 ksi
Reinforced Concrete Sections - Example

## The compute the n value and the centroid, I uncracked

Es 29000 ksi
n 8.04
Ec 3605 ksi
n area (in2) n*area (in2) y i (in) y i *n*area (in2) I (in4) d (in) d2*n*area(in4)
A's 7.04 1.2 8.448 2.5 21.12 - -9.756 804.10
As 7.04 2.4 16.896 21.5 363.26 - 9.244 1443.75
Ac 1 288 288 12 3456.00 13824 -0.256 18.89

## 313.344 3840.38 13824 2266.74

Reinforced Concrete Sections - Example

## The compute the centroid and I uncracked

y
y n A 3840.38 in

i i i
12.26 in.
3

n A 313.34 in
i i
2

I I d n A 13824 in 2266.7 in
i
2
i i i
4 4

16090.7 in 4
Reinforced Concrete Sections - Example
The compute the centroid and I for a cracked doubly
reinforced beam.
2n 1As 2nAs 2n 1As 2nAs d
y
2
y 0
b b
2 7.04 1.2 in 2 2 8.04 2.4 in 2
y2 y
12 in.
2 7.04 1.2 in 2 2 8.04 2.4 in 2 21.5 in.
s
0
12 in.
y 2 4.624 y 72.664 0
Reinforced Concrete Sections - Example
The compute the centroid for a cracked doubly reinforced
beam.

y 2 4.624 y 72.664 0

## 4.624 4.624 4 72.664

2

y
2
6.52 in.
Reinforced Concrete Sections - Example
The compute the moment of inertia for a cracked doubly
reinforced beam.
I cr by n 1As y d nAs d y
1 3
2 2

3
1
I cr 12 in. 6.52 in.
3

3
7.04 1.2 in 6.52 in. 2.5 in.
2 2

## 8.04 2.4 in 21.5 in. 6.52 in.

2 2

5575.22 in 4
Reinforced Concrete Sections - Example
The critical ratio of moment of inertia

4
I cr 5575.22 in
4
0.346
I g 16090.7 in

I cr 0.35I g
Reinforced Concrete Sections - Example
Find the components of the beam
Cc 0.85 f cba 0.85 4 ksi 12 in. 0.85 c 34.68c

## c 2.5 in. 0.0075

s 0.003 0.003
c c
0.0075 217.5
f s Es s 29000 0.003 87
c c
2 217.5
Cs As f s 0.85 f c 1.2 in 87

c
261
100.32
c
Reinforced Concrete Sections - Example
Find the components of the beam
T 2.4 in 2 60 ksi 144 k

T Cc Cs
261
144 k 34.68c 100.32 34.68c 2 43.68c 261 0
c
The neutral axis
43.68 43.68 4 261 34.68
2

c
2 34.68
3.44 in.
Reinforced Concrete Sections - Example
The strain of the steel

## 3.44 in. 2.5 in.

s 0.003 0.0008 0.00207
3.44 in.
21.5 in. 3.44 in.
s 0.003 0.0158 0.00207
3.44 in.

## Note: At service loads, beams are assumed to act

elastically.
c 3.44 in.
y 6.52 in.
Reinforced Concrete Sections - Example
Using a linearly varying and s = E along the NA
is the centroid of the area for an elastic center
My
s
I
The maximum tension stress in tension is

## f r 7.5 fc 7.5 4000

474.3 psi 0.4743 ksi
Reinforced Concrete Sections - Example
The uncracked moments for the beam
My sI
s M
I y
f r I 0.4743 ksi 16090.7 in 650.2 k-in.
4

M cr
y 24 in. 12.26 in.
fr I 0.4743 ksi 16090.7 in 4
M cr 622.6 k-in.
y 12.26 in.
Calculate the Deflections

## (1) Instantaneous (immediate) deflections

Instantaneous Deflections
Calculate the Deflections
Instantaneous Deflections
Equations for calculating Dinst for common cases
Calculate the Deflections
Instantaneous Deflections
Equations for calculating Dinst for common cases
Calculate the Deflections
Instantaneous Deflections
Equations for calculating Dinst for common cases
Calculate the Deflections
Instantaneous Deflections
Equations for calculating Dinst for common cases

Creep causes an increase Curvature
in concrete strain increases

## Compression steel Increase in compressive

present strains cause increase in
stress in compression
reinforcement (reduces
Helps limit this
creep strain in concrete)
effect.
Sustain load deflection = l Di

Instantaneous deflection
l
1 50 ACI 9.5.2.5

As
at midspan for simple and continuous beams

12 months 1.4
6 months 1.2
3 months 1.0

## Also see Figure 9.5.2.5 from ACI code

D total D DLinst D LLinst
D DL L.T. D LL L.T.
DL and LL may have different factors for LT ( long
term ) D calculations

D after attachment of
D total D DLinst
total
N/S components

## D LLinst D DLinst Full DL and LL

Example
Show in the attached figure is a typical interior span of a floor
beam spanning between the girders at locations A and C. Partition
walls, which may be damaged by large deflections, are to be
erected at this level. The interior beam shown in the attached
figure will support one of these partition walls. The weight of the
wall is included in the uniform dead load provided in the figure.
Assume that 15 % of the distributed dead load is due to a
partition wall is in place. Also assume that 40 % of the live load
will be sustained for at least 6 months.

fc = 5 ksi
fy = 60 ksi

Part I
Determine whether the floor beam meets the ACI Code maximum
permissible deflection criteria. (Note: it will be assumed that it is
acceptable to consider the effective moments of inertia at location
A and B when computing the average effective moment of inertia
for the span in this example.)

Part II
Check the ACI Code crack width provisions at midspan of the
beam.

## Deflection before glass partition is installed (85 % of DL)

l 35ft 12 in/ft
be 105 in
4 4
8t 2 bw 8 4.5 in 2 12 in = 84 in
s = 10 ft = 120 in.
Compute the centroid and gross moment of inertia, Ig.

b h Area yi Ai * yi
Flange 84 4.5 378 17.75 6709.5
Web 15.5 12 186 7.75 1441.5

564 8151
The moment of inertia

y
yi Ai

8151 in 3
14.45 in 14.5 in
Ai 564 in 2

1 3
12
84 in 4.5 in 378 in 17.75 in - 14.45 in
1 3 2 2

12
12 in 15.5 in 186 in 7.75 in - 14.45 in
1 3 2 2

12
16,950 in 4 16900 in 4
The moment capacity
f r 7.5 f c 7.5 5000 530 psi
E c 57000 f c 57000 5000 /1000 lbs=4030 ksi
fr Ig 530 psi 16900 in 4
M cr - 1610 k-in
y t - 5.55 in 1000 lbs/kip

## fr Ig 530 psi 16900 in 4

M cr + 618 k-in
y t + 14.5 in 1000 lbs/kip
Determine bending moments due to initial load (0.85
DL) The ACI moment coefficients will be used to
patterned in this case, This is slightly conservative
The moments at the two locations

M A 0.85wD ln /11
2

2

## 87.6 k-ft 1050 k-in

M B 0.85wD ln /16
2

2

## 60.2 k-ft 723 k-in

Moment at C will be set equal to Ma for simplicity, as
given in the problem statement.

## M A 1050 k-in <M cr -

1610 k-in Use Ig @ supports
M B 723 k-in>M cr +
618 k-in Use Icr @ midspan
Assume Rectangular Section Behavior and calculate the
areas of steel and ratio of Modulus of Elasticity

Es 29000 ksi
n 7.2
Ec 4030 ksi
As 3#5 3 0.31 in 2 0.93 in 2
As 4 # 7 4 0.6 in 2 2.40 in 2
Calculate the center of the T-beam
2 n 1 As 2nAs 2 n 1 Asd 2nAs d
y
2
y 0
b b
2 6.2 0.93 in 2 2 7.2 2.4 in 2
y2 y
84 in.
2 6.2 0.93 in 2 2.5 in. 2 7.2 2.4 in 2 17.5 in.
0
84 in.
y 2 0.549 y 7.54 0
0.549 30.47
y 2.49 in.
2
The centroid is located at the As < 4.5 in. = tf Use
rectangular section behavior
1 3
by n 1 As y d nAs d y
2 2
I cr +
3
1
84 in 2.49 in
3

3
6.2 0.93 in 2.5 in 2.49 in
2 2

## 7.2 2.4 in 17.5 in 2.49 in

2 2

4330 in 4
The moment of inertia at midspan

M cr
3
M cr
3

I e midspan I g 1 I cr
Ma Ma

3
618 k-in

4
16900 in
723 k-in
618 k-in 3
1
723 k-in 4330 in
4

12200 in 4
Calculate average effective moment of inertia, Ie(avg) for
interior span (for 0.85 DL) For beam with two ends
continuous and use Ig for the two ends.
I e avg 0.7 I e mid 0.15 I e1 I e2
0.7 12200 in 4
0.15 16900 in 4 16900 in 4
13600 in 4
Calculate instantaneous deflection due to 0.85 DL:
Use the deflection equation for a fixed-fixed beam but use
the span length from the centerline support to centerline
support to reasonably approximate the actual deflection.

## 0.85 1.00 k/ft 35 ft 12 in/ft

4 3
l 4
D DLinst
384 EI 384 4030 ksi 13600 in 4
0.105 inches
Calculate additional short-term Deflections (full DL & LL)

## D L l 1.62 k/ft 33.67 ft

2 2

MA n

11 11
167 k-ft 2000 k-in
D L l 1.62 k/ft 33.67 ft
2 2

MB n

16 16
115 k-ft 1380 k-in
Calculate additional short-term Deflections (full DL & LL)

statement

## M c M A 2000 k-in M cr - 1610 k-in

cracking at supports
M B 1380 k-in M cr + 618 k-in
cracking at midspan
Assume beam is fully cracked under full DL + LL,
therefore I= Icr (do not calculate Ie for now).
n 7.20
As 2 4 0.20 in 2 3 0.6 in 2
Icr for supports

3.40 in 2
d 20 in - 2.5 in = 17.5 in
As 3 0.6 in 2 1.80 in 2
d 2.5 in
Class formula using doubly reinforced rectangular section
behavior.
2 n 1 As 2nAs 2 n 1 Asd 2nAs d
y
2
y 0
b b
2 6.2 1.80 in 2 2 7.2 3.4 in 2
y2 y
12 in
2 6.2 1.80 in 2 2.5 in 2 7.2 3.4 in 2 17.5 in
0
12 in
Class formula using doubly reinforced rectangular section
behavior.
2 n 1 As 2nAs 2 n 1 Asd 2nAs d
y
2
y 0
b b
y 5.94 y 76.05 0
2

5.94 340
y 6.25 in.
2
Calculate moment of inertia.
1 3
by n 1 As y d nAs d y
2 2
I cr +
3
1
12 in 6.25 in
3

3
6.2 1.80 in 2.5 in 6.25 in
2 2

2 2

4230 in 4
Weighted Icr

0.7 4330 in 4
0.15 4230 in 4
4230 in 4

4300 in 4

## 1.00 k/ft 35 ft 12 in/ft

4 3
Dl 4
D DLinst
384 EI 384 4030 ksi 4300 in 4
0.390 inches
0.62 k/ft
D LL inst D DLinst *
1.00 k/ft
0.242 inches
Long term Deflection at the midspan
As t 3 0.31 in 2

t 0.00221
2bw d 2 12 in 17.5 in

2.0
l 1.80
1 50 1 50 0.00221
D DL L.T. lDL D DLinst 1.8 0.390 in 0.702 in
Long term Deflection use the midspan information

As t 3 0.31 in 2
t 0.00221
2bw d 2 12 in 17.5 in
Live Load (40 % sustained 6 months)
1.2
l 1.08
1 50 1 50 0.00221
D LL L.T. lLL D LLinst 1.08 0.242 in 0.40
0.105 in
Total Deflection after Installation of Glass Partition Wall.
D total D DLinst D LLinst D DL L.T. D LL L.T.
0.390 in 0.242 in 0.702 in 0.105 in
= 1.44 in
D after attachment D total D DLinst
1.44 in 0.105 in 1.33 in
l
D permissible
480
35 ft 12 in/ft
0.875 in < 1.33 in NO GOOD!
480
Check whether modifying Icr to Ie will give an acceptable
deflection:
M cr
3
M cr
3

I e midspan I g 1 I cr
Ma Ma

3
618 k-in
16900 in
4

1380 k-in
618 k-in 3
1380 k-in
1 4330 in 4

5460 in 4
Check whether modifying Icr to Ie will give an acceptable
deflection: 3
1610 k-in
I esupport
4
16900 in
2000 k-in
1610 k-in 3
2000 k-in
1 4230 in 4

10800 in 4
I e avg 0.7 I e mid 0.15 I e1 I e2
0.7 5460 in 4
0.15 10800 in 4
10800 in 4

7060 in 4
Floor Beam meets the ACI Code Maximum permissible
4300 in 4
D DLinst 0.390 in 4
0.238 in
7060 in
4300 in 4
D LLinst 0.242 in 4
0.147 in
7060 in
4300 in 4
D DL L.T. 0.702 in 4
0.428 in
7060 in
4300 in 4
D LL L.T. 0.105 in 4
0.064 in
7060 in

## D total D DLinst D LLinst D DL L.T. D LL L.T.

0.238 in. 0.147 in. 0.428 in. 0.064 in.
0.877 in.

## D after attachment D total D DLinst

0.877 in. 0.105 in.
0.772 in. D permissible 0.875 in. OKAY!
Part II: Check crack width @ midspan

z fs 3 dc A

dc ds 2.5 in
A e 2dsb 2 2.5 in 12 in 60 in 2
Ae 60 in 2
A 15 in 2
# bars 4
Assume
fs 0.6 f y 0.6 60 ksi 36 ksi ACI 10.6.4
z 36 ksi 3 2.5 in 15 in 2
120 k/in < 175 k/in OK

## For interior exposure, the crack width @ midspan

is acceptable.
http://civilengineeringreview.com/book/theory-
structures/beam-deflection-method-superposition
http://911review.org/WTC/con
crete-core.html

http://iisee.kenken.go.jp/quakes/kocaeli/index.htm