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GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Energy Resources

Renewable Energy Resources


(Solar, Wind, Bio-mass, hydal)

Non-Renewable Energy Resources


(Natural Gas, Petroleum, Coal)
General Classification of Fuels

FUELS

Conventional Nuclear

Natural or Fossil Manufactured or Synthetic 238U ; 238U92 ; 239Pu93


92

Solid Solid

Wood , Coal Coke , Charcoals

Liquid Liquid

Petroleum Alcohols

Gaseous Gaseous

Coal gas
Natural Gas Coke oven gas
Coal Bed Methane(CBM) Producer gas
Marsh Gas Water gas
Hydrogen , etc.
What is Natural Gas ?

NATURAL GAS
Definition (in normal usage) :
Natural Gas in normal usage, is considered to be a
naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbons
[C1 , C2 , C3 , C4 , C5 , C6+] and non-hydrocarbons
[CO2 , N2 , He , H2O , H2S , RSH , COS , CS2 ,
etc.] associated with petroliferous geologic formations
(rocks in earths crust).
What is Natural Gas ?

Natural Gases as supplied by the utility gas companies,


usually
contain 80 to 95% CH4 , with C2H6 , C3H8 , N2 , etc. making up the remainder.

have heating or calorific value ranging from 900 to 1200 Btu/SCF.

have specific gravity (w.r.t. air = 1.0) varying from 0.58 to 0.79 .

Methane (CH4) ( Some properties )


Auto- or Spontaneous-ignition Temperature : 1004oF (540oC)
Flammability Limits : 5% to 15% v
Critical Pressure : 673 psia (45.8 atm)
Critical Temp.: 116.3oF (343.7 oR) OR 82.4oC (191 oK)
( For other properties, see literature )
What is Natural Gas ?

Generally,

1000 sft3 ( 1 MSCF ) of Natural Gas is equivalent to :

58 kg of Wood
52 kg of (indigenous) Coal
28 liters of Kerosene
0.168 barrel of Crude Oil (petroleum)
285 kwh of Electricity
0.024 tonne of Furnace Oil
21 kg of LPG
Raw Gas Product Slate

Water
Water Helium
Nitrogen
Helium
Carbon dioxide
Nitrogen Hydrogen sulphide
Carbon dioxide
Hydrogen sulphide Gas
Processing Pipeline gas (Methane)
Methane
Ethane Ethane
Propane Propane
N-Butane n-Butane
i-Butane
i-Butane
Natural gasoline
Pentanes +
Hydrocarbons Combustibles
vs vs
Non-hydrocarbons Non- combustibles

Natural Gas Natural Gas


Constituents Constituents

Hydrocarbons Non-hydrocarbons Combustibles Non-combustibles

HCs H2O
Methane C1 Water H2O
H2S CO2
Ethane C2 Carbon dioxide CO2
RSH N2
Propane C3 Nitrogen N2
COS He
n-Butane n-C4 Helium He
CS2
i-Butane i-C4 Hydrogen sulphide H2S
Pentanes C5 Mercaptans RSH
Hexanes+ C6+ Carbon oxysulphide COS
Carbon disulphide CS2


History of Natural Gas
First U.S. Natural Gas Well
In 1821, William Hart dug the first natural gas well in
Fredonia, NY.
Formation
Oil and gas are found on land and under
water
Sedimentary Rock and Petroleum Traps
Chemical
Exploration Production Shipping Refining Manufacturing
Uses

Oil and Gas Process


Seismic Technology

Land Water
Seabed Seismic
Core Samples
Drilling
3/30/2010 The NEED Project: 29 Years of Energy Education 19
Drilling Process
Place the drill bit, collar and drill pipe in the hole.

Attach the kelly and turntable and begin drilling.

As drilling progresses, circulate mud through the pipe and


out of the bit to float the rock cuttings out of the hole.

Add new sections(joints) of drill pipes as the hole gets


deeper.

Remove(trip out) the drill pipe, collar and bit when the pre-
set depth(anywhere from a few hundred to a couple
thousand feet) is reached.
Parts of an Oil Well
Production

Christmas Tree Horse Head Pump


SUI GAS
Composition of Raw & Purified Typical Natural Gas from Sui Gas Field

Major Constituents Commercial Units Raw Gas Purified Gas


CH4 % volume 88.52 94.42
C 2H 6 0.89 1.05
C 3H 8 0.26 0.28
C4+ 0.37 0.17
N2 2.46 3.89
H2S Grains / 100 SCF 92.2 Traces
RSH Grains / 100 SCF 3.8 Traces
CO2 % volume 7.35 0.02
Gross Heating Value Btu / SCF 933 975

7000 grains = 1 avoirdupois pound ; 1 grain = 0.065 gm. ;


635 grains/100 SCF 1% by volume
GAS COMPOSITIONS OF FIELDS RELATING SNGPL NETWORK
GAS HYDRATES
Gas Hydrate Value of X
Methane CH4 . XH2O 6 to 7
Ethane C2H6 . XH2O 6 to 8
Propane C3H8 . XH2O 7 to 18
Carbon dioxide CO2 . XH2O 6 to 7
Natural gas NG . XH2O 9

1 ft3 of liquid methane @ 260oF 630 ft3 of gaseous methane

Temperatures > 260oF can be used if the liquid state is maintained at 325 psig and
155oF.
LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS
LNG
1 Gallon of LNG @ 263oF
weighs 3.46 lbs
has a specific gravity of 0.42
has a heating value of approximately 86,000 Btu

Heat of Vaporization of LNG at 1 atm 10 Btu/SCF


It requires 6575 Btu to vaporise 1 cu ft of liquid methane.
CHEMICALS FROM METHANE
Partial Combustion (major source) Carbon Black Ammonia

Nitrogen
from air
Pyrolysis (minor source) Hydrogen

H2 + CO
METHANE Steam or Oxygen
(Synthesis Gas) Urea

Air
Hydrogen Cyanide

Oxygen
Methanol Formaldehyde
Acetylene
MAJOR CHEMICALS DERIVED DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY FROM METHANE
A General Scheme
III

Customer
Gas Meter

II

( HC liquids of
45 - 65 API Gravity)
Enhanced Oil Recovery E.O.R.
Concept of Natural Gas System
Gas Processing
VOLUMETRIC GAS COMMERCIAL UNITS

CF CFD CFH
SCF SCFD SCFH
Hundred : 102 : CSCF CSCFD CSCFH
Thousand : 103 : MSCF MSCFD
Million : 106 : MMSCF MMSCFD
Billion : 109 : BCF
Trillion : 1012: TCF
BSm3 : Billion Standard m3 TSm3 : Trillion Standard m3
1 Hecto cubic meter = 1 Hm3 = 100 m3 3531 SCF
1000 cubic feet = 1 MCF = 28.32 m3
Standard Units of Defined Calorific Values
Barrel of Oil Equivalent (b.o.e.) : a hypothetical barrel of oil
with an average heat content of 5.8 x 106 Btu gross.
Ton of Oil Equivalent (t.o.e.) : a hypothetical ton of oil with
an average heat content of 43 x 106 Btu gross.
Metric Tonne Coal Equivalent (m.t.c.e.) : a hypothetical metric
tonne of coal with an average heat content of 27.337 x 106 Btu
gross, i.e. ( 12,400 Btu/lb x 2204.62 ).

Natural Gas Equivalents of Various Fuels


Std. Fuel Units ft3 Natural Gas m3 Natural Gas
1 b.o.e. 5,800 155.50
1 t.o.e. 43,000 1152.82
1 m.t.c.e. 27,337 732.90
1 ton fuel oil equiv. 41,400 1109.92
2
ENERGY SCENARIO
NOTE : TOE Ton of Oil Equivalent = Avg.Heating Value of 43 x 106 Btu gross
PAKISTAN
OIL & GAS PRODUCTION SCENARIO
REFERENCE : Press Release dated 5-3-2007

Future Plan
100 wells to be drilled per year
Success Ratio to be enhanced from 1:25 to 1:10

Present Future Production


Units Production Target

OIL bbl/day 66,000 1,00,000

GAS BCFD 3.8 5.0


bbl/day barrels per day ; BCFD Billion Cubic Feet per Day
3.8 billion = 3.8 x 109 = 3 arb 80 crore ; 5.0 billion = 5 x 109 = 5 arb
GAS COMPOSITIONS OF FIELDS RELATING SNGPL NETWORK
Distribution of proved natural gas reserves (%) in 2004

Russian Federation

Middle East
Natural gas production (billion cubic metres ), 1970-2004
3
ORIGIN OF NATURAL GAS
&
EXPLORATION/PROSPECTING

Petroleum Geology
Reservoirs
Etc.
The Milky Way Galaxy

The SUN

150 miles/sec

The Sun
Est. Age of Universe : 14 1 eon
Crust
[ 1 Eon = 1000 million years = 109 yrs ]
Upper Mantle Surface
Key Features related to Earth
Lower Mantle Average:
Orbital Speed : 67,000 mph
Rotational Speed : 1037.5 mph
Outer Core Distance from Sun : 93 million miles
Diameter : 7926 miles (12,756 km)
Est. Total Age : 4600 100 my
Inner Core Est. Age as Solid Body : 2000 100 my
Approx. Thicknesses of Sections
Crust : 5 - 10 km (Avg. : 7 km)
( < 0.08% of Earths radius )
Mantle : 2900 km
Upper : 40 - 200 km
Middle : 200 - 1000 km
Lower : 1000 - 2900 km
Core : 3400 km ( 53.3% of radius )
Inner Core : 1260 km

Cross-sectional view of Earths interior Outer Core : 1140 km


Beds are also formed as the shoreline recedes.

River
Sand
Mud & Silt
Limestone
Ocean/Sea
1 Eon =1000 million years Geologic Time Scale
6
GEOLOGICAL TIME SCALE 5
Representation of Actual Years in terms
of Equivalent Human Years

COAL
1 EHY = 100 million years ( my )
OIL/GAS
where
EHY Equivalent Human Year
16 18 21 EHY
Present Day
1 Eon = 1000 my 300
my
500 my
Carbon-Dating Method
Fossils Buried in Rocks C-14

T
G
i
e
m
o
e
l
o
S
g
p
i
i
c
r
a
a
l
l
History of Earth
with Life Forms
FOSSILS
Porphrin
Porphyrinmolecule
molecule Porphyrin metal complex

Metal atom/ion
e.g. Fe , Mg , Cu
etc.
7
1
7
Photographs : Outcrops of Sedimentary Rocks 4
Types of Rock Fold
7
Anticline Fold 6
Rock Folds
Surface
Impervious Caprock

Gas Limestone
Oil
Water
SHEET STRATIGRAPIC
ANTICLINE : Structural

SALT DOME : Structural

LITHOLOGICAL SCREENED
: Stratigraphic

FAULT :
Structural
Main Types of TRAPS with Oil & Gas Deposits
T Surface Surface
T
Limestone

R
R
Anticline
Sheet
A Stratigraphic
A
Surface Surface

P
P

Lithological
S Screened Salt Dome
S

Oil Gas Water Clays Limestone Salt


8
0
Structural Traps Stratigraphic Traps
Simple Anticline
Shoe-string Sand type

Faulted Anticline
Reef Deposit type
8
2
Salt Dome / Salt Plug
type

Unconformity Trap
Stages of Migration of Interconnected Traps
Water, Oil & Gas from Traps

Distribution of Gravity
over a buried Anticline

Gravity : 1.7
2.2
2.4
2.6
3.1
Gas-cap Drive Reservoir
Combination Water & Gas-cap Drives Reservoir
Water-Drive Reservoir
Hunt for OIL / GAS
GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING & EXPLORATION
METHODS

Seepage Geologist
1. Type of Rock
gives conducts 2. Age of Rock
3. History of Rock
Direct Indication Geological Survey

GEOPHYSICAL GEOCHEMICAL

Gravimetric Seismic Electrical Magnetic Soil Testing

Chemical

Microbial
Recording Truck

Battery

SU (Station Unit)

CSU (Control Station Unit) Receiver Cable

Stock of Cables
at the site
Few Definitions
Formation
A separate layer of rock or group of intermingled beds.

Field
An area consisting of a single reservoir or multiple reservoirs all grouped on, or related
to, the same individual geological structural feature or stratigraphic condition. The field
name refers to the surface area, although it may refer to both the surface and the
underground productive formations.

Reservoir
A porous, permeable sedimentary rock containing commercial quantities of oil and gas.

Discovery Well
The first oil or gas well drilled in a new field. The discovery well is the well that is drilled
to reveal the actual presence of a petroleum-bearing reservoir, Subsequent wells are
development wells.
Wildcat well
A well drilled in an area where no current oil or gas production exists. Also called a
rank wildcat.

Exploratory well
A hole drilled:
a) to find and produce oil or gas in an area previously considered unproductive
area;
b) to find a new reservoir in a known field, i.e., one previously producing oil and gas
from another reservoir, or
c) to extend the limit of a known oil or gas reservoir.

Development well
A well drilled within the proved area of an oil or gas reservoir to the depth of a
stratigraphic horizon known to be productive; a well drilled in a proven field for the
purpose of completing the desired spacing pattern of production.
Gas Well
Any well:
(A) which produces natural gas not associated or blended with crude
petroleum oil at the time of production;
(B) which produces more than 100,000 cubic feet of natural gas for each
barrel of crude petroleum oil from the same producing horizon; or
(C) which produces natural gas from a formation or producing horizon
productive of gas only encountered in a wellbore through which crude
petroleum oil also is produced through the inside of another string of casing
or tubing. A well which produces hydrocarbon liquids, a part of which is
formed by a condensation from a gas phase and a part of which is crude
petroleum oil, shall be classified as a gas well unless there is produced one
barrel or more of crude petroleum oil per 100,000 cubic feet of natural gas;
and that the term "crude petroleum oil" shall not be construed to mean any
liquid hydrocarbon mixture or portion thereof which is not in the liquid phase
in the reservoir, removed from the reservoir in such liquid phase, and
obtained at the surface as such.
Oil Well
Any well which produces one barrel or more crude petroleum oil to each 100,000 cubic
feet of natural gas.
TYPES OF TRAPS
Structural Traps
The traps formed by deformation of the earths
crust by either folding or faulting.

Stratigraphic Traps
The traps formed by changes in lithology,
generally a disappearance of the containing bed
or porosity zone.
These types of traps are more difficult to locate
at depth with remote sensing.
Note :
The part of the trap that is actually occupied by the oil and
gas is called the petroleum RESERVOIR.
Tectonics : Study of earths large-scale structural features.
Next . . . .

Natural Gas Flowpath


from the Well
to Customers Burner
III

Customer
Gas Meter

II

( HC liquids of
45 - 65 API Gravity)
Concept of Natural Gas System
Low-Temperature Extraction ( LTX ) System