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AURT225667A

AUR30405 CERTIFICATE
USE ANDIIIMAINTAIN
IN AUTOMOTIVE
MEASURING
MECHANICAL
EQUIPMENT
TECHNOLOGY
PART 1 1

AURT225667A
Use and maintain
measuring equipment
Part 1

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Introduction to measuring
Measuring must be done accurately.

Measure size, fit,


clearance, pressure,
temperature or
other specification.

Measure and adjust


spark plug gaps
valve clearances
fuel pressures
what else?

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Measuring accurately
Measuring tools can easily be
damaged. Damaged tools are
inaccurate.
Dont drop or mis-handle them.
Check them regularly for accuracy.
To measure accurately:
Handle measuring tools
correctly
Select measuring tools that are
accurate for the work
Check measuring tool is
reading accurately.

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Measuring equipment

steel rule
straight edge
feeler gauge

outside calliper
micrometer

vernier calliper
dial indicator
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Manual lifting safety


Measuring sometimes involves working with
heavy or awkward machinery or parts eg
cylinder heads, cylinder blocks and crankshafts.
Use stands, chocks, or V blocks to stop
parts moving.
When lifting or moving heavy parts - ask for
help, or use a crane or lifting equipment.

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Flat Feeler Gauge


Hardened steel blades of different
thicknesses
Each blade marked with its size in
millimeters and/or inches.

Useful for:
measuring small slots or grooves
measuring clearances of machinery,
eg valve or tappet clearance.

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Wire feeler gauge


Has several wires, each with a different thickness
Designed to check and adjust spark plug gaps
Has a gap adjuster, to bend the earth electrode on the
spark plug.

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Straight edge
Made from a thick wide strip of alloy
steel
Hardened and ground to form two
parallel flat edges
Usually between 150mm to l000mm
in length.

Can be used for checking the flatness


of a surface.
Used to measure the gap between
the straight edge and a surface eg on
a cylinder head.

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Steel rules
Used for general measurements
Graduated in millimeters and
centimeters.

Care
Handle carefully.
The zero end of the rule must be
Kept in perfect condition to maintain
accuracy.

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Measuring with a steel rule

Generally measure to
an accuracy of 1 mm.
Some measure to an
accuracy of 0.5mm.

To measure length:
Place the end of the ruler flush with start of material.
Look at exact place on rule where material ends.
Read length on ruler scale.

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Caring for callipers


Callipers are precision instruments. Protect from damage:
Keep in own protective cases
Never keep loose in a toolbox with other tools
Never drop or knock sharply
Never use excessive force when measuring
Clean metal parts with a slightly oily rag
Clean plastic parts with a dry rag
Inspect jaws for damage
Replace batteries regularly in digital callipers.

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Sliding jaw callipers


Have own measuring scales built in
Very accurate - some can measure to 0.01mm (1/100 of a millimetre)

Dial-type callipers Digital callipers

Vernier callipers

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Using sliding jaw callipers


Depth gauge measure steps/
heights/ depth of holes.

External jaws measure


outside diameters/
thickness/ length.

Internal jaws measure


gaps/ internal diameters.

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Using dial-type callipers


1. Clean jaws and close completely.
2. Check dial = 0. Adjust if necessary by rotating & locking dial.
3. Gently close jaws on part being measured. When feel is
correct, lock slide.
4. Read number of whole millimetres on left of reference face.
5. Note dial reading, and add it to whole mm reading.

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Using digital callipers


Can make measurements as small as 0.001mm (1/1000 millimetre)
Measurements shown directly on digital display
Display can switch between metric and imperial measurements.

1. Clean & close jaws


2. Press ON button
3. Press ZERO button
4. Check display reads
zero, then make
measurement.

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The vernier calliper


Has a special vernier scale marked on the sliding jaw
Measures down to 0.02mm (2/100 millimetre)

Inside jaws
Locking screw
Main scale

Depth gauge

vernier scale

Sliding jaws
Outside jaws

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Using the vernier calliper

1. Before measuring, close jaws and


check that main scale zero mark
lines up exactly with vernier scale
zero mark.
2. Adjust jaws.
3. You may need to gently rock the
jaws to get the right feel not too
tight, not too loose.
4. Lock the slide.

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Using the vernier calliper contd


5. Read number of whole
millimetres on main scale, 16 whole mm
before the vernier zero
6. Look for a vernier scale
graduation which lines up
exactly with any graduation 0.38 mm
on the main scale
7. Read fraction number on
vernier scale where the
marks line up
8. Add fraction to whole
millimetres to get final Example: 16.00 whole mm
measurement. + 0.38 mm on vernier
= 16.38 mm

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Micrometers
Use to take very accurate measurements
3 types - may look different but all use the same
principle.
1. Outside micrometer
2. Inside micrometer
3. Depth micrometer

1. The outside micrometer


Measures width and length
Used for precise measurements eg
reconditioning an engine,
measuring pistons, valves,
crankshafts etc.

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Micrometers

2. Inside micrometer 3. Depth micrometer


measures the inside of holes or measures the depth of holes/
bores. grooves/ recesses and the height
of shoulders.

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Caring for micrometers


Precision instruments must be treated
carefully.

Always:

Clean face of spindle and anvil.

Check zero reading before use.

Avoid dirty or rough components.

Do not adjust micrometers unless


trained to do so.

After use - clean, lightly oil, and


store in a protective box.

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The outside micrometer


Measuring range =
The minimum and maximum distance it can measure. It is marked on the
frame.

This micrometer can measure:

between 0 - 25 millimeters (25mm)

to an accuracy 1/100 of a
millimeter (0.01mm ).

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Outside micrometer cont.


Can accurately measure the distance
between two machined surfaces eg.
- thickness of a shim washer
- diameter of a crankshaft journal.
This micrometers has a range
of 50 75mm.

Micrometers should have no zero error.


They are tested with a special, very
accurate test piece.

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More micrometers
Vernier micrometer
has an extra vernier scale on the
sleeve
can measure down to 0.001mm
(1/1000 of a millimetre).

Digital micrometer
has a display which shows the
measurement
may have a conventional scale as well.

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Using the outside micrometer


Hold micrometer by frame
with your left hand.
Open micrometer and clean
anvils with a clean cloth.

Check accuracy
Gently close micrometer with
ratchet until anvils are touching
or use a test piece.
Look at the scales - they should
both read zero.

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Reading the micrometer scale


The sleeve is marked with numbered
graduations = whole millimetres.

Sleeve also has half millimetre Around the thimble - 50


graduations marked. graduations, beginning and ending
at 0.

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Reading the micrometer scale

One full turn of the thimble opens


the micrometer by exactly 0.50mm.
A half mm graduation is just
visible on the datum line.

Two full turns opens the anvils


by exactly 1.00 mm.
The 1 mm graduation is just
showing on the datum line.

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Reading the micrometer scale


Remember 1 thimble division = 0.01 mm.

To get the final measurement:

1. Note the number of whole


millimetres visible on the datum line. 0.01mm

2. Add any half millimetres showing on


the datum line.

3. Add the number of thimble


graduations lined up with the datum
line.

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Reading the Micrometer Scale


Example 1

4 whole mm showing = 4.00 mm


1 half mm showing = 0.50 mm
5 indicated on the thimble= 0.05 mm
TOTAL = 4.55 mm

Example 2
5 whole mm showing = 5.00 mm
1 half mm showing = 0.50 mm
12 indicated on the thimble = 0.12 mm
TOTAL = 5.62 mm

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Dial indicator gauge


Also called a dial gauge or dial indicator.

Has a face or dial marked in divisions of 0.01 mm (1/100 mm)


Does not take a direct measurement - shows variations from the original
zero setting
These variations are transferred from the spindle to the pointer.
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Dial indicator

Used to measure:
- the bend or run-out in a shaft
- the clearance between two
parts eg between an engine
valve and its guide.

Must be firmly mounted. A magnetic


stand or a stand with a screw clamp
is often used.

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Setting up the dial indicator

1. Mount dial gauge firmly on its


stand
2. Mount stand securely, to
prevent damage from dropping
or excessive vibration
3. Keep spindle at right angles
(perpendicular) to the surface
being checked.

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Reading the dial indicator


1. Read the whole millimetres
from the inner scale (only for
absolute measurements)
2. Read the tenths of
millimetres (numbers on
outer scale)

3. Read the hundredths of


millimetres (small divisions on
outer scale).

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Reading the dial indicator


Example
Step 1 Step 3
Step 1
Read the whole millimetres. The short
needle is between the 4 and the 5, so
the reading is 4.00 mm.
Step 2
Read the tenths. The long needle is
between the 0.20 and the 0.30 mm, so
the reading is 0.20 mm.
Step 3
Step 2
The long needle is 6 small divisions
past the 2, so the reading is 0.06 mm.

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Reading the dial indicator


Step 4
4.00 mm 0.20 mm
To get the final measurement
- add up the measurements
from Steps 1, 2, & 3.

Step 1 4.00 mm
Step 2 + 0.20 mm
Step 3 + 0.06 mm 0.06 mm

Total = 4.26 mm

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Commonwealth of Australia 2011


ISBN: 978-1-876838-44-7

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Commonwealth of Australia 2011 AURT225667A Use and maintain measuring equipment - Part 1