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First Aid & Basic Life Support

First Aid
Is immediate help
provide to a sick or
Injured until profession
medical help arrives or
becomes available.
Scope Limitation
First aid does not imply medical
Treatment and is by no means a
Replacement for it.

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First Aider should be:
Knowledgeable
Realistic
Gentle/tactful
Resourceful
Time bound
Basic Life Support
Are emergency
procedure
that consist of
recognizing
respiratory or cardiac
arrest or both and the
proper application of
CPR to maintain life
until a victim recover
or advance life
support is available.

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Objectives of first aid
First Aid aim to According to the Article 12 no.4
Act No.3815 of the Philippine
accomplish the revised Penal Code Book One
following goal: any person who , while
Preserve Life performing a lawful act
Prevent further harm with due care , causes
and Complications. an injury by mere
Seek immediate accident without fault or
medical help. intension of causing it
is exempt from criminal
Provide reassurance.
liability.

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Legal Concerns
Consent
Duty to act
Standard of Care
Negligence
Abandonment
Confidentiality

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Prevention and Protection
Universal Precautions are a set of strategies
developed to prevent transmission borne
pathogens.
Body Substance Isolation(BSI) are precaution
taken to isolate or prevent risk of exposure from
body secretion and any other type of body
substance such as urine, vomit, feces , sweat ,or
sputum .
Personal protective equipment (PPE) is
Specialized clothing, equipment and supplies that
keep you
From directly contacting infected materials.
Emergency Action Principles
Scene Size-up
I. Scene Safety
II. Knowing What Happened
Cause of injury
Nature of illness
III. Role of bystanders
IV.Number of casualties
V. Asking permission or consent
FIRST AID BASICS
Help! Emergency!

Minutes could
make a
difference

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Four Basic Rules

1.2.Call
Bringforhelp
helptoimmediately
the victim
4.3.Do no further
Check harm
the ABCs
Assess the Scene
Evaluate the scene/Assess safety
Prioritize care/Check for medical alert tags
Do head-to-toe check
Move only if necessary

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Nosebleed First Aid

Nosebleeds are common.


Most often they are a irritant
and not a true medical
problem. But they can be both.
Choking

Ask a person to
speak
or cough
Deliver 5 back blows
Perform abdominal
thrusts
Repeat sequence of
back blows and
abdominal thrusts
Choking
If Abdominal
Thrusts Dont Work
Call 911
Finger sweep
Abdominal thrusts
Check ABCs
Perform CPR if
not breathing
WOUNDS

Caring for wounds, especially open


wounds, often involves controlling
bleeding.
Bleeding can occur both internally
or externally, and a wound can be
open or closed.
Most bleeding will stop by itself in a
relatively short time.
Types of Wounds
1. BRUISE contusion
Damage to the soft tissue and blood vessels
causing bleeding under the skin.
At first it may appear red.
Over time it may turn dark red or
purple.
A large or painful bruise may be a signal of
severe damage to deep tissues
BRUISE
2. SCRAPE abrasion, rug burn,
road rash
Most common type of wound.
Caused by skin that has been rubbed or
scraped away.
Usually painful because scraping of the
outer layer of skin exposes nerve endings.
Dirt and other matter can easily become
ground into the wound.
Can easily become infected if not kept
clean.
SCRAPE
Cut
3. CUT incision; laceration
Either jagged or smooth edges.
Commonly caused by sharp
objects such as knives,
scissors, or broken glass.
CUT
Avulsion
4. AVULSION
A cut in which a portion of the skin
or other soft tissue is partially or
completely torn away.
A partially avulsed piece of skin
may remain but hangs like a flap.
AVULSION
PUNCTURE
A wound caused when a pointed
object, such as a nail, piece of
glass or knife pierces the skin.
A gunshot wound is also a puncture
wound.
Because they do not bleed a lot, they can
easily become infected.
Bleeding can be severe if involves major
vessel.
An object that remains embedded is called
an impaled object.
PUNCTURE
Caring for Major Open
Wounds
Control bleeding by placing a clean
covering, dressing, over the wound and
apply pressure.
Apply a bandage snugly over the dressing.
If bleeding cannot be controlled, put
another bandage snugly over the dressing.
Call your emergency number.
Maintain direct pressure until help arrives.
Wash your hands immediately after giving
care
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Wounds That Need Stitches
Bleeding from an artery or uncontrolled
bleeding.
Wounds that show muscle or bone, involve
joints, gape widely, or involve hands or feet.
Large or deep puncture wounds.
Large or deeply embedded objects.
Human or animal bites.
Wounds that, if left unattended, could leave
conspicuous scars, such as on the face.
SPECIAL SITUATIONS

IMPALED
OBJECT
DO NOT remove
Bandage bulky
dressings around
the object to
support it in place.
AMPUTATED
PART
Wrap severed part in
sterile gauze
Put it in a plastic bag
Place bag on ice
Make sure the part is
taken to the hospital
with the victim.
Eye Injuries

Splashes
Particles in eye
Blow to eye
Cuts near eye
Penetrating objects

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Sprain First Aid
Of all sprains, ankle and knee sprains occur
most often. Sprained ligaments often swell rapidly
and are painful. Generally, the greater the pain and
swelling, the more severe the injury is. For most
minor sprains, you probably can start initial injury
treatment yourself.
Follow the instructions for
R.I.C.E.
1. Rest the injured limb. Your doctor may
recommend not putting any weight on the injured
area for 48 hours, so you may need to use crutches.
A splint or brace may also be helpful initially. But
don't avoid all activity.
For example, you can use an exercise bicycle with
arm exercise handles, working both your arms and
the uninjured leg while resting the injured ankle on
another part of the bike.
2. Ice the area.
Use a cold pack, a slush bath or a
compression sleeve filled with cold water to
help limit swelling after an injury.
Try to ice the area as soon as possible after
the injury and continue to ice it for 15 to 20
minutes, four to eight times a day, for the
first 48 hours or until swelling improves.
3. Compress the area with an elastic wrap or
bandage. Compressive wraps or sleeves made
from elastic or neoprene are best.
4. Elevate the injured limb above your heart
whenever possible to help prevent or limit
swelling.
Strain
force (a part of one's body or oneself)
to make a strenuous or unusually
great effort.
R.I.C.E
Warm bath
Fracture
is a break, usually in a bone. If the broken
bone punctures the skin, it is called an
open or compound fracture.
Cause: accident related to a fall &
recreational and sports activities
Signs and Symptoms

May hear a bone snap


Pain & tenderness, difficulty moving
injured body part
Report of grating sensation
Shortening of injured leg/arm
Unusual angle or position of body part
First Aid

Prevent motion to injured part or


adjacent joints
(immobilize)
Apply splint
Elevate involved extremity
Splinting a Fracture

Splint body part in position as


found
Prevent injured area from moving
Check for circulation before and
after splinting
BURNS
Burns are caused by:
HEAT
CHEMICALS
ELECTRICITY
RADIATION
A critical burn can be life threatening and
needs immediate medical attention.
HEAT BURN
ELECTRICAL BURN
CHEMICAL BURN
RADIATION BURN
DEGREES OF BURNS
SUPERFICIAL first degree
Involves only the top layer of skin.
The skin is red and dry and the burn is usually
painful.
The area may swell.
Most sunburns are superficial burns
Usually heal in 5-6 days without scaring.
PARTIAL THICKNESS second degree
Involves the top layers of skin.
Skin is red and has blisters that may open
and seep clear fluid making the skin appear
wet.
The burned skin may appear mottled.
Usually painful and the area swollen.
The burn heals in 3-4 weeks
Scarring may occur.
FULL THICKNESS third degree
Destroys all layers of skin and any or all of the
underlying structures fat, muscle, bones,
etc.
Look brown or black (charred) with the tissues
underneath sometimes appearing white.
Can be extremely painful or relatively painless
if the burn destroys the nerve endings.
CRITICAL BURNS
Burns involving trouble breathing.
Burns covering more than one body part.
Burns to the head, neck, hands, feet or
genitals.
Burns (other than a very minor one) to a
child or an elderly person.
Burns resulting from chemicals,
explosions, or electricity.
CARE FOR BURNS

Stop The Burning.


Put out the flames or remove from source.
Care First.
For a serious burn, have someone call 911 or
local emergency number.
If alone, provide two minutes of care, then
make the call
CARE FOR BURNS
Cool The Burn
Use large amounts of cool water.
DO NOT USE ice or ice water
Use whatever sources area available
Garden hose
Wash basin
Cover the Burn
Use dry, sterile dressings or clean cloth.
Loosely bandage in place.
Prevents infection.
CARE FOR BURNS
Dos & Donts of Burn Care
DO DONT
Apply ice directly to
any burn unless very
Cool a burn by minor.
flushing with water
Touch a burn with
Cover with dry, clean anything except a
covering. clean covering.
Do keep he victim Remove pieces of
comfortable cloth that stick to a
Do keep the victim burn.
from getting chilled Dont break blisters.
or overheated
Dont use any
ointment on a severe
burn.
VOMITS
VOMITING
PLACE HIM OR HER ON THE SIDE SO
THAT YOU CAN CLEAR THE MOUTH.
DO A FINGER SWEEP AND CLEAR
THE MOUTH.
PLACE IN RECOVERY POSITION OR
POSITION FOR PROPER CARE.
FAINTS
Position him or her on the
back and elevate the legs
8-10 inches if you do
not suspect a head, neck
or back injury.
Check for vital signs
Check for consciousness,
if conscious and coherent
provide sugar drinks or
candies
Call for help, call 911
DIABETIC EMERGENCY
Diabetes
a disease in which the bodys ability to produce or
respond to the hormone insulin is impaired,
resulting in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates
and elevated levels of glucose in the blood and
urine.
HIGH BLOOD SUGAR,
hyperglycemia.
LOW BLOOD SUGAR,
hypoglycemia.
Give the conscious victim some type of sugar, preferably in liquid
form, such as orange or apple juice, non-diet soda or 2-3
teaspoons of sugar dissolved in a glass of water.
Epileptic Seizures

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SEIZURES
a sudden attack of illness, especially a
stroke or an epileptic episode
DO NOT hold or restrain the person.
DO NOT place anything in the mouth.
Remove nearby objects that might cause injury.
Cushion the victims head using a folded cloth,
towel or pillow.
Watch for vomiting or breathing trouble after
seizure.
SEVERE ALLERGIC REACTION
Assist the victim with his or her
medication which may be available as
a single-dose
antihistamine.
Monitor breathing. (May become
difficult or stop)
Call 911
SEVERE ALLERGIC REACTION
POISON
POISONING
FOUR WAYS
Ingestion
Inhalation
Absorption
Injection
POISON CONTROL CENTER
1-800-222-1212
POISONING
If you think someone has been
poisoned, call your poison control
center (phone book) or local
emergency number
Do not give syrup of ipecac or
activated charcoal to a poisoned
victim unless directed by 911
INSECT BITES
INSECT BITES

SIGNALS CARE
STINGER MAY BE REMOVE
PRESENT STINGER
PAIN SCRAPE AWAY.
SWELLING WASH WOUND.
POSSIBLE COVER
ALLERGIC APPLY COLD
REACTION PACK
HIVES, WATCH FOR
SWELLING, SIGNALS OF
TROUBLE ALLERGIC
BREATHING
REACTION.
SNAKE BITES
SNAKE BITES

SIGNALS CARE
BITE MARK WASH WOUND
PAIN KEEP BITTEN PART
SWELLING STILL, ANDLOWER
BRUISING THAN THE HEART.
CALL LOCAL
EMERGENCY
NUMBER
WATCH FOR LIFE-
THREATENING
CONDITIONS.
ANIMAL BITES
ANIMAL BITES

SIGNALS CARE
BITE MARK IF BLEEDING IS
BLEEDING MINOR, WASH
WOUND.
CONTROL BLEEDING
COVER
GET MEDICAL
ATTENTION
CALL ANIMAL
CONTROL
DO NOT ATTEMPT TO
CONTAIN ANIMAL.
HEAT RELATED ILLNESS
HEAT RELATED ILLNESS
ONCE SIGNALS APPEAR, CONDITION
CAN WORSEN QUICKLY.
HEAT RELATED ILNESSES
HEAT CRAMPS
HEAT Exhaustion
HEAT STROKE
HEAT CRAMPS
Signals of Heat Related Illness
HEAT CRAMPS
Cramps or painful muscle contractions in legs, hands
or abdomen
HEAT EXHAUSTION
Cool moist, pale, ashen or flushed skin
Headache
Nausea
Dizziness
Weakness
Exhaustion
HEAT STROKE
LIFE THREATENING
RED SKIN THAT IS EITHER
DRY OR MOIST.
RAPID, WEAK PULSE
CHANGE IN
CONSCIOUSNESS
RAPID, SHALLOW
BREATHING
HEAT STROKE
Care for Heat Related Illness
Move to cooler environment.
Give cool water to drink - Sip (only if FULLY
conscious)
Lightly massage or stretch muscle for heat
cramps
Loosen or remove clothing
Fan the victim
Get the victim to circulating air while applying
water with a cloth or sponge.
Care for Heat Related Illness
If the victims condition does not improve
or if you suspect heat stroke, call 911 or
the local emergency number.
Give care and monitor for life-threatening
conditions until help arrives.
Cold Related Illness

Hypothermia Frostbite
SHIVERING Loss of feeling in
NUMBNESS affected area
APATHY Skin that appears
LOSS OF waxy
CONSCIOUSNE Cold to touch or
SS is discolored
(flush, white,
yellow or blue)
Care for Cold Related
Illness
HYPOTHERMIA FROSTBITE
Gently move the victim Remove wet clothing
to a warm place. and jewelry from the
Check ABCs and care affected area.
for shock. Soak the frostbitten part
Remove wet clothing in warm water.
and cover with blanket or Cover with dry, sterile
plastic sheeting dressings.
Carefully monitor use of DO NOT rub the
heating sources frostbitten area.
Warm the victim slowly Check ABCs and care
and handle carefully. for shock.
Electrical Shock
Dont touch!
Turn power off
Call 911
Remove person
from live wire
Check for breathing

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Injuries to Head
Signals of Head, Neck or
Back injuries
Change in consciousness.
Severe pain or pressure in the head, neck or back.
Tingling or loss of sensation in the hands, fingers,
feet and toes.
Partial or complete loss of movement of any body
part.
Unusual bumps or depressions on the head or
over the spine.
Blood or other fluids in the ears or nose.
General Care for Head,
Neck or Back Injuries
Minimize movement of the head, neck
and back.
Maintain an open airway.
Check consciousness and breathing.
Control any external bleeding.
Keep victim from getting chilled or
overheated.
Call for help , call 911
Disaster
Management:
Preparedness, First
Aid, and Emergency
Safety Measures
A. Disaster Preparation and
Response
1.For Earthquakes, Fires,
Hurricanes, and Tornados.
a.Learn how to shut off gas,
water and electrical utilities.
b.Secure shelves and heavy
objects that could cause injury.
a. Keep an emergency kit stocked with
supplies to last for at least 3 days (replace
supplies regularly). Your supplies should at
least include the following:
Two to four quarts of water per person per
day
First-Aid Kit
Packaged/canned non-perishable food
and can opener
Blankets/sleeping bags
Plastic bags to store waste
Small radio with batteries/cell phones
d. Planwith everyone an escape route from
each room in the house. Plan an alternate
escape route from each room

e. Renew prescriptions for essential


medications so that you always have a 7-10
day supply on hand.

e. Have a family plan on what to do if you


cannot go home
f. Know your emergency numbers
These types of disasters
include:
Tornadoes and Severe Storms.
Hurricanes and Tropical Storms.
Floods.
Wildfires.
Earthquakes.
Drought.
Earthquake
Indoors
DROP to the ground (before the earthquake
drops you!)
TAKE COVER by getting under a sturdy desk
or table, and
HOLD ON to it until the shaking stops.
In modern buildings, falling down, or being
struck by falling objects causes most
earthquake-related injuries. DROP, COVER
and HOLD ON immediately.
STAY INDOORS, do not exit
building or use elevators.
STAY AWAY from all windows and
large glass objects.
AVOID being underneath heavier
objects such as lights, wall
hangings and other items which
may fall.
HELP DIRECT people with special
needs to a safe place, if necessary.
Wheelchair-bound individuals
should lock brakes.
Outdoors
Move to an area AWAY FROM trees,
power lines, buildings and walls.
DROP TO KNEES and get into a fetal
position, close your eyes and cross
your arms over the back of your neck
for protection.
REMAIN in position until shaking has
stopped.
When aftershocks stop:
DO NOT USE cell phones, EXCEPT to report serious injuries.
ASSIST in the building evacuation of people with special
needs, if safe to do so.
TUNE radios to an emergency broadcast or local radio
stations for news updates and instructions.
BE PREPARED to evacuate if instructed to do so. (The
decision to evacuate from campus will be based upon the
severity of the earthquake and damage to buildings).
The university will provide instructions for immediate actions
by available means.
IF INSTRUCTED to evacuate, see EVACUATION section of
this guide.
DO NOT ENTER any building that is deemed or looks
UNSAFE.
Severe Thunderstorm or
All lightning canTornado
be deadly. When you hear
thunder or see lightning, GO INDOORS. In
addition to potentially deadly lightning, a SEVERE
THUNDERSTORM also has wind greater than 58
mph (50 knots), hail 1 or larger, and/or a tornado.
A WATCH means that conditions are favorable for
the development of severe weather in the watch
area. Pay attention to broadcasts, and prepare to
take action.
A WARNING is an URGENT announcement that
hazardous weather is occurring, or is imminent.
Take immediate action to protect life and property!
Indoors

STAY INDOORS, do not exit building or


use elevators. You could be trapped in
them if power is lost. Locate an interior
room.
HELP DIRECT people with special
needs to a safe place, if necessary.
REMAIN INSIDE until 30 minutes after
the last thunder.
In the event of a TORNADO WARNING, or if a funnel
cloud is reported:
GO directly to an enclosed, windowless area in the
center of the building, corners or building support
columns are best. Avoid middle of interior walls.
STAY AWAY from all windows and large glass objects.
CROUCH DOWN and cover your head. Interior
stairwells are usually good places to take shelter, and if
not crowded, allow you to get to a lower level quickly.
AVOID being underneath heavier objects such as
lights, wall hangings and other items, which may fall.
REMAIN INSIDE until tornado has passed or cleared to
leave.
Do not use matches or lighters, in case of leaking
natural gas pipes or nearby fuel tanks.
HELP DIRECT people with special needs to a safe
place, if necessary.
IF INSTRUCTED to evacuate, see EVACUATION
section of this guide.
Outdoors
MOVE AWAY from trees, buildings, walls,
and power lines.
SEEK the lowest possible ground, i.e. ditch,
small trench. Lying flat in a ditch or low-lying
area may be the only thing available. Note:
Never enter an open trench where a cave in
or flooding may be possible.
STAY AWAY from power lines and puddles
with wires in them, they may be live.
DO NOT USE matches or lighters, in case of
leaking gas pipes or fuel tanks.
REMAIN in position until noise and high
winds have stopped.
DO NOT ENTER any building that is deemed
or looks UNSAFE.
In flood prone areas (basements), move
valuable items and documents to table
tops, away from windows, to prevent
damage in the event of local flooding.
Refresh your emergency kit with fresh
batteries, flashlight, important
medications, drinking water, and snacks.
BE PREPARED to evacuate if instructed
to do so. (The decision to evacuate from
campus will be based upon the severity
of the hurricane).
IF INSTRUCTED During the Hurricane
To evacuate, see EVACUATION section of
this guide.
Listen to the radio or TV for information, and
visit www.tufts.edu.
Avoid using the phone, except for serious
emergencies.
Stay indoors during the hurricane and away
from windows and glass doors.
Keep curtains and blinds closed. Do not be
fooled if there is a lull; it could be the eye of the
storm winds will pick up again.
AVOID being underneath heavier
objects such as lights, wall hangings
and other items, which may fall.
Do not use matches, candles or
lighters.
Avoid elevators.
REMAIN INSIDE until the hurricane
has passed or cleared to leave.
HELP DIRECT people with special
needs to a safe place, if necessary.
Lightning
If you hear thunder:
SEEK protective shelter immediately.
If OUTDOORS, DO NOT STAND
underneath tall isolated objects. Avoid
projecting above the surrounding
landscape. Seek shelter in a low area
under a thick growth of small trees.
Avoid open areas and SEEK LOW
AREAS such as a ravine or valley.
GET OFF or AWAY from OPEN
WATER as well as metal
equipment or small metal vehicles
such as motorcycles, bicycles,
golf carts, etc. Stay away from
wire fences, clotheslines, metal
pipes and rails. If you are in a
group in the open, spread out,
keeping people several yards
apart.
REMEMBERlightning may
strike some miles from the
parent cloud. If you feel your
hair stand on end, lightning may
be about to strike you. DROP
TO YOUR KNEES and BEND
FORWARD, putting your hands
on your knees. DO NOT LIE
FLAT on the ground
ADULT CPR
CHILD/
INFANT CPR
Patient Bandaging
Techniques
Patient Lifting and Moving
Primary Assessment
I. Assessing Responsiveness
A patients response level can be summarized in
the AVPU mnemonic as following:
A Alert
V Responsive to voice
P Responsive to Pain
U Unresponsive/Unconsious
II. Active Medical Help
Ask someone to call for local emergency number
and get Automated External Defibrillator (AED).
Call First or Care First Information to be remember in activating
If you are ALONE, it is important medical help:
to know when to call during
What happened?
emergencies Call First situations
Location of emergency?
are likely to be cardiac
Number of person injury or ill?
emergencies, where time is
Cause and extent of injury and nature of
critical factor. In Care First
illness and first aid given?
situation, the condition often are
Telephone number from where call is
related to breathing
made?
emergencies
Name of person who called medical help
(person must identify him/herself and hang
up the phone last).
III. Airway
An open airway allows air to enter the lungs for the
person to breathe. If the airway is blocked, the person
cannot breathe.
IV. Breathing
While maintaining an open airway , quickly check an
unconscious person for breathing by doing the LLF
technique for no more than 10 seconds.
V. Circulation
Pulse
check for definitive pulse at carotid area for adult or
child, while brachial for infant(Applicable for Professional
Rescuers and Healthcare Provider).
Five Links in the Adult Chain of
Survival

Immediate
recognition of Early CPR
cardiac arrest with an Effective Integrated
Rapid
and activation of emphasis on advanced life post-cardiac
defibrillation
the emergency chest support arrest care
response compressions
system

Photo Source: American Heart Association

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6
CPR Instructional Video

Hands-Only Instructional Video on CPR


(click on link)

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7
What is an Automated External
Defibrillator (AED)?
An automated
external defibrillator
(AED) is a portable
device that checks
the heart rhythm.
Learning how to use
an AED and taking a
CPR course are
helpful. Photo Source: National Institutes of Health

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8
Texas Guidelines
In Texas, a caregiver trained in CPR must
be on duty at all times in a child care
facility.

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9
CPR - CHILD 1 TO 8 YEARS OLD

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Check for Responsiveness
Check for
responsiveness

If there is no
response, shout for
help

Carefully place the


child on his or her Photo Source: American Accreditation Health Care Commission
(www.urac.org)

back
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11
Chest Compression

Perform chest
compressions

Photo Source: American Accreditation Health Care Commission


(www.urac.org)

Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2014. All rights reserved.


12
Child Not Breathing
Open the airway

Look, listen and


feel for breathing

Continue CPR
Photo Source: American Accreditation Health Care Commission
(www.urac.org)

Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2014. All rights reserved.


13
FIRST AID

14
QUESTIONS

?
EXAMINATION
Questions?

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References and Resources
Images:
American Accreditation Health Care Commission
http://www.urac.org

American Red Cross


Conscious choking poster.
http://www.redcross.org/images/MEDIA_CustomProductCatalog/m4240176_ConsciousChokingPoster_EN.pdf

American Red Cross


Hand washing poster.
http://www.redcross.org/images/MEDIA_CustomProductCatalog/m4240174_HandWashingPoster_EN.pdf

Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.


National Institutes of Health
http://www.nih.gov/

Textbook:
Decker, Celia. Child development; early stages through age 12. 7th. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox, 2011.

Websites:
American Heart Association
What is CPR?
http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/CPRAndECC/WhatisCPR/What-is-CPR_UCM_001120_SubHomePage.jsp

Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2014. All rights reserved.

29
References and Resources
Kidshealth
Every parent should know how and when to administer CPR. When performed correctly, CPR can save a childs life by restoring
breathing and circulation until advanced life support can be given by health care providers.
http://kidshealth.org/parent/firstaid_safe/emergencies/cpr.html

Medline Plus
CPR Child 1 to 8 years old
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/presentations/100215_1.htm

YouTube:

American Heart Association


Official 2012 Hands-Only CPR Instructional Video
http://youtu.be/zSgmledxFe8

American Red Cross


Babysitting Basics Online Course: Overview
http://youtu.be/-sIMpZJaPZ4

Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2014. All rights reserved.

30