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PHILIPPINE FOREIGN

RELATIONS' TIMELINE
Philippine Foreign Relations, 1946-1972
National Interests
1. To preserve the integrity of our national territory

2. To safeguard the independence and liberties of our people

3. To promote their welfare by enforcing our rights and the


fulfillment of our obligations.

- Claro M. Recto
PRESIDENT
power to formulate and conduct of the countrys foreign relations.
chief architect of foreign relations.

1935 Constitution covered the following administrations:

Manuel Roxas
Elpidio Quirino
Ramon Magsaysay
Carlos Garcia
Diosdado Macapagal
Ferdinand Marcos
1. The dominant perspective of the interactions among
nation-states after World War II:

REALISM, the drive for power as the essential factor


in explaining state behavior
nation states as the only actor in international
relations
security concerns of nation states is a crucial issue
struggle for power
Cold War between USA & USSR
Policy of Imperialism, Status quo or prestige
2. Policy of pluralism, increased significant roles of international
organizations and multinational organizations; focused on
interdependence and transnational relations among non
state actors.

Economic issues prevailed in international relations


Pluralistperspective broadens the appreciation of different
actors in international relations. International organizations,
multinational corporations, nongovernment organizations,
individuals and also significant actors in International
Relations.
Broadens the global concerns, like cultural, economic &
social issues.
THE COLD WAR: INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
era of ideological conflict
competition between two opposing sociopolitical system; liberal democracy &
communism
US & USSR
both aimed to expand their respective spheres of influence in the world
Military Bases Agreement of 1947
Military Alliance with US

1949 - Birth of Peoples Republic of China


1944 - IMF & WB established a US economic regime in the world which promoted
economic liberalism

This was the international environment in which the Republic of the Philippines (1946)
was established. An era of two competing ideological camps aiming for global
supremacy. The Philippines chose to be on side of the United States.
POST WAR DEPENDENCE ON THE UNITED STATES
rehabilitation & construction were the priority
dependent on US for assistance
agrarian unrest in Central Luzon

The post war administration had no choice but to rely on the


US for financial resources and technical expertise in dealing with
reconstruction and rehabilitation, financial bankruptcy and the
HUK rebellion. Such dependence continued to manifest itself with
American leaning Foreign Relations orientation.
PRO AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY

The Military Bases Agreement (1947), the Mutual


Defense Pact (1952), Military Assistance Agreement;
these sealed the strong alliance of the Republic of the
Philippines and United States.
Military Bases Agreement
free of rent for 99 years
granted right of jurisdiction over crimes committed within
the bases, by any member of US Army outside the bases.

Military involvement with US affairs


Birth of ASEAN
Philippine Trade Act of 1946 free trade arrangement with US
Philippine Foreign Relations, 1972-1986

Situationer:
a) Economic development goals
b) Armed challenges posed by the CPP-NPA & MNLF
c) American debacle in Vietnam
d) Policy of dtente (Nixon Policy. Withdrawal of America in
Vietnam. US would no longer send military troops in the
security of Asia)
e) Cambodian conflict
f) Oil crisis in 1970s
THE AUTHORITARIAN REGIME OF MARCOS (1972-1981)
September 21, 1972 Martial Law declaration
to save the republic and reform our society

insurgency
shift from presidential to parliamentary
President with legislative power through Presidential Decree
unicameral legislature

authoritarian regime
suppression of freedom of expression
political prisoners
nationwide curfew 10:00-4:00 am
DOMESTIC INFLUENCE IN PHILIPPINE FOREIGN POLICY

a) Development Diplomacy
promote export
export-oriented development
adoption of more economic liberalization policies
to encourage foreign investments, improve trade
exports and make the Philippines a favorite tourist
destination.
ARMED REBELLION & NATIONAL SECURITY

CPP-NPA war of national liberalism against imperialism,


feudalism & bureaucratic capitalistism
MNLF - intensified Muslim & Christian conflict in
Mindanao

Chinas support to insurgency


Libya
Malaysia

Dependence on US for survival


EXTERNAL SECURITY ENVIRONMENT

a) US policy of Dtente and withdrawal from Vietnam


cease Cold War

b) Oil shocks, floating currency & newly industrializing economies


depreciation of peso
creation of 6-77 (developing countries) pushed for a new International
Economic Order
rise of tiger economics or NIC
assassination of Sen. Benigno Aquino Jr. in 1983 created political turmoil
which negatively affected foreign investments
sick man of Asia (Philippines)
FOREIGN POLICY PRIORITIES

relations with Third World countries


relations with Southeast Asian neighbors
opening of relations with Socialist Block
relations with US remained to be the masterpiece
of Philippine Foreign Relations
1. Reexamined Phil.-US relations (MBA)
2. Opened diplomatic ties with the Socialist Block
3. Participation in multilateral bodies UN & ASEAN
4. Creation of G7&G77
5. Bilateral relations with the US & Japan
US historical ties
Japan biggest donor of official development
assistance to the Phil. (JICA)
POST EDSA PHILIPPINE FOREIGN
RELATIONS, 1986-2001

Diplomacy for development Pres. Fidel V Ramos (1992)


A. Democratization

B. Legitimization Restoration of democracy


Credibility
and accountability of governance
before the international community
Stabilityand confidence building measures to
foreign policy initiatives
Sustainable development goals, security and
international cooperation and globalization
POST EDSA FOREIGN POLICY CONTEXT:
Democratization, Development & Globalization

Equality
Deliberation
Participation
Development Diplomacy

The harnessing of all available resources of the


nation internal & external, public & private, official
& non-official in the active pursuit of opportunities
abroad in trade, investment, finance, technology &
aid.
Bankrupt Economy

External debt of US D26.5B


An impoverished nation
A structure of inequity & privilege
Prelude to the end of the Cold War

Wave of democratization in Eastern Europe & Asia.


People power in the Philippines
People power in Poland & Romania
Fall of Berlin Wall (1989) (East Germany)
End of authoritarian regimes in Taiwan and South
Korea (1987&1988)
China, Tiananmen Square students protests (1989)
1986 Freedom Constitution and the
1987 Philippine Constitution
Foreign Policy based on the need to restore the international
communitys confidence in the countrys democratic
governance
Independent foreign policy
National sovereignty
Territorial integrity
National interest
Right to self determination
Freedom from nuclear weapon
Social justice & human rights
Trade policy that serves he general welfare and
utilizes all forms and arrangements of exchange
on the basis of equality and reciprocity

Foreign loans may be incurred in accordance


with the law and the regulation of the monetary
authority
Debt repayment approaches

A. Selective Debt Repudiation setting


limit to debt service payments to sur
economic growth

B. Model Debtor Strategy caused


financial hemorage
Corazon C. Aquino (1986 1992)
VP Salvador P. Laurel

Bilateral and Multilateral Diplomacy


1992 MBA was not renewed
Close of the bases due to Mt. Pinatubo
Eruption
Fidel V. Ramos (1992-1998)
Developed and progressive Philippine economy
Democracy and development
Economic diplomacy trade, finance, investment and
human resource deployment
Philippines 2000 NIChood of ASIA
Peace efforts
Dismantled monopolies
Liberalized ownership of industries
BOT scheme
Flor Contemplacion Death
Joseph Ejercito Estrada (1998-2001)

Regional & multilateral cooperation


FOREIGN POLICY ISSUES

A. TRADITIONAL power, diplomacy, alliance,


security, development & world power

B. NON-TRADITIONAL trade, environment,


migrant workers, labor, human right,
technology transfer, transportation technology