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Group of Members:

Nor Hariz Bin Kadir Osman


Nor Hidayah Binti Md Amin
Shahirah Binti Deraman
Nor Aisyah Binti Zawawi
Muhamad Muizzudin Bin Azali
Immigration
People moving from one
place to another:
To have better life
Not exactly being
force to migrate
For the purpose of
permanent residence
2 Perspectives Of
Discussion.

Population I The place where Population II The place where


people leave people migrate
Theory in people migrating.
There is no single theory accepted by scholars
of social science in term of people migrating
(Brettel C. and Hollified J.F., 2015)

Push and pull factors, by Ernest Ravenstein.


Push- low wages, lack of employment.
Pull- competitive wages, low unemployment rate.

People in small town migrate to bigger


town just to have better paygrade.
Neoclassical Economics:
Macro-Theory
by (Corry 1996, Harris and Todaro 1970)

Differences in wages between a sending-country and a

receiving country.

Labor market is highly depend on supply and demand of the

worker.

Can be controlled by the government through regulating in

both sending and receiving countries ( D. S Massey, 2005)


Neoclassical Economics: Micro-
Theory

Migrants estimate
the cost and the
benefit of moving
and migrate to that
country where
Net returns in each future period by taking the expected net
observed earnings and multiplying them by
probability of obtaining a job in the destination returns are greater
than in the country
of origin (Borjas,
1990).
The New Economics of Migration
(Stark and Boom,1985)
Family, household and other culturally defined units of
production and consumption in the analysis for migration.

Wage differential is not necessarily a condition for making


migration to other country

Government can influence the migration rate


Social Capital Theory
International migration expands until network connections are wide
enough that all people who wish to migrate to that country can do
so without difficulties

The correlations between wage differentials or employment rates


and migration flows hardly exist.

Controlling migration in the light of that approach is very difficult as


migrants network are created outside the country and occurs
irrespective of policies pursued (casles and miller, 2009).

http://understandingmigration.blogspot.my/2011/03/international-m
Example Of People Migration In Malaya

Kangcu System in Johor, 1844


Kangcu System been implemented by the Johor Ruler, Temenggung Ibrahim.

Importing workers from China for commercials gambir and black pepper.

Kangani System
The landlord send his man to India to find Indian who willing to work for them by contract.

At least 300,000 Indian workers directly from India came to Malay before this system was
stopped in 1938.
Example Of Malaysian Governments
Effort To Promote Migration

To encourage foreigners
Which allowing to stay in Malaysia to
foreigners to stay in boost Malaysian
Malaysia up to 10 years. economy by tourism.
Malaysia My
Second
Home
Programme
They need to at least
have RM 150,000
minimum in their bank Provide us more
account to stay in diversity in Malaysia.
Malaysia 10 years.
Factors of immigration

factors that compel a person, due


to different reasons, to leave that
place and go to some other place

factors which attract the


migrants to an area.
Economic Factor
Push : Poor economic activity and lack of job opportunities
Pull : Job opportunities, available resources
Political Factors
Push: Forced migration, changes in international borders,
refugees from conflicts
Pull: Better political situation.
Environmental Factor
Push: Natural disasters (Ex. floods, droughts)
Pull: food availability, better environment
Social Factors
Push : The quest for independence, lack of social mobility, job
restrictions
Pull : Improved communication facilities such as :
transportation, impact of television, good network
communication, the cinema, the urban oriented education
(1)Country
Development

(2)Enriched by
cultural diversity,
religion and language

(3)The country's
image become
positive
ADVANTAGES
(4)Exchanging
of technology
and innovation
(1)Country Development(Host
country)
If a country is facing a labour shortage, the economy may depend
on migrant workers to keep certain industries going and helps to
reduce its.
Services to an ageing population can be maintained when there
Job vacancies are insufficient young people locally.
and skills gaps
can be filled
e.g. In 2006, 50% of food production jobs were filled by foreign
nationals.
The skill gap in many host countries can be filled by migrants

The pension gap can be filled by the contributions of new young workers
Migrants pay and they also pay taxes like income tax and VISA
taxes

When the migrants was hired, they are more prepared to take on low paid
They can also create new businesses and products . Ex: Polish shops and
Economic growth newspapers
can be sustained
(1)Country
Development(Country losing
people)
The money migrants send home is very important for developing
countries. The money of the migrants have sent back home has
helped in alleviating poverty in their homes.
Remittance For example, can be used to finance improved education & health
flows service.

Many migrants learn new skills when they work abroad. When they
return home they bring these new skills with them and help the
local economy.
Ex : People might bring back skills in nursing and education.
Skills Returning migrants increase social expectations for communities, for
example, increasing demand for better leisure facilities.

Population density is reduced and birth rate falls as its the younger
Decreases
population who migrates. This can help ease overpopulation.
pressure on Its also help to reduce the competition on job at their country
resources.
(2)Enriched By Cultural Diversity, Religion And
Language
Create
cultural
diversity
and
religions
Migrant can Understanding and
encourage the tolerance towards
learning of new other cultures and
languages, helping habits is developed.
people develop skills
for their language

Religious holidays,
especially those
There is an influx of
celebrated with open
new or revitalised
houses, further blend
services such as
the interreligious
Kebab shops &
experience of the
Turkish baths.
population.
3)the Country's Image Become Positive

The growth of tourism can have a


tremendous impact on the local
economy, accountable for the growth Promote the attitude of that
of employment and a rise in living country.
standards

The immigrants could also help to promote the beauty of


Japanese: Cleanliness, snow the country. When they return to their homeland, they
Malaysia: Whether hot and humid year will surely tell all their experiences during their stay in
around that country to relatives or friends.

The immigrants could also help to promote the beauty of the country.
When they return to their homeland, they will surely tell all their
experiences during their stay in that country to relatives or friends.

Tourism
(4)Exchanging Of Technology And Innovation

Bring new skills to the country, which may


help to revitalise the home economy

Immigration has also been observed to


boost productivity through innovation,
specialization and energy.

Produce the foreign doctors, engineers, architects


and accountants can impose significant financial and
other costs on these highly skilled immigrants
The arrival of immigrants such as skilled labour and semi-
skilled workers to Malaysia enabled the country to learn
and acquire new technologies through a joint program
undertaken by the government or certain organizations
(4)Exchanging Of Technology And Innovation
Upgrade of powerful tools

Japan has contributed in terms of the use of robots for the


manufacturing industry and experts in the field of
industrial and automotive to Malaysia, through a joint
program of Japan-Malaysia based on the launch of the
Innovation of Government in 2011.

In addition, the expertise of foreign workers in the


professional field as well as secure and able to improve the
quality of a country's productivity thus to strengthen the
economy.
Disadvantages

Safety

Religious Education

Disadvantages
of Immigrants

Disease Economy

Politic
Safety In the 1840s,
migration of
Indians and
Chinese in
Malaya.
They came by
9496 criminal
System of
cases involving
Kangani and
immigrants
Kangcu

Malaysia

Malaysias total Empat siri


population 31.7 Perang Larut
milions (2016) (1861-1874)

Ghee Hin and


Hai San

Sources : Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia


UNITED STATES

USAs total Hispanic such as


population 327 Mexico and Brazil
milions (estimated People create
in 2017) mafia groups.

25,000 street
gangs and 750,000
42.4 million
members who are
immigrants (legal
actively involved
and illegal) in 2014
throughout the
United States.
MS-13 Gang
(Mara Salvatrucha)

Came from El Savador


Cooperate with Mexican Mexican Mafia
Mafia
The oldest street
Grow up to 42 places in the
gangs in US
US
R60NHC Gang
(Rollin 60s Neighbourhood Crips)

From Africa-America
They dominate LA in 1970s
Black man gang popular in LA
Diseas
e
As long as people
Illegal immigrants move from place to As results, local
do not perform place, there is a risk citizens are
health checks of contagious suffered.
disease outbreak.

In US, The TB
Some of them have infection rate
The large amount
AIDS, tuberculosis, among foreign-
of immigrants led
sexually born persons was
to the spread of
transmitted 9.8 times as high as
diseases
diseases, etc that among U.S.-
born persons.
ECONOMY
Unemployment Local citizens compete with
immigrants
increases

Cost of repatriation High cost


of illegal immigrants

Contraband of cigarettes
Smuggling of goods

The cost of the medical care of these


Cost of medical care uninsured immigrants is passed onto the
taxpayer, and strains the financial stability
of the health care community.
UNITED STATES
CULTURE & RELIGION
Culture shock cultural
influences

Secularism Ronald Bombing the World Trade


Reagan said that until Center on 11 September
whenever the State and the 2001, known as the 9/11
Church will be separated.

Moslems are the world


fastest growing group.
EDUCATION
Pre-Independence era (before 1957)

Vernacular
Existence of Creates gap
education
non-uniform between the
system has
school system races
grown rapidly
Immigration can fuel racism and discrimination.

SOCIAL Discrimination/racis
m
Immigrants who cannot speak the local language or
do not behave like the locals often find themselves
not accepted in their communities, as people prefer
not to have anything to do with them.

Housing, health, education and many other facilities


may suffer from the pressure of excessive use by
Social/Civil Pressure more people than it was designed to take. This can
force prices of such amenities to go high, causing
hardship to all.

In 2010, an estimated 12.3 million (adults and


children) were trafficked into the USA and forced
Human Trafficking into labour, bonded labour and forced prostitution.
It is believed that 2 out of 1,000 people are victims
of human trafficking.
Distribution of immigrants in EU 2015
United State of America (USA)

Limit total immigrant entering USA

In 2015, about 70 thousand of immigrant are allowed to entering


USA
Consequences of Donald Trumps election win

US global leadership is therefore bound to shift away from free


trade, globalisation, and open markets.

Barrier on immigration Trump policy foreign entry closes cause


stunted economic developments

Racial issue between Mexico-US

Islamphobia
Germany
Requires expertise of foreign affairs for economic growth

In average, about 4 people will come to Germany for every week

Only 47% of those surveyed (men: 56%, women: 39%) are fully or
partially employed. In comparison, 58% of the German population do
have jobs.
Lithuania

Each immigrant entering the country as well as being a job seeker


also provides work to others
Loss of human capital and outflow of intelligence and
understanding can come
In 2007, more than 70% of immigrants were the citizens of
Lithuania returning to the motherland for living
Malaysia
About 25% of worker in Malaysia is a foreign worker

Indonesia is the highest country whose work in Malaysia since 15


years ago

Migration rate for the period 2010-2011 was 2.3% (711,600


persons)
Thank You