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RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Drive methods
Small compressors, particularly the
trunk type, in single and multistage
arrangement are usually V-belt
driven by electric motors.

The single-acting crosshead type


and the small, double-acting,
single-stage compressors are also
driven in a similar manner.
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Drive methods
Larger, multistage, trunk type compressors can be sized to
operate at common motor speeds and therefore are direct
coupled.
The larger, crosshead, double-acting, multistage
compressors present the most variations in drive
arrangements. If it has an integral electric motor sharing a
common shaft with the compressor it is called an engine
type.
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Drive methods
These compressors can also be directly coupled to a
separate electric motor in a more conventional manner.
Gear units may be involved in the drive train where speed
matching is required.
Reciprocating compressors are available with a large variety
of other drivers, which include the piston engine, steam
turbine or in rare cases, a gas turbine.
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Drive methods
The arrangement lends itself to skid mounting, particularly
the semi-portable units found in the oilfield. The unit is also
popular as a "lease" unit which may be lifted onto a flat bed
trailer and moved from one location to another as needed.
The engine is either direct coupled or as with smaller
compressors, it may be belt connected.
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Drive methods
A variation to the smaller, skid mounted, engine driven
compressor is a larger, engine driven version in the form of
the integral engine compressor .
The compressor and the engine share a common frame and
crankshaft.
When the engine cylinders are vertical or in a V
configuration and the compressor's cylinders are horizontal,
the machine is called an angle engine compressor.
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Drive methods
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Drive methods
A more rare form of driver is the steam cylinder. Most
arrangements combine the steam driver and compressor on
the same frame with the steam cylinder opposite the
compressor cylinder. Each cylinder's connecting rod is
connected to a common throw on the crankshaft. A flywheel
is used to provide inertia.
Pd B Ps A

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Rod reversal
Rod load
The piston rod is constantly subjected to varying
compression and tension pressure. This pressure is referred
to rod load. Rod load is calculated as follows:
Compression load = Pd A Ps B
Tension load = Pd B Ps A
Where:
Ps = Inlet pressure.
Pd = Discharge pressure.
A = Outer end piston area.
B = Frame end piston area.
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Rod reversal
Rod load
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Rod reversal
Rod load
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Rod reversal
Rod load
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Rod reversal
Rod load
When the compressor is under load, all clearances are
taken up in one direction (compression) or the other
(tension).
This transition to compression or visa versa is essential for
metal surfaces to be lubricated.
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Rod reversal
Rod load
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Rod reversal
Rod load
For the crosshead movement, it should be noted that the
movement of the crosshead pin in relation to con-rod
throughout compressor cycle.
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Rod reversal
Rod load
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Rod reversal
Rod load
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Rod reversal
Rod load