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Research

Methodology

MTE Unissula

Oleh: Muhammad Qomaruddin

How To Do A Literature
Semarang, September 2017
Review: An Overview
What is a literature review?

a systematicmethod for identifying, evaluating and interpreting the


work produced by researchers, scholars and practitioners.

FINK, A., 1998. Conducting literature research reviews: from paper to the internet. Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage., p.3.

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What is a literature review?

A literature review is a survey of everything that has been written


about a particular topic, theory, or research question. It may
provide the background for larger work, or it may stand on its
own. Much more than a simple list of sources, an effective
literature review analyzes and synthesizes information about key
themes or issues..

Allyson Skene. The Writing Centre, University of Toronto at Scarborough. See terms and
conditions for use at http://www.utsc.utoronto.ca/~ctl/twc/terms.htm

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Why review the literature?

without it you will not acquire an understanding of your topic, of


what has already been done on it, how it has been researched, and
what the key issues are.

HART, E., 1998. Doing a literature review: releasing the social science research
imagination, by E. Hart and M. Bond. London: Sage., p.1.

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Why write a literature review?

1. To discover what has been written about a topic already


2. To determine what each source contributes to the topic
3. To understand the relationship between the various
contributions, identify and (if possible) resolve contradictions,
and determine gaps or unanswered questions

Allyson Skene. The Writing Centre, University of Toronto at Scarborough. See terms and
conditions for use at http://www.utsc.utoronto.ca/~ctl/twc/terms.htm

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What is involved in writing a literature review?

1. Research to discover what has been written about the topic

2. Critical Appraisal to evaluate the literature, determine the


relationship between the sources and ascertain what has been
done already and what still needs to be done

3. Writing to explain what you have found

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Steps to writing an effective literature review:

1. Find a Working Topic


Look at your specic area of study. Think about what
interests you, and what is fertile ground for study. Talk to
your professor, brainstorm, and read lecture notes and
recent issues of periodicals in the eld.

2. Review the Literature


Using keywords, search a computer database. It is best to use at least two
databases relevant to your discipline
Remember that the reference lists of recent articles and reviews can lead to
valuable papers
Make certain that you also include any studies contrary to your point of view

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Steps to writing an effective literature review Continue-

3. Focus Your Topic Narrowly and Select Papers Accordingly


Consider the following:
What interests you?
What interests others?
What time span of research will you consider?

Choose an area of research that is due for a review.

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Steps to writing an effective literature review Continue-

4. Read the Selected Articles Thoroughly and Evaluate Them


What assumptions do most/some researchers seem to be making?
What methodologies do they use? what testing procedures, subjects, material
tested?
Evaluate and synthesize the research ndings and conclusions drawn
Note experts in the eld: names/labs that are frequently referenced
Note conicting theories, results, methodologies
Watch for popularity of theories and how this has/has not changed over time

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Steps to writing an effective literature review Continue-

5. Organize the Selected Papers By Looking For Patterns and By


Developing Subtopics
Note things such as:
Findings that are common/contested
Two or three important trends in the research
The most inuential theories

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Steps to writing an effective literature review Continue-

6. Develop a Working Thesis


Write a one or two sentence statement summarizing the conclusion
you have reached about the major trends and developments you see in
the research that has been done on your subject.

7. Organize Your Own Paper Based on the Findings From Steps 4


&5
Develop headings/subheadings. If your literature review is extensive,
nd a large table surface, and on it place post-it notes or ling cards to
organize all your ndings into categories. Move them around if you
decide that (a) they t better under different headings, or (b) you need
to establish new topic headings.

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Steps to writing an effective literature review Continue-

8. Write the Body of the Paper


Follow the plan you have developed above, making certain that each
section links logically to the one before and after, and that you have
divided your sections by themes or subtopics, not by reporting the
work of individual theorists or researchers.

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Steps to writing an effective literature review Continue-

9. Look At What You Have Written; Focus On Analysis, Not


Description
Look at the topic sentences of each paragraph.

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Steps to writing an effective literature review Continue-

Finishing Touches: Revising and Editing Your Work


Read your work out loud. That way you will be better able to identify where
you need punctuation marks to signal pauses or divisions within sentences,
where you have made grammatical errors, or where your sentences are
unclear
Since the purpose of a literature review is to demonstrate that the writer is
familiar with the important professional literature on the chosen subject,
check to make certain that you have covered all of the important, up-to-
date, and pertinent texts. In the sciences and some of the social sciences it is
important that your literature be quite recent; this is not so important in the
humanities
Make certain that all of the citations and references are correct and that you
are referencing in the appropriate style for your discipline. If you are
uncertain which style to use, ask your professor

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Steps to writing an effective literature review Continue-

Finishing Touches: Revising and Editing Your Work cont.-


Check to make sure that you have not plagiarized either by failing to cite a
source of information, or by using words quoted directly from a source.
(Usually if you take three or more words directly from another source, you
should put those words within quotation marks, and cite the page.)
Text should be written in a clear and concise academic style; it should not be
descriptive in nature or use the language of everyday speech
There should be no grammatical or spelling errors
Sentences should ow smoothly and logically
In a paper in the sciences, or in some of the social sciences, the use of
subheadings to organize the review is recommended

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Steps to writing an effective literature review continue-

Content of the Review


1. Introduction
The introduction should identify your topic, some discussion of the
significance of that topic and a thesis statement that outlines what
conclusion you will draw from your analysis and synthesis of the
literature. If your literature review is part of a larger work, explain the
importance of the review to your research question.

2. Body
In the body, discuss and assess the research according to specific
organizational principles (see examples below), rather than addressing
each source separately. Most, if not all, paragraphs should discuss more
than one source. Avoid addressing your sources alphabetically as this
does not assist in developing the themes or key issues central to your
review. Page 16
Steps to writing an effective literature review continue-

Example:
Collaborative learning has been shown to have positive effects
regardless of context. One research is done by DSouza and
Wood (2000) where collaborative learning is used in learning
Mathematics. Collaborative learning has a positive effect
especially in the cognitive domain. Another study shows that
collaborative learning helps students understanding if
compared to listening to a teacher (Hanson, 1985). In another
study by Lanvin (2001), collaborative learning makes students
complacent as they know they can rely on more able peers.
Collaborative learning has also disadvantages. It does not bring
positive effects in all contexts.

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Assignment

Find a Working Topic


Review the Literature
Read the Selected Articles Thoroughly and Evaluate Them
Organize the Selected Papers By Looking For Patterns and By
Developing Subtopics
Develop a Working Thesis
Organize Your Own Paper Based on the Findings From Steps 4 & 5
Write the Body of the Paper
Look At What You Have Written; Focus On Analysis, Not Description

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References
Frederic Murray, Assistant Professor, MLIS, University of British Columbia, BA, Political Science,
University of Iowa

https://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/get-assistance/writing/specific-types-papers/writing-literature-
review

http://guides.library.vcu.edu/lit-review

Research Methodology Page 19


Terimakasih
Thank You
Matur Nuwun
Hatur Nuhun

mqomaruddin@unissula.ac.id
HP: 08552666000

Research Methodology Page 20