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America at 1800

Jefferson, Madison, and the War

of 1812
Jefferson's Presidency
Louisiana Purchase
Burr conspiracy
The Supreme Court under John Marshall
Neutral rights, impressment, embargo
Test items
Republican Vision/Jefferson/embargo/reduce the budget
Revolution of Jefferson/overturn Federal policies
Jefferson/a great politician
Ended internal taxes
Government spending
National debt
Jefferson and the court
Judiciary act of 1801
Mabry Vs. Madison
Louisiana Purchase reasons
Aaron Burr
War of 1812 causes, War Hawks/Clay/Calhoun/
Tecumsehs goals
Essay Question

The War of 1812 was foisted upon an

unwilling nation by a Congress controlled
by a group of congressmen called the
War Hawks whose main goal was the
conquest of Canada.
Assess the validity of this statement using
the documents and your knowledge of US
Sectionalism Developing
Northeast- Manufacturing=want to send goods
Western Farmers agriculture=want to send
goods East
Problem of Transportation= roads, canals, river
transportation important-1800-1850 building
transportation networks.
Problem: Spain controls mouth of Mississippi
until the French reacquire Louisiana under
Napoleon and US make the Louisiana Purchase-
American Growth
New Century Cities- 1820
Census office 1801- 5.3 New York + 100,000
million people Philadelphia + 100,000
33% growth rate each 75% Pop Rural
decade 5% in cities
Rapid Economic growth 20% in towns
Commercial and People moving west in
Geographic expansion search of farm land
Ohio, Mississippi Valley
Jefferson Presidency 1801-1809

Lawyer, diplomat, scientist, philosopher

Interested in Agriculture
Supported innovations and technology
Where a new invention is supported by well-
known principles, and promises to be useful, it
ought to be tried.
How is Jeffersons Election Revolutionary?

Peaceful transfer of power- was not common

It was a watershed for the Republic in that the
opposing political parties would cooperate with a
change in leadership
Some will say changes Jefferson advocates will
be revolutionary.
Jefferson as a common man- open to common
Wants to remove the Federalist program
Jeffersons Social Vision
Wanted to see individuals own land
Land was the key to democracy-
didnt believe that cities and industry were
Recognized manufacturing was necessary
The cultivators of the earth are the most
valuable citizens
Jeffersons Plan
Wanted to return governing power to the states
Thought Federalist enacted too many protective
tariffs that hurt farmer and favored merchants
Hated the national debt- $112 million by 1801
Gallatin was his Secretary of Treasury- proposed
cutting spending to balance the budget
Federal jobs, military, navy budget cut
End internal taxes/excise taxes
Jefferson vs. The Court
A Federalist law is passed, Judiciary Act 1801
Created 16 new Federal judgeships
Adams appointed a number of judges before he
left office (Midnight Appointments)
Jefferson pushes republican controlled congress
to repeal the act and not seat Federalist judges
However the Supreme Court is packed with
Federalist and will rule against Republican issues
John Marshall Chief Justice 1801-1835
1. Appointed as Chief Justice during last days
of Adams' term
2. Most important Chief Justice in U.S. history;
served for about 34 years
Molded or developed the power of the
Key leader, non-partisan Federalist
Strengthened the Federal Government- at
expense of states
Advanced the interests of the rich
Supported the legality of contracts
Supported the concept of Federal government
supremacy over states
Dartmouth Case- overrode a state court
Marbury vs Madison, 1803
"Midnight judge" William Marbury sued
(on the behalf of several other judges) for the
delivery of his commission that was being held up by the new secretary
of state Madison.

Madison was ordered by Jefferson to withhold appointments of

Judiciary Act o 1801

Judicial Review
(the concept that the Supreme Court can rule laws

Marshall ruled that part of the Judiciary Act of 1789, upon which
Marbury had based his appeal, was unconstitutional by giving the
Court the right to enforce appointments (only the executive branch
had right to enforce the law)
Ruling established a precedent
Supreme Court power to rule a law by Congress unconstitutional
Louisiana Purchase
1801 France again controls the Louisiana
Jefferson wants to expand US territory
Sends James Monroe to France to Negotiate the
purchase of New Orleans because French tried
to close the port to Western farmers
Monroe signed the deal with Napoleon 1803
The deal created a dilemma for Jefferson, he
believed in strict interpretation of Constitution,
which means the government only does what
the Constitution says it should do.
Contrast to Hamilton's Elastic Clause assertion
Burr Conspiracy
Burr, a scoundrel, and traitor- Killed Hamilton in
1804 (Federalists essentially die with hammy)
Jefferson broke with Burr early-
Burr became involved with a group of Federalists
to create a separate country 1st with New York
and NJ then later involving Mexico. (to secede)
Jefferson tries to have Burr prosecuted, Burr
eventually escapes to Europe.
Winds of War
Longtime problem of American merchant
ships being seized and sailors forcibly impressed
into service by British Navy, continues
1793-1811 1,000 sailors were removed from US
ships by British
Jefferson/Republicans respond with the
Embargo Act of 1807- stopping all trade-
Results in immediate disaster
American agriculture prices fall-over supply-
Smuggling begins and Jefferson tries to
suppress with Navy and Troops
Jefferson to Madison

Embargo didnt work

Jefferson never ended the national debt
Madison, Jeffersons Secretary of State, in
1809-1816, is elected and Jefferson,
before leaving office, asks Congress to
repeal the Embargo and replace it with
Non-Intercourse Act
Madison 1809-1816

Republican, Jeffersons Secretary of State

Picked up where Jefferson left off
Trying to deal with European conflicts
British interference with trade continued-
seizures and impressments
Western incitement of Indians
Madison 1808-1816

Non-Intercourse Act 1809- in an effort to

repair damage by the embargo
Congress passes law to prohibit trade with
Britain and France, but allow trade with
other countries
Americans want Neutral Trading Rights
War of 1812
Invasion of Canada
Hartford Convention
Conduct of the war
Treaty of Ghent
New Orleans
War of 1812 Causes
War Hawks- American legislators advocated
war with Britain to regain American trade and
secure Western lands/ and even invade Canada
Speaker of the House Henry Clay of Kentucky
Congressman John C. Calhoun of South
Blamed Great Britain for inciting the Indians in
Ohio Indian Trouble

White settlement of Ohio increases

1810= 24, 500
Indian Tribes pushed West are angry
about treaties and White settlement
Two Tribal leaders, The Prophet and Tecumseh
Shawnee twin brothers- wanted their people to
resist the white invasion and live separately
They try to form an Indian confederation
William Henry Harrison and the US Army kill
Prophet at the Battle of Tippecanoe 1811
Americans believe the British are helping the
Indians from forts in the Ohio valley
Madison Wins Election 1812
June 1812 War is Declared
Federalist against the war but out voted by
Western and Southern Republicans
Americans Invade of Canada
Through Detroit
Great Lakes Oliver Hazard Perry- defeats a
British fleet Lake Erie
But few lasting effects
Military Issues
British Invade through the Chessapeake
and burn Washington D.C.
Fort McHenry, Baltimore Harbor, Star
Spangled Banner
Hero Andrew Jackson- defeats Creek indians
in the Mississippi area and then goes on to
defend Jan. 1815 New Orleans from invasion-
great victory will bring him national
Hartford Convention 1814
Federalist opposition delegates from New
England meet to discuss complaints
regarding the War and the Republican
Some argue for secession
After the War Federalist are marginalized
even more than before.
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty of Ghent, (Belgium) signed December
British evacuate the Ohio Valley, no major
Indians lose, usually move West , lose large
areas of land- in Northwest
Rush-Bagot Agreement- de-militarized the
Great Lakes
The Madisonian Platform
After the War there is a huge feeling
of Nationalism-
The idea of loyalty or devotion to a
nation, or
Pride in ones country, usually excessive
Madison unveils a program to develop
the country through the leadership of
the Federal Government:
Military, banking, protective tariffs,
internal improvements (roads,
canals), and a national university
Madisons Platform
Banking- Chartering the Second Bank of the United
States -first bank, time ran out and paper money issued
caused inflation Bank is created 1816-
became economically strong
McCullah vs. Maryland- Marshall-ruled that the Bank
was legal and states could not tax it.
Protective Tariff- During Embargo, manufacturing in
Northeast develops, Brits produce more goods, cheaper,
and faster
Textile industrialists, (Lowell) support tariff
Even Calhoun of South Carolina, supported the tariff,
because of nationalistic or patriotic reasons.