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Ronald P.

Hattis, MD, MPH

Associate Clinical Professor
Department of Preventive Medicine
Loma Linda University
Presented August 30, 2013

Based on a residency project with Melody Law, MD, MPH, 2009

Objectives: Participants should be able to:
Understand the history of the traditional classification
of prevention efforts into primary, secondary, and
tertiary, and its criticisms and limitations
Discuss and critique the advantages and limitations of
a new 5-stage classification system, tentatively named
the Stages of Prevention, and of 5 corresponding
stages of the development of chronic diseases
Classify various types of preventive interventions,
using at least one classification system
Describe how to utilize at least one classification
paradigm in health planning and for patient
Classifying Prevention: Over Half a
Century of Challenges
The complexity of prevention in the healthcare field
makes a classification system theoretically useful
For any given disease or health problem, a spectrum of
opportunities for preventive interventions exists
Classification can help in a number of ways
Guide thinking and planning for prevention by
distinguishing ranges or categories within that spectrum
Select which interventions can be applied or should be
developed for particular diseases and patients
Compare costs and benefits of interventions at various
stages of disease development
Origins of the Three-Category Classification
of Prevention: Leavell and Clark
Leavell and Clark: first authors to develop and
gradually evolve a classification system
In 1953, their Textbook of Preventive Medicine
described five levels of application of preventive
(a) health promotion
(b) specific protection
(c) early recognition and prompt treatment
(d) disability limitation
(e) rehabilitation.
Later, divided these into 3 levels of prevention 4
Origins of the Three-Category
Classification of Prevention
1st known use of terms primary and secondary
prevention: 1957 report, Prevention of Chronic Disease
Commission on Chronic Illness, sponsored by Commonwealth Fund,
Harvard Univ. Press 1957, volume 1 , pp 1-68
- Primary prevention : averting the occurrence of disease
- Secondary prevention: halting the progression of
disease from its early unrecognized stage to a more severe
one and preventing complications
- Health promotion, aimed at maintenance of health
rather than prevention of diseases
Distinguished as type of prevention separate from primary,
which was considered to be disease-oriented
Origins of the Three-Category Classification
of Prevention, Leavell and Clark, contd.
In 2nd edition, 1958 (1 year after the chronic disease report
which introduced primary and secondary prevention),
retitled Preventive Medicine for the Doctor and His
Community, they classified and further defined the five
levels into three categories :
Primary prevention (1st 2 components of 1053 classification):
(a) health promotion (serving to further general health and well-
being), and
(b) specific protection (measures applicable to a particular disease
or group of diseases in order to intercept the causes before they
involve man)

Origins of the Three-Category Classification
of Prevention, Leavell and Clark, contd.
Secondary prevention (3rd component from 1953):
(c) early recognition and prompt treatment (with the
objectives of preventing spread to others if the disease is
communicable, complications or sequelae, and prolonged
Tertiary prevention (new, not included in the chronic
disease report; 4th and 5th components from 1953):
(d) disability limitation (prevention or delaying of the
consequences of clinically advanced disease), and
(e) rehabilitation (aiming at prevention of complete disability
after anatomic and physiologic changes are stabilized)

Origins of the Three-Category Classification
of Prevention, Leavell and Clark, contd.
In 3rd edition of same text, 1965, Clark and Leavell referred
to primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention as phases
of prevention
- Same five components (a) through (e) in last 2 slides
distributed among them
- Disability limitation was transferred to secondary category,
leaving only rehabilitation as tertiary prevention.

Origins of the Three-Category Classification
of Prevention, contd.
Since mid-1960s, three-category paradigm of primary,
secondary, and tertiary prevention has been adopted
in many fields of medicine and social sciences, e.g.:
Cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases (Joseph et
al., 2005), obstetrics (Decker & Sibai, Lancet Vol 357,
2001), infectious diseases (Liu, 2004), social sciences
(Bloom, 1979), in addition to preventive medicine and
public health
However, definitions of the three categories have
varied over time and from author to author

Origins of the Three-Category Classification
of Prevention, contd.
Primary prevention:
In literature of recent decades, generally refers to
preventing or reducing risk of acquiring disease (or other
unwanted health condition or state)
(Caplan, 1961, Gordon, 1983, Tannahill, 1985; Froom and Benbassat, 2001)

The place of health promotion

As of 1965, Leavell and Clark said it was not widely utilized, and
not applied for specific disease
Most authors subsequent to Leavell and Clark omit health
promotion from the classification
However, lifestyle components such as avoiding risks fit into most
conceptions of primary prevention
Origins of the Three-Category Classification
of Prevention, contd.
Concept of primary prevention fails to distinguish
between preventing exposure vs. reducing disease risks
from exposure
- Harm reduction generally refer to reducing negative
consequences of drug abuse and other high-risk behaviors (e.g.,
sexual), in persons who will not discontinue those behaviors
- Example is needle exchange for injection drug users
- Some harm reduction interventions are considered primary
prevention in that they aim to reduce disease incidence
- Avoiding exposure to the causes of disease, when possible, may
be considered as more primary (and more effective) than
continuing such exposure and attempting to mitigate its adverse
However , latter is an essential backup whenever exposure cannot be
Origins of the Three-Category Classification
of Prevention, contd.
Secondary prevention has been assigned variable meanings:
Leavell and Clark (1965), early diagnosis and prompt treatment to:
Prevent spread to others if disease is communicable
Cure or arrest the disease process to prevent complications or
Prevent prolonged disability

Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (1998): measures

aiming at detecting latent conditions and either reducing or halting
their progression
Miller (1997): reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with
clinical disease manifestations
Medical Letter: second occurrences of disease episodes like cardiac
arrest 12
Origins of the Three-Category Classification
of Prevention, contd.
Tertiary prevention likewise variably defined:
- Leavell and Clark (1965 ): only rehabilitation
- USPSTF (1989 Guide to Preventive Services): measures in
symptomatic patients, to prevent complications
- Most textbooks of medicine and public health: all
interventions in patients who are or have been symptomatic
(including rehabilitation)
As summarized by Froom and Benbassat, 2001
Tertiary prevention generally is not described as including:
Palliation of death

Reduction of specific complications or their mortality rates

Increase in quality-adjusted or disability-adjusted life years

Origins of the Three-Category Classification
of Prevention, contd.
Reliance on symptomatology in classification is
- Major diseases of current public health importance (e.g.,
HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C, coronary artery disease,
hypertension, diabetes) can be asymptomatic for years as
stealthily progress and damage body organs
- Other conditions (e.g., allergies, dermatitis) may be
immediately symptomatic without serious morbidity
- Therefore, reduced reliance on symptoms in the
classification of prevention could be helpful
- Relevant when symptoms are intrinsic to the definition of a stage
of a specific disease, especially in advanced disease
Analysis of 3-Category Systems: Froom and
Froom and Benbassat (2001) reviewed 317 abstracts
utilizing the terms primary, secondary, and tertiary
prevention, and noted the following:
- Consensus in defining primary prevention as preventing a
disease from occurring in the first place
- Overall, found inconsistent use of the terms secondary
and tertiary (and even primary) prevention
- Concluded that these three categories are not specific
enough to be appropriately used
- Reviewed alternative classification systems proposed by
Tanahill (1985) and others, and found limitations in all
Alternative Proposal of Froom and
Benbassat: Substitute 7-Level Classification
Level 1, reducing exposure to an etiologic agent
Level 2, increasing resistance to the disease.
Level 3, screening for risk factors for disease (in asymptomatic
individuals) in order to reduce them.
Level 4, prevention of recurrence (in asymptomatic individuals
after a disease-related event)
Level 5, treatment aimed at prevention of complications (in
asymptomatic individuals after a disease-related event)
Level 6, treatment of symptomatic patients for cure, palliation,
or reduction of mortality
Level 7, rehabilitation for adjustment to irremediable
Critique of 7 Level Paradigm of Froom
and Benbassat
Advantages :
- Creative contribution, adds additional classes of interventions
- Distinguishes exposure reduction as a separate level
- Addresses prevention or palliation of death
- Does not constitute a smooth and comprehensive continuum of
prevention opportunities along the natural course of disease
- Omits methods of preventing disease acquisition (as a result of
exposure) other than by increasing resistance
- Describes screening for risk factors but not for early disease
- Omits delay of the progression of chronic disease
- Expands to more than double the number of levels to remember
A New Paradigm: 5 Stages of Disease
Development (Hattis and Law, 2009, unpublished)
The development of diseases (esp. chronic) generally
involves 5 stages, and each lends itself to preventive
1. Exposure to agents/causes/risk factors of disease
2. Acquisition of early disease due to exposure
3. Progression of acquired disease from early to
4. Complications resulting from advanced disease
5. Death or Disability, generally from complications
A New Paradigm: The 5 Stages of Disease
Development and of Prevention
(Hattis and Law, 2009, unpublished)
Stage # Disease Development Prevention of the Respective Stage

1 Exposure Avoidance of Exposure

2 Acquisition Reduction of Acquisition

3 Advancement/Progression Interruption of Progression

4 Complications Avoidance of Complications

5 Death or Disability a) Preventing (Delaying) Mortality

b) Rehabilitation of Disability
c) Palliative Care for Inevitable Death
Examples of the 5 Stages of Prevention
Stage 1: Avoidance of exposure to agents of disease
Sexual abstinence; anti-smoking efforts
Stage 2: Reduction of acquisition of disease (as a result of
Post-exposure prophylaxis; hepatitis B vaccine for drug users
Stage 3: Interruption of the progression of a disease (that has
been acquired)
Screening tests (Pap, cholesterol, etc.) followed by treatment; INH
for latent TB; some diseases can be cured or progression reversed
Stage 4: Avoidance of complications (from progressed disease)
Prophylactic antimicrobials for AIDS patients; anticoagulants
Stage 5: Delay of mortality, rehabilitation of disability, or
palliative care for terminal disease
ICU care for stroke; physical therapy; hospice care
Stage 1: Exposure Avoidance
Total avoidance of exposure (if achievable) should be safest and
surest prevention; partial avoidance is still Stage 1
Target population: Entire population exposed, or stratified groups
with greatest exposure
Can prioritize interventions to subgroups at greatest risk.
Identify degrees of risk by survey data on exposures; define cutoff criteria
Must clearly define exposure, population at risk of exposure,
and disease to which exposure contributes
- Necessary to determine baseline exposure rate and target group
for each intervention
- Will exposure to sexual risk of HIV be defined as anyone in the
population who is sexually active, having unprotected or non-
monogamous sex, or having an HIV positive partner?
- Behavior associated with disease may be defined either as exposure or as
acquired disease (smoking, drug abuse; addiction in general)
Stage 1: Exposure Avoidance, contd.
Exposure = prevalence of agents of disease (microbes,
toxins) * contact with host (genetics, risk behavior)
Area under the curve can calculate cumulative exposure
- Similar to pharmacokinetics

Exposure avoidance, if excessive (avoiding normal risks of

life), can actually be harmful to personal or public health
Some risk factors are markers rather than causes of
disease and may not count as true exposure
- May be surrogates, or useful to screen for potential exposure

Special case of communicable diseases: Treatment of case

is also Stage 1 prevention for exposed persons
- Cases become less infectious; strategy for control, incl. HIV

Immunization counts if prevalence of organism declines

Stage 2: Prevention of Acquisition as a
Result of Exposure (Harm Reduction)
Generally next safest option after Stage 1, and may often
be relatively inexpensive.
Target population: Exposed population (from Stage 1 of
disease development); identify by screening for exposure
history and demographic risk factors or markers
Can never be completely effective, because exposure
persists, and no measures are foolproof
Immunization can fall into this stage (e.g., rabies, ?flu)
When does not reduce exposure to the cause of disease but
is used to reduce risk of acquiring the disease from exposure
Includes interventions for persons genetically at risk 23
Stage 3: Interrupting Disease Progression
Similar to concept of secondary prevention
- Intervention to slow, prevent, or reverse disease progression (or cure)
starts with detecting early disease (those in whom Stage 2 failed)
Target populations:
For screening: exposed population (same as Stage 2 target)
- Could restrict to those who have not taken Stage 2 precautions
- Testing must detect early disease (as defined), with high sensitivity
and specificity; early disease often asymptomatic
For treatment: those positive on screening
- Followed up by intervention to prevent progression (as defined)

Precise application depends on criteria for detecting early

disease and determining an advanced state
- For HIV, positive antibody test = acquisition; CD4<200 or AIDS-
defining condition = advanced disease (monitor, screen for that too)
Stage 3: Interrupting Disease Progression,
Area under the curve useful here too
- Viremia-years correlate with mortality in HIV
(Mugavero et al.: J Clin Inf Dis 9/2/2011)
- Pack-years correlate with smoking morbidity
- Cholesterol or Hgb A-1c years may become important
Particularly applicable to chronic diseases, and slowly-
progressing infections
- Currently the predominant causes of death worldwide
Most successful Stage 3 achieves reversal/remission
Less applicable to many acute illnesses and trauma
- Restrict this stage to screening, cure and recovery if
condition has no gradual progression 25
Stage 4: Preventing Complications from
Advanced Disease
Interventions may range from simple medication or
complex surgery, with corresponding cost ranges
Target population: Smaller, restricted to persons who
already have advanced disease (as monitored in Stage 3)
Each disease may have multiple potential complications, of
varied severity, with separate prevention strategies
Some diseases have primary & secondary complications (RF, RHD)
Prevention of recurrent complications (such as myocardial
infarctions or strokes) remains Stage 4 in this paradigm
Prevention of recurrent cardiac arrest has been called secondary
prevention (The Medical Letter 1/16/09), as tertiary prevention, or
as a 4th tier of prevention (Tannahill 1985)
Stage 5: Delaying/Reducing/Palliating Death or
Chronic Disability from Complications, contd.
Three alternative types of interventions for this stage:
Stage 5a is prevention (significant delay; we all die) of death
Stage 5b is rehabilitation for disability
Stages 5a and 5b may be combined in the care of a given individual
Stage 5c is palliative/end of life care
Target population: Persons with significant complications
(Stage 4 of disease development)
Sometimes continuation of Stage 3 or 4 interventions may
reduce mortality
Example (Thailand): Mortality rate of AIDS patients with TB
reduced 84% if antiretroviral therapy (ordinarily used as
Stage 3 and 4 to control HIV progression) administered
together with TB drugs
Stage 5: Delaying/Reducing Death or Chronic
Disability from Complications, contd.
Rehabilitation for a complication in which function can
improve is restorative, but is also prevents chronic disability
If chronic disability has develops and cannot be reversed,
rehabilitation can prevent further deterioration, and reduce
Although rehabilitation is only listed in Stage 5b, it can achieve
other levels of prevention
Stage 3 for obesity; Stage 4 for DVT prevention after stroke
Previous models omitted end of life care, but it can also be
Aims to prevent pain, distress
Settling affairs, advanced directives can reduce anxiety
Can save huge expenditures on futile care in last days of life
Application of model to specific diseases
1 Exposure Avoidance: Healthy eating, limit simple Abstinence from sex (or Avoid known carcinogens
carbohydrates, maintain healthy screening and monogamy of (smoking, drinking ETOH), limit
weight, exercise seronegative partners), no exogenous estrogens, avoid
injection drug use obesity, regular exercise

2 Disease Acquisition Weight loss, consider metformin if Condom promotion and Tamoxifen, raloxifene or
Reduction: insulin resistance/pre-diabetes programs to discourage drug mastectomy as prophylactic
abuse, needle sharing treatment if BRCA gene (genetic

3 Interruption or Delay Anti-diabetic drugs, monitor hgb A- Antibody screening, Detection of cancer by exams,
of Disease 1C, FBS, proteinuria, lipids; monitoring CD4, viral load; mammograms, other imaging;
Advancement: bariatric surgery if indicated treatment with antiretrovirals biopsy; surgery; hormone
antagonism or ovarectomy if
estrogen receptor

4 Avoidance or Delay of ACE Inhibitor/ARB to prevent renal Prophylactic treatment for Chemo/radiation therapy,
Disease sequelae, strict glucose control opportunistic infections mastectomy, follow up biannual
Complications: (insulin if necessary), lipid control, mammogram post surgery, PET
foot and eye care scan

5a Delay of Mortality Renal Dialysis, coronary stent or Intensive treatment for severe Full body radiation, bone
from Disease: bypass opportunistic infections marrow transplant
Stages of Prevention:
Economic Considerations
Each consecutive stage is targeted at a smaller population (a
potential cost saving), but may be more expensive or difficult to
apply to each member of that population as become more ill
Example: Hospitalization for advanced diseases/complications
Examples of exceptions:
- Changing behavior of an entire population to reduce risky sex or drug
use (Stage 1) may be difficult and expensive per capita
- Trimethoprim-sulfa to prevent complications of AIDS (Stage 4) is
inexpensive for each person treated
As each stage of prevention is applied, it can reduce the rate of
its respective stage of disease development and of all
subsequent stages, so early stage prevention pays off
Example: If fewer acquire disease, fewer complications occur
Examples of Calculations Facilitated by
Stages of Prevention Model
Ultimately, the death rate in a defined population p per
year or other time period t, due to complication-specific
mortality, D/(p*t), is equal to the product of five factors:
E/(p*t ), the exposures per defined population per year
A/ E, the rate of disease acquisition per exposed persons
P/ A, the progression rate of acquired disease per acquired
C/ P, the rate of complications per cases of progressed
D / C, the complication-specific death rate

Examples of Calculations Facilitated by
Stages of Prevention Model, contd.
The rate of any stage of disease will be the product of
the rates of the stages up to that point; examples (note
the algebraic cancellations):
The incidence rate of the disease is
A /(p*t) = E/(p*t) * A/E
The rate of a specific complication within the defined
population is
C/(p*t) = E/(p*t) * A/E * P/A * C/P
The mortality rate is
D/(p*t) = E/(p*t) * A/E * P/A * C/P * D/C
Key: E = exposures, A = acquisitions, P = progressed cases,
C = complications, D = deaths, p = popn., t = time 32
Examples of Calculations Facilitated by
Stages of Prevention Model, contd.
Disease reduction rates can be calculated
Reduction in cases can be compared with associated costs
Let baseline rates for each stage of disease be represented as
B1 through B5 respectively
Let rate reductions achievable for interventions at each stage
be represented by R1 through R5 respectively,
The potential rate of reduction of a specific complication (Rc),
resulting from combining Stages 1 through 4 (exposure
reduction, acquisition reduction, prevention of disease
advancement, and avoidance of the complication) would be:
Rc = B1 * (1-R1) * B2 * (1-R2) * B3 * (1-R3) * B4 * (1-R4)

Examples of Calculations Facilitated by
Stages of Prevention Model, contd.
From last slide:
Rc = B1 * (1-R1) * B2 * (1-R2) * B3 * (1-R3) * B4 * (1-R4)
Let B1 (baseline exposure rate) be .8; B2 (baseline
acquisition rate) be .3; B3 (baseline progression rate) be
.6; and B4 (baseline complication rate) be .4
Then complication rate without intervention (all Rs being zero) =
.8*.3*.6*.4 = .0576 or almost 6%
Let R1 (reduction in exposure) be .5; R2 (reduction in
acquisition) be .8; R3 (reduction in progression) be .6;
and R4 (reduction in complications) be .7
Then complication rate combining all four interventions =
.8*(1-.5)*.3*(1-.8)*.6*(1-.6)*.4*(1-.7) = .8*.5*.3*.2*.6* .4*.4*.3 =
.00069 or less than .07%, a 98.8% reduction 34
Application of Stages of Prevention to
Public Health Planning
Public health always involves limited budgets
Many diseases cause morbidity and mortality
How should resources best be applied?
Example: You have $20,000/year to reduce the rate of
myocardial infarctions in a population of 10,000 adults and
adolescents with a 30% rate of elevated LDL; this money can:
- Educate 200 people to reduce their risk of hyperlipidemia, of
whom 50% may change lifestyle; or
- Pay for lipid profiles for 1,000 people, with referrals of those
with high results to treatment, of whom 50% may follow through
(note that treatment costs are not included)
- Pay for one stent for an uninsured patient with unstable angina
Application of Stages of Prevention to
Patient Counseling
Using current 3-level classification, patients at risk for
HIV can be educated on:
- Primary prevention to avoid getting the disease (e.g., safer
- - Secondary prevention to pick up early disease (e.g., getting
an HIV test)
- - Tertiary prevention to prevent worsening of existing
disease (e.g., obtaining treatment if an HIV test is positive,
which also has a primary prevention benefit in reducing

Application of Stages of Prevention to
Patient Counseling, contd.
- Using Stages of Prevention model, more options for personal
behavioral decisions could be distinguished, based on where
patients fall in stages of disease development, and what they are
willing to do:
- Stage 1 prevention to avoid exposure to the disease (e.g.,
abstinence, not using drugs)
- Stage 2 prevention to avoid infection despite exposure (e.g.,
condoms, needle exchange)
- Stage 3 prevention to detect infection and treat it to avoid AIDS
(e.g., get tested for HIV; take antiretroviral drugs if infected and
CD4 count dropping, which also reduces exposure of partners)
- Stage 4 prevention to prevent complications of AIDS (e.g.,
antimicrobial drugs added to antiretroviral drugs)
- Stage 5 prevention after an episode of an opportunistic infection
(e.g., treatment of the infection) 37
Critique of Stages of Prevention Paradigm
Advantages of this classification system:
- Addresses disease prevention at 5 successive stages,
correlated with stages of disease, providing a systematic
approach to intervention
Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention are also successive, but
identify fewer categories for intervention opportunities
- Distinguishes between avoidance of exposure and
mitigation of its effects
Splits current primary prevention into two stages
- Distinguishes among prevention of disease progression, of
complications, and of death or chronic disability
Divides two vaguely defined categories into three more precise
ones 38
Critique of Stages of Prevention Paradigm,
Advantages, contd.:
- Facilitates quantitative calculations and cost-benefit
- Can be used not only in health planning but in
counseling patients
- Provides more recognition of asymptomatic disease
- In final stage, provides alternatives of prolonging life,
rehabilitating disability, or palliative care for terminal
- Model provides prevention options for every
specialty and aspect of medicine, and every patient
- Not just a roadmap for Preventive Medicine specialty
Critique of Stages of Prevention Paradigm,
Limitations of this particular classification system:
- Exposure to risk cannot always be avoided
- Not all diseases/conditions have preventable progression
or complications, and some lack progression at all
- Use of term stages for disease development (though not
of prevention) may be confused with stage classifications of
specific diseases (various cancers, CHF)
Disadvantages of revising the classification of prevention:
- Will have difficulty competing with a paradigm over half a
century old and in wide use
- New terms and 2 more divisions to remember
Critique of Stages of Prevention Paradigm,
Limitations of any classification system:
Cannot make universally applicable distinctions
The real world is messy
Prevention is complicated
Can be ineffective if the disease entity to be
prevented, and each stage for each disease, are not
clearly defined
Interventions to prevent a complication may be called
primary prevention of the complication (Froom and
Same interventions may be considered secondary or
tertiary prevention of the disease
- 41
Critique of Stages of Prevention Paradigm,
More challenges for any classification system:
- A single intervention may be categorized in more than
one stage, e.g., health education
- Future need to integrate widely-used quality of life and
longevity indicators
QALY (quality-adjusted life years) could be used to
measure effects of Stage 4 and 5 prevention
YPLL (years of preventable life lost) could highlight value
of interventions with younger persons
- Positive health promotion/wellness remains problematic
in classifications for prevention of specific diseases
However, see end of presentation for separate suggested
Is Disease Prevention Enough?
What is Health in a Positive Sense?
WHO formulation (1985):
- Health is physical, mental, and social well-being
- Not merely the absence of disease and infirmity
Breslow (1999) proposed moving beyond disease
- Aiming for the energy and reserves of health that permit a buoyant
life, full of zest and the eager ability to meet lifes challenges
Health promotion could be added back into primary
prevention (as per Leavell and Clark, 1953-65) or
A Converse Paradigm: Stages of Health
Promotion/Wellness Open for Study
Stage 1: Exposure to positive health influences*
E.g., health education
Stage 2: Aquisition of healthy lifestyle practices due to the
positive influences/education*
E.g., healthy diet, exercise
Stage 3: Increase in measurable indicators of health and
wellness due to the healthy practices
E.g., optimal BMI, increase in strength and flexibility
Stage 4: Achievement of defined health and wellness goals
Subjective, e.g., sense of wellbeing, fulfilling relationships
Objective, e.g., productivity, high cognitive function
Stage 5: Optimal wellness?

*Interventions overlap with those for prevention of disease

Interactive Exercise: What Stage of
Prevention (or of Health Promotion)?
Needle exchange programs , and syringe/needle purchase at
pharmacies (legal in California Jan. 2012)
HIV screening with referral
Antiretroviral drugs for patients with HIV/AIDS (or exposed)
Low-dose aspirin for patients with hypertension or coronary
Coronary care unit after myocardial infarction
Passenger restraints
Rabies, for veterinarians
Joining a gym
Traditional classification of prevention into primary,
secondary, and tertiary categories has encountered criticisms
A substitute paradigm has been presented: 5 Stages of
Prevention, which encompass consecutive steps in preventing
acquisition and progression of diseases:
1) avoiding exposure to causative agents
2) reducing acquisition of disease resulting from exposure
3) interrupting advancement of acquired disease
4) preventing complications from advanced disease, and
5) delay (or palliation) of death, or rehabilitation of disability,
from complications.
New model could serve as a tool for both collective and personal
health decisions and planning
Separate staging may be considered for health promotion/wellness
Discussion and Audience Critique
What are the criteria that make a good model for
classification of prevention?
How do you currently utilize the concepts of primary,
secondary, and tertiary prevention
How would the 5 Stages of Prevention model help or detract?
What are your reactions to this proposal?
What are its strong and weak aspects?
What would you add or delete?
How could you utilize it in practice?