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INTRO TO SEMANTICS Sentences as

Arguments
CHAPTER. 8

Audrey Aulivia
Mufidah Al Izzah
Nofa Anggraeni
FOCUS ON THIS CHAPTER

An argument is expressed as a clause (a sentence that is


embedded in another sentence).
It can be a predication or a real/potential fact.
The form of the clause depends on the predicate (verb or
adjective) that it accompanies.
PREDICATES THAT EMBEDDED SENTENCE
AS A THEME
Knowledge or ignorance of a possible fact
Ivan KNOWS (that) we are here
An attitude or orientation toward a fact or possible fact
Jean is DISSAPOINTED (that) you cant join us
Causing, allowing or preventing the occurrence of a fact
Mama LET Miriam hold the baby
Perception of a fact
I SAW Mr Hall come out of the garage
Saying something about a fact or possible fact
Lily SAYS (that) shell be a little late
The beginning, continuing, or terminating of a possible event
Suddenly it STARTED to rain
FULL STATEMENT CLAUSE

1a. Ivan Knows the answer


1b. Ivan knows (that) we are here

WHICH ONE IS A CLAUSE ?

Af fected predicate theme

Ivan know answer


Af fected predicate S-theme

Ivan know theme place


we here
QUESTION CLAUSES

I wonder when the concert was

Af fected predicate Q-theme

I wonder theme time


Concert ?

He asked me when the concert was

Af fected predicate Q-theme

He ask theme time


concert ?
INFINITIVE CLAUSES

16a. I know (that) Sara waits for Sally


16b. I expect Sara to wait for Sally

17a. The Eagles expect the Hawks to win the game


17b. The Eagles expect to win the game

17a has an overt subject, meanwhile 17b has a tacit subject


expect

af fected-a S-theme

Eagles theme-b pred

Hawks win

expect

af fected-a S-theme

Eagles theme-a pred

Eagles win
There is a group of verbs that can have as object an
infinitive clause without to or a gerund clause.
A gerund clause has a verb with suffix ing

Gerund Clause
Example of gerund clause
1. I saw Mr. Hall come out of the garage
2. I saw Mr. Hall coming out of the garage
3. Ruth heard a baby cry
4. She heard a baby crying

Gerund clause with tacit subjects


1. I enjoy attending the theater
2. Edward denied opening the letter
Factual clause :
I insist that Ronald works every hard

Non Factual clause (with or without should ) :


I insist that Ronald should work every hard

Non-Factual clauses
the kind of constructions they appear in: the subject of
verbal noun is typically possessive and the object of
the verbal noun is preceded by of

Verbal Nouns
Example of Verbal nouns :
1. I enjoyed our conversation. (We converse)
2. The president will soon announce her selection of a new
cabinet of ficer. (She selects a new cabinet of ficer)

The verbal noun has a tacit subject, the verbal noun is preceded by
the :
I enjoyed the conversation. (Somebody conversed)
COMPARING T YPES OF CLAUSES

Infinitive Clause and Full Clause

Infinitive Clause
We agreed to meet again the next day

This clause indicates a commitment


Full Clause

We agreed that we would meet again the next day

Express all kinds of facts and possible facts (accept the truth
or validity of some statement)
Gerund clause and Full clause

Gerund
Your son admitted breaking our window

admit indicates response to someones question or


accusation.

Ethan avoided driving off the cliff


Full clause
Your son admitted that he broke our window

Indicates an action performed by the subject


Infinitive and Gerund

Infinitive Clause

The museum wouldnt allow us to photograph the exhibit

stating a specific subject who is not allowed to photograph.


Gerund
The museum wouldnt allow photographing the exhibit

This clause does not state a specific subject. It could be


applied to all.
SYNTACTIC AMBIGUIT Y

Surface structure : words can be cluster together in a


different possible constructions.
Deep structure : One sequence of words may have
more than one interpretations.
Examples of Surface Ambiguity:

A . Containing and and or.

John and Mar y or Pat will go .

(John) and (Mar y or Pat), (John and Mar y) or (Pat)

B. With one modifier

The only people lef t were old men and women

(old men) and (women), old (men and women)


C. A head with a modifier
Your essay should contain four or five hundred words
It could be (4) or (500), (400) or (500)
D. A head with inner modifier and an outer modifier

The sick pet was taken to a small animal hospital


( (small) (animal hospital), (small animal) (hospital) )
E. A complement and modifier or two complements

Joe bought the book for Susan

(bought) (the book for Susan), (bought the book) (for Susan)

Mar y likes the picture of John on the table .

(the picture of) (John on the table), (the picture of John) (on the
table)
F. Certain function words that have possible dif ferences

The tennis cour ts are open to members only on Thursdays

(members only) or (only on Thursday)


Examples of Deep Ambiguity

A. Gerund+object or participle modifying a noun.

Over taking cars on the main road can be dangerous .

(Overtaking cars is dangerous) or (Cars overtaking are


dangerous)
B. Adjective+infinitive tied to subject or to complement:

The chicken is too hot to eat .

(Too hot to eat anything or too hot for anybody to eat it )


C. Ellipsis in comparative constructions:

I like Mar y better than Joan.

(Better than I like Joan or better than Joan likes Mar y)


THANK YOU