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The bead
is a loop of high-strength steel cable coated with rubber. It gives the tire
the strength it needs to stay seated on the wheel rim
The Belts
In steel-belted radial tires, belts made from steel are used to reinforce the
area under the tread. These belts provide puncture resistance and help the tire stay
flat so that it makes the best contact with the road.
The Sidewall
The sidewall provides lateral stability for the tire, protects the body plies
and helps keep the air from escaping.
Classification of tires

Primary classification
1. Tyre with tube
2. Tubeless tyre

Classification based on construction

1. Radial tyre
2. Bias/ crossply tyre
Classification based on performance
1. Performance tires or summer tires
2. All-round or all-season tires
3. Wet-weather tires
4. Snow & mud or ice : special winter tires
5. All-terrain tires
Decoding all tire markings on the sidewall

key Tire Marking Description

A Manufacturers or brand name,
and commercial name or
Tire size and speed rating
B designations. load index

C Denotes type of car tire

D M&S denotes a car tire designed
for mud and snow. Reinforced
marking only where applicable.
E Pressure marking requirement.
F approval mark and number.
G Dept of Transport compliance
symbols and identification
H Country of manufacture.
An "E" (upper case), "e" (lower case) indicates that the tire
is certified to comply with the dimensional, performance and
marking requirements of ECE regulation 30 and 92/33/EEC

Denotes the country code of the government that granted the type
The last number outside the circle or rectangle is the number of the
type approval certificate issued for that particular tire size and type

DOT Code denotes when the tire was manufactured

Example 3 0 0 3 means the tire was manufactured in the 30th week of
We should not use tires more than 6 years old. The rubber in tires
degrades over time, irrespective of whether the tire is being used or not.
Tire Sizing

This is the This is the This is This tells This is the

width in mm of ratio of the the that the tire diameter in
the tire from height of the speed is a radial inches of
sidewall to tire sidewall, rating construction the rim of
sidewall when (section of the the wheel
it's height), tire. that the
unstressed. expressed as tire has
This is known a percentage been
as the section of the width. designed to
width. It is known as fit on.
the aspect
Section Aspect Radial Rim Load Speed
width ratio diameter index rating

Aspect ratio is the ratio of the tyre's section

height to its section width.
Unless marked otherwise, "standard" car tires
have a nominal aspect ratio of 82%.

For 50-series tyres and above, the rim width is

70% of the tyre's section width, rounded off to
the nearest 0.5.
Car tire types.


The load index on a tire is a numerical code associated with the maximum load the
tire can carry. These are generally valid for speed under 210km/h (130mph). Once
we get above these speeds, the load-carrying capacity of tires decreases

car weighs 2 tons - 2000kg -

then assume an even weight on
each wheel. 4 wheels at 2000kg
= 500kg per wheel
Adding 20% as factor of safty
Load index is 90

All tires are rated with a speed letter. This indicates the maximum
speed that the tire can sustain for a ten minute endurance without
coming to pieces and destroying itself, car, the car next to it and
anyone else within a suitable radius at the time.
'H' rated tires are becoming the most commonplace and widely used
tires. S/T=67%, H=23%, V=8%
Sipes are the small, slit-like grooves in the tread
blocks that allow the blocks to flex. This added
flexibility increases traction by creating an
additional biting edge.
Grooves create voids for better water channeling
on wet road surfaces.
Blocks are the segments that make up the
majority of a tire's tread. Their primary function
is to provide traction.
Ribs are the straight-lined row of blocks that create a circumferential
contact "band.
Dimples are the indentations in the tread, normally towards the outer edge
of the tire. They improve cooling.
Shoulders provide continuous contact with the road while turning.
There are three basic types of tread pattern
Symmetrical: consistent across the tire's face. Both halves of the tread
face are the same design.
Asymmetrical: the tread pattern changes across the face of the tire. These
designs normally incorporates larger tread blocks on the outer portion for
increased stability during cornering. The smaller inner blocks and greater
use of grooves help to disperse water and heat
Unidirectional: designed to rotate in only one direction, They provide
shorter stopping distance.
The Void Ratio is the amount of open space in the tread. A low void ratio means a tire
has more rubber is in contact with the road. A high void ratio increases the ability to
drain water. Sports, dry-weather and high performance tires have a low void ratio for
grip and traction. Wet-weather and snow tires have high void ratios.

Tread depth and tread wear indicators

Motoring law in most countries determines that tires need a minimum

tread depth to be legal. This varies from country to country but is
normally around 1.6mm.
The tread wear indicator is moulded into the rubber at a depth of about
2mm normally
The Fifth Gear TV performed the test using Similar cars, under the same
conditions with the same driver condition. The only thing that changed
was the tires. The lead car had 3mm of tread left, the trailing car had
The cars were driven at 50mph at a distance of 3 car lengths apart - not
safe, but representative of the real-world When the lead driver performed
an emergency stop, the trailing driver reacted nearly instantly, but he
slammed into the lead vehicle still doing 35mph.
Weather wider tyres give better grip?

The narrower tyre has a longer, thinner contact patch. The fatter tyre
has a shorter, wider contact patch, but the area is the same on both.

The purpose of the rim is to provide a firm base on to which to fit the tire.
Four vital dimensions are involved. They are the wheel diameter, the rim
width, the flange height (designed to give adequate support to the tire
beads without changing the flex area of the side wall) and the rim-well (to
facilitate the easy mounting and demounting of the tire).
The rim is actually the name for the cylindrical part where the tire is
installed. A wheel is the name for the combination between the rim and disc
Classification of Car Wheels

Based on material
Steel wheels
Alloy wheel
Based on Shape of Rim
Drop Center Rim ( DC )
Wide Drop Center Rim ( WDC )
Wide Drop Center Rim with hump ( WDC )

Hump profiles
H, H2, FH, CH, EH and EH2
J, JJ, K, JK, B, P and D

Camber is the tilt of the top of a wheel inwards or
outwards (negative or positive). make sure that
the tyre tread surface is as flat as possible on the
road surface. If your camber is out, you'll get tyre
wear. Too much negative camber (wheels tilt
inwards) causes tread and tyre wear on the inside
edge of the tyre. Consequently, too much positive
camber causes wear on the outside edge.
This is the forward (negative) or backwards
(positive) tilt of the spindle steering axis. It is
what causes your steering to 'self-centre'. Correct Caster
caster is almost always positive.
Toe in & out
'Toe' is the term given to the left-right alignment of the front wheels relative
to each other. Toe-in is where the front edge of the wheels are closer
together than the rear, and toe-out is the opposite
As a front-wheel-drive car pulls itself forwards, the wheels will tend to pivot
around the king-pins, and thus towards the center of the car. To ensure they
end up straight ahead, they should sit with a slight toe-out when at rest.
A rear-wheel-drive car pushes itself forward, and the front wheels are
rotated by friction. thus they will tend to away from centre. To ensure that
they run parallel when rolling, they should be given some toe-in when at

Aquachannel tires
They have a central groove running
around the tread pattern. According to
Goodyear, their versions of these tires
can expel up to two gallons of water a
second from under the tire

They use two inner tubes inside each
tire, allowing for different pressures
inside the same tire. They also allow for
proper run-flat puncture capability.

Run-Flat Tires
As it's name implies, it's a tire designed
to run when flat
PAX system
Michelin developed this system in which
Rather than super-supportive sidewalls,
the PAX system relies on a wheel-rim
and tire combination to provide a
derivative run-flat capability. As well as
the usual air-filled tire, there is now a
reinforced polymer support ring inside.

Michelin Tweels
In 2005, Michelin unveiled their "Tweel"
concept - a word made up of the
combination of Tyre and Wheel. They're
working on a totally air-less tire.

Airless = puncture proof.

The Tweel is a combined single-piece tire and wheel combination, hence
the name, though it actually begins as an assembly of four pieces bonded
together: the hub, a polyurethane spoke section, a "shear band"
surrounding the spokes, and the tread band - the rubber layer that wraps
around the circumference and touches the road.

Tweel offers an opportunity to reduce the

number of parts, eliminating most of the 23
components of a typical new tire as well as
the costly air-pressure monitors now required
on all new vehicles in the United States.
Problem is that harsh vibration and an overly
noisy ride. Another problem is the wheels
transmit a lot more force and vibration into
the cabin than regular tires
Goodyear Eagle with ResponsEdge
In 2007, Goodyear added a new tire to
their Eagle range, called the Eagle
Responsedge. The tire has the same basic
construction as all modern tires but
Goodyear added a carbon-fiber insert to
the outer sidewall.
Ultimately the idea is improved cornering
speed and handling characteristics
Thank you all