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# TRANSMISSION LINES

PARAMETERS

BY

NAILA ZAREEN
Transmission Line Concept
Power
Plant

Consumer
Home

## Transmission Lines Class 6

Transmission Lines

## The purpose of transmission network is to transfer

electric energy from generating units at various
locations to the distribution system which ultimately
Electrical Properties

## All transmission lines in a power system exhibit the

electrical properties of
Resistance
Inductance
Capacitance
Conductance
Equivalent Circuit for an Incremental Length
of Transmission
Transmission Line Resistance

## Important in transmission efficiency evaluation and

economic studies.

Significant effect
Generation of I2R loss in transmission line.
Produces IR-type voltage drop which affect voltage
regulation
Transmission Line Resistance

• wire
Conductor resistance is affected by three factors:-
•Frequency (‘skin effect’)
• Spiraling
•Temperature
Skin Effect

##  When ac flows in a conductor, the current

distribution is not uniform over the conductor cross-
sectional area and the current density is greatest at
the surface of the conductor.

## This causes the ac resistance to be somewhat higher

than the dc resistance. The behavior is known as skin
effect
Skin Effect
Spiraling

##  For stranded conductors, alternate layers of strands

are spiraled in opposite directions to hold the
strands together.

## Spiraling makes the strands 1 – 2% longer than the

actual conductor length.

## DC resistance of a stranded conductor is 1 – 2%

larger than the calculated value.
Temperature

## The conductor resistance increases as temperature increases. This

change can be considered linear
over the range of temperature normally encountered.

Where
R1= conductor resistances at t1 in °C
R2= conductor resistances at t2 in °C
Structure and EM Fields in Co-ax

The inductance and capacitance are due to the effects of magnetic and electric field
around the conductor
Diagram of EM Fields Around Wire Pair
Presence of Electric and Magnetic Fields

H
I I +∆ I I I +∆ I
+ + + +

E
V V +∆ V V V +∆ V
H
I I +∆ I I I +∆ I
- - - -
INDUCTANCE :

the conductor.

## The magnetic flux can be determined by using the right hand

rule.
For nonmagnetic material, the inductance L is the ratio of its
total magnetic flux linkage to the current I given by
L=λ/I
Where