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TRANSMISSION LINES

PARAMETERS

BY

NAILA ZAREEN
Transmission Line Concept
Power
Plant

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Transmission Lines Class 6


Transmission Lines

The purpose of transmission network is to transfer


electric energy from generating units at various
locations to the distribution system which ultimately
supplies the load.
Electrical Properties

All transmission lines in a power system exhibit the


electrical properties of
Resistance
Inductance
Capacitance
Conductance
Equivalent Circuit for an Incremental Length
of Transmission
Transmission Line Resistance

Important in transmission efficiency evaluation and


economic studies.

Significant effect
Generation of I2R loss in transmission line.
Produces IR-type voltage drop which affect voltage
regulation
Transmission Line Resistance

• wire
Conductor resistance is affected by three factors:-
•Frequency (‘skin effect’)
• Spiraling
•Temperature
Skin Effect

 When ac flows in a conductor, the current


distribution is not uniform over the conductor cross-
sectional area and the current density is greatest at
the surface of the conductor.

This causes the ac resistance to be somewhat higher


than the dc resistance. The behavior is known as skin
effect
Skin Effect
Spiraling

 For stranded conductors, alternate layers of strands


are spiraled in opposite directions to hold the
strands together.

Spiraling makes the strands 1 – 2% longer than the


actual conductor length.

DC resistance of a stranded conductor is 1 – 2%


larger than the calculated value.
Temperature

The conductor resistance increases as temperature increases. This


change can be considered linear
over the range of temperature normally encountered.

Where
R1= conductor resistances at t1 in °C
R2= conductor resistances at t2 in °C
Structure and EM Fields in Co-ax

The inductance and capacitance are due to the effects of magnetic and electric field
around the conductor
Diagram of EM Fields Around Wire Pair
Presence of Electric and Magnetic Fields

H
I I +∆ I I I +∆ I
+ + + +

E
V V +∆ V V V +∆ V
H
I I +∆ I I I +∆ I
- - - -
INDUCTANCE :

 A current-carrying conductor produces a magnetic field around


the conductor.

The magnetic flux can be determined by using the right hand


rule.
For nonmagnetic material, the inductance L is the ratio of its
total magnetic flux linkage to the current I given by
L=λ/I
Where
λ=flux linkages, in Weber turns
Flux Linkage
Flux Linkage
Inductance due to Internal flux linkage
Inductance due to Internal flux linkage
Inductance due to External flux linkage
Inductance due to External flux linkage
Inductance of Single-Phase Lines
Inductance of Single-Phase Lines
Flux Linkage in Terms of Self and Mutual
Inductances
Inductance of Three-Phase Transmission Lines
Asymmetrical Spacing
Transpose Line
Transpose Line
Inductance of Composite Conductors