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WiFi

Wireless fidelity
IEEE 802.11
Syllabus
Architecture of
Wi-Fi
802.11 Wi-Fi Channel &
Variance Frequency
Wi-Fi Encryption
802.11 and Authorisizing
Specificatio
Wi-Fi n
overview Component
of Wi-Fi
Wifi
Alliance
Roadmap
IEEE 802.11
Wi-Fi Overview

wireless fidelity.
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) mendirikan 802.11 Group
pada 1990. Specifications for standard diresmika pada 1997.
adalah a teknologi nirkabel yang menggunakan radio frequency untuk transmit data
lewat udara air.
Nama WiFi
Wi-Fi doesn't stand for anything.

There is no meaning.

Wi-Fi and the ying yang style logo were invented by Interbrand.

We (the founding members of the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance,


now called the Wi-Fi Alliance) hired Interbrand to come up with the name
and logo that we could use for our interoperability seal and marketing
efforts. We needed something that was a little catchier.

Interbrand created "Prozac", "Compaq" "oneworld", "Imation" and many


other brand names that you have heard of. They even created the company
name "Vivato".

we chose the name Wi-Fi from a list of 10 names that Interbrand proposed.
Wi-Fi Overview IEEE

802.11

WiFi
Alliance

Wi-Fi
WiFi Alliance

Organisasi standarisasi non-profit.

organisasi yang menciptakan nama brand Wi-Fi.

Dibentuk pertama kali bernama

Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance.

Pada tahun 1999

IEEE membuat standard, lalu Wi-Fi Alliance mensertifikasi produk


Perusahaan Pendiri WiFi Alliance
3Com
Aironet (diakuisisi oleh Cisco)
Harris Semi Conductor
Lucent
Symbol Technologies
Nokia
Mengapa WiFi
Brandingproduk IEEE
802.11 oleh Wireless
Ethernet Compatibility
Alliance
WIFI CHALLENGES
Roaming

Security

Coverage
Visi Misi
Our Vision: Connecting everyone and everything, everywhere
Our Mission:
Foster highly-effective global collaboration among member companies

Deliver excellent connectivity experiences through interoperability

Embrace technology and drive innovation

Promote the adoption of our technologies worldwide

Advocate for fair worldwide spectrum rules

Lead, develop and embrace industry-agreed standards


IEEE 802.11 is a set of media access control (MAC)
and physical layer (PHY) specifications for
implementing wireless local area network (WLAN)
computer communication in the 900 MHz and 2.4, 3.6, 5,
and 60 GHz frequency bands. They are created and
maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE) LAN/MAN Standards Committee
(IEEE 802). The base version of the standard was
released in 1997, and has had subsequent amendments.
History
802.11 technology has its origins in a 1985 ruling by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission that
released the ISM band for unlicensed use.[3]

In 1991 NCR Corporation/AT&T (now Nokia Labs and LSI Corporation) invented a precursor to 802.11
in Nieuwegein, The Netherlands. The inventors initially intended to use the technology for cashier
systems. The first wireless products were brought to the market under the name WaveLAN with raw
data rates of 1 Mbit/s and 2 Mbit/s.

Vic Hayes, who held the chair of IEEE 802.11 for 10 years, and has been called the "father of Wi-Fi",
was involved in designing the initial 802.11b and 802.11a standards within the IEEE.[4]

In 1999, several visionary companies came together to form a global non-profit


association with the goal of driving the best user experience using a new wireless
networking technology, regardless of brand. This collaboration became known as the Wi-
Fi Alliance.
Wi-Fi CERTIFIED is an internationally-recognized seal of

they have met industry-agreed


approval for products indicating that
standards for interoperability, security, and a range of
application specific protocols.
A company must be a member of Wi-Fi Alliance to have its products tested for certification and use
the Wi-Fi CERTIFIED logo and associated trademarks.
WiFi vs Cellular
Cellular - Long Range - Nationwide
Cellular 3G/4G service is built into smartphones, which of course are cellphones,
but cellular is also an option for tablets and laptops, useful for long range services

Wi-Fi - Short Range - Local


Wi-Fi is standard equipment on most mobile devices, and a Wi-Fi hotspot for
Internet access is built into the wireless router commonly used at home or in a
small office When not at home, free Wi-Fi hotspots are available in public areas
such as coffee shops and lounges, as well as on the street in many neighborhoods.
However, airports and other venues may charge for access.

http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/57165/cellular-vs-wi-fi
WLAN vs WiFi?
802.11 and 802.11x refers to a family of specifications developed by
the IEEE for wireless LAN (WLAN) technology. 802.11 specifies an over-the-
air interface between a wireless client and a base station or between two
wireless clients.

WiFi adalah sebuah penamaan branding produk IEEE 802.11 oleh Wireless
Ethernet Compatibility Alliance
Legacy
Legacy adalah kondisi sebuah teknologi muncul, dan teknologi itu beum ada
sebelumnya

Legacy pada WiFi merujuk pada versi origin IEEE 802.11a WLAn yang dirilis
1997 dan di ratifikasi 1999
Roadmap IEEE 802.11
Ratified Frekuensi Def
802.11 1997 2.4 GHz First Standard
802.11a 1999 5 GHz Operating in the 5 GHz ISM band ; 54 Mbps.
802.11b 1999 2.4 GHz Operating in the 2.4 GHz ISM band ; 11 Mbps.
802.11c 1998 MAC bridging standard to incorporate bridging in
wireless bridges or access points
802.11d 2001 Defines the physical layer requirements: kanalisasi,
hopping patterns
802.11e 2005 Quality of service and prioritisation
802.11f 2006 Handover
802.11g 2003 2.4 GHz In 2.4 GHz ISM band with data rates up to 54 Mbps.
802.11n 2009 2.4 GHz 2.4 and 5 GHz ISM bands ; 600 Mbps
802.11ac 2013 5 GHz Operating < 6GHz ; 1 GBps
802.11ad 2012 60 GHz Very high throughput at frequencies up to 60GHz.
802.11af 2014 54 to 790 MHz Wi-Fi in TV spectrum
802.11ah 2016 900 MHz Spectrum < 1 GHz provide long range comm.
802 variance
802.11a
WiFi ADikenal dengan gelombang OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiplexing) Adalah perubahan yang pertama dan hadir setelah
2 tahun standar selesai

Amandemen ini mendefinisikan extensi band 5GHz yang membuat lebih


fleksibel

Dikarenakan ruang 2.4GHz ramai dengan telepon rumah nirkabel, monitor


bayi, microwave, dll
802.11b
Sebagai salah satu protocol yang banyak digunakan, WiFi B memiliki
jangkauan dan transfer rate yang ditingkatkan tetapi sangat pelan jika
dibanding stndar masa ini (maksimal 11 mbps).

802.11b menggunakan ekstensi band 2.4GHz

Protocol ini masih dapat digunakan karena 80% WiFi berjalan di 2.4GHz

Teknologi ini sudah tidak diproduksi lagi karena telah digantikan dengan
opsi yang lebih cepat
802.11g
WiFi G muncul di pasar tiga tahun setelah B dan menawarkan transfer rate
5 kali lebih cepat (54 mbps).

2.4Ghz dengan data rate yang lebih tinggi

Benefit: Kecepatan yang tinggi (pada masanya)


802.11n
WiFi N offered another drastic improvement in transfer rate speed300-
450 mbps, depending on the number of antennasand range. This was the
first main protocol that operated on both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz. These transfer
rates allow large amounts of data to be transmitted more quickly than ever
before.

WiFi N menawarkan peningkatan drastis dalam kecepatan transfer (300-


450 mbps) tergantung jumlah antenna dan jarak

Ini menjadi protocol utama yang dpaat beroperasi di kedua 2.4GHz dan
5GHz.

Benefit : Transfer rate ini dapat mentransmisikan data yang banyak dan
besar lebih cepat dari sebelumnya
802.11ac
In 2013, WiFi AC was introduced. AC was the first step in what is considered Gigabit
WiFi, meaning it offers speeds of nearly 1 gbps, which is equivalent to 800 mbps. Thats
roughly 20 times more powerful than 802.11n, making this an important (and widely used)
new protocol. AC runs on a 5 GHz band, which is importantbecause its less widely used,
youll have an advantage as far as high online speeds are concerned, though the higher
frequency and higher modulation rate mean the range is more limited

Pada tahun 2013, WiFi AC diperkenalkan

AC adalah langkah pertama dalam sesuatu yang dianggap Gigabit WiFi, maksudnya
adalah AC menawarkan kecepatan hampir 1 gbps yang ekuivalen ke 800 mbps.

20 kali lebih cepat dari N, membuat AC sebuah protokol baru yang penting dan banyak
digunakan

AC berjalan pada band 5 GHz! Sehingga tidak terlalu banyak digunakan dan akan
mendapat keuntungan kecepatan online yang tinggi

Meskipun frekuensi yang lebih tinggi dan tingkat modulasi yang lebih tinggi berarti range
lebih terbatas
802.11ah
802.11ah adalah WiFi dengan 900 MHz, yang sangat ideal untuk konsumsi
daya rendah dan transmisi data jarak jauh. Sehingga mendapat julukan
The Low Power WiFi

Benefits:

1. Dapat menembus tembok dan obstacle

2. Bagus untuk data yang pendek dan bursty

3. Downfall:

4. Tidak ada standar global untuk 900 MHz

5. AH belum tersedia
802.11af
802.11af utilizes unused television spectrum frequencies (i.e., white spaces) to transmit
information. Because of this, its earned the nickname White-Fi. Because these frequencies are
between 54 MHz and 790 MHz, AF can be used for low power, wide-area range, like AH.

Menggunakan frekuensi spektrum televisi yang tidak digunakan yaitu ruang putih (White Space)
untuk mentrasnmit informasi sehingga dijuluki White-Fi

Seperti AH, ia dapat digunakan untuk low power, area yang luas karena frekuensinya antara 54
MHz dan 790 MHz

Who will use it:

1. Organisasi yang perlu jaringan nirkabel jarak jauh.

2. Interferensi yang lebih rendah dapat meningkatkan performa dengan drastis

Benefit: dapat digunakan untuk perangkat yang range panjang hingga beberapa mil, dengan
kecepatan data yang tinggi.

Downfall:

1. Masih dalam tahap proposal dan belum di setujui atau belum rilis di pasar

2. White space channels belum tersedia dimanapun seperti di kota besar


802.11ad
802.11ad tidak bisa lebih jauh dari AH. Sementara AH adalah pilihan LPWAN masa
depan, AD sangat ideal untuk data rate yang sangat tinggi, komunikasi jarak yang sangat
pendek.

AD WiFisebelumnya dikenal dengan WiGig karena pendahulunya 802.11ac, memisahkan


diri dari 2,4 GHz dan 5 GHz band dan beroperasi pada band 60 GHz

Who will use it: organisasi tingkat perusahaan yang membutuhkan bandwidth
diperpanjang dengan perangkat jarang pendek

Benefits: Sangat baik untuk data rate yang tinggi, transfer file jarak pendek dan
komunikasi. Kembali pada tahun 2007 ketika 802.11n diperkenalkan, itu belum dianggap
sebagai protokol tercepat. Pada 8 Gbps, AD adalah 50 kali lebih cepat dari WiFi N.

Downfalls:

1. Pembuatan Chip sangat mahal

2. AD menyediakan range yang pendek

3. AD tidak diakui standar internasional


WIFI Architecture
WiFi Channel and Frequency
IEEE 802.11 standar Wi-Fi / WLAN mengatur atribut untuk saluran yang
berbeda yang dapat digunakan.

Atribut ini memungkinkan berbagai modul Wi-Fi untuk berbicara satu


sama lain dan secara efektif mengatur WLAN.

Untuk memastikan bahwa solusi WLAN beroperasi secara memuaskan,


parameter seperti frekuensi pusat sinyal RF, nomor saluran dan bandwidth
semua harus diatur ..
ISM BANDS (Industrial, Scientific
and Medical)
Wi-Fi ditujukan untuk penggunaan dalam spektrum yang tak berlisensi

Kekurangannya adalah bahwa spektrum ini juga dimiliki oleh banyak


pengguna lain dan sebagai hasilnya sistem harus tahan terhadap gangguan.

Sejumlah band spektrum tak berlisensi di berbagai daerah dari spektrum


radio. Seringkali ini disebut sebagai ISM band
UPCS Band
The DECT frequencies and DECT frequency bands are normally allocated to
DECT technology.

In the US the DECT frequency allocation is 1920-1930 MHz. This is known


as UPCS band

This DECT spectrum is unlicensed and technology exclusive, and this


ensure ensures almost interference free operation
UNII Band
The Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (UNII) band covers the
higher 5.15-5.35 GHz and 5.725-5.825 GHz range and is designed to allow
for higher data rates (up to 54Mbits/second). This communications
technology is commonly known as 802.11a, which is much faster and more
flexible than 802.11b, but is not compatible its less energetic brother. A lot of
companies use 802.11a systems for higher-bandwidth applications and for
increased security, since this system operates separate from the more
available 802.11b and 802.11g systems.
ISM bands membawa segala sesuatu dari oven microwave untuk komunikasi radio.

LOWER UPPER DEF


FREQUEN FREQUENCY
CY MHZ
MHZ

2400 2500 2,4 GHz


Digunakan oleh 802.11b, g, & n,
Dapat membawa maksimal tiga saluran yang tidak
tumpang tindih.

5725 5875 5 GHz


Bandwidth tambahan
berada di frekuensi yang lebih tinggi
Digunakan oleh 802.11a & n
Dapat membawa sampai 23 saluran yang tidak
tumpang tindih, tetapi memberikan jangkauan lebih
pendek dari 2,4 GHz.

http://www.radio-electronics.com/
2.4 GHz 802.11 channels
14 channel

Saluran WLAN / Wi-Fi memiliki space terpisah 5 MHz (dengan


pengecualian 12 MHz antara dua saluran terakhir).

2.4 GHz band, 1, 6 and 11 are the only non-overlapping channels. Selecting
one or more of these channels is an important part of setting up your
network correctly. Currently, many wireless routers automatically select the
channel for you upon initial setup, where depending on your wireless
environment, it could lead to slow WiFi speeds and interference.----
metageek.com

Lebar setiap saluran pada spektrum 2,4 GHz adalah 20 MHz .


Overlapping
Each channel on the 2.4 GHz spectrum is 20 MHz wide. The channel centers
are separated by 5 MHz, and the entire spectrum is only 100 MHz wide
total. This means that the 11 channels have to squeeze into the 100 MHz
available, and in the end, overlap.
2.4 GHz Wi-Fi channel frequencies
2.4 GHz WLAN / Wi-Fi Channel availability
Channel Europe North America Japan
Number (ETSI) (FCC)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14 802.11b
Kenapa channel 14 tidak dipakai?
Channel 14 operates at the highest end of the Wi-Fi frequency spectrum from
2.472 GHz onwards and is only compatible with equipment designed to work
with 802.11b routers, though they have largely been phased out.
It is still possible to access the fourteenth Wi-Fi channel, though it can only be
done by modifying the router that supplies the internet connection and changing
the setting the country to Japan. Even then its not always possible.
Mengapa di banned? Its not known whether the signal received from channel 14
affects microwaves or vice versa. We presume that the heavy restrictions on the
use of the range are the result of its use by the military and communications
satellites to transmit signals around the globe.
Using channel 14, or any of the other channels for that matter, could cause some
interference with moderate range surveillance equipment, air traffic control,
weather satellites and marine radar. The impact wont be devastating though as
the signal strength wouldnt be so large as to do any serious harm. In fact, the
majority of the S frequency band is just out of reach of laptops.

http://kernelmag.dailydot.com/features/report/8051/the-mystery-of-wifi-
3.6 GHz WiFi band
Band ini frekuensi hanya diperbolehkan untuk digunakan dalam Amerika Serikat di bawah
skema dikenal sebagai 802.11y
5 GHz WiFi channels & frequencies
As the 2.4 GHz band becomes more crowded, many users are opting to use
the 5 GHz ISM band.

provides more spectrum

Ada variasi regional tambahan untuk negara termasuk Australia, Brazil,


China, Israel, Korea, Singapura, Afrika Selatan, Turki, dll. Dan Jepang
memiliki akses ke beberapa saluran di bawah 5180 MHz.
DFS = Dynamic
Frequency
Selection

TPC = Transmit
Power Control

SRD = Short
Range Devices 25
mW max power
Additional bands and frequencies
In addition to the more established forms of Wi-Fi, new formats are being
developed that will use new frequencies and bands

will deliver gigabit transfer speeds are being developed and introduced
Wired Equivalency Protocol (WEP)
Basic encryption technology.
Uses an RC4 stream cipher.
Pseudo-random bytes.
Two versions: 64-bit and 128-bit versions.

Built into Wi-Fi certified equipment.


Implemented at the MAC level.

Protects radio signal between device and access point.


Does not protect data beyond the access point.

Uses static encryption keys.


Easy to crack.
Still better then nothing.
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
Designed to replace WEP.
Firmware update.
128-bit Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) encryption.
Uses a master key that is regularly changed.
User authentication.
Data Integrity.
Protects radio signal between device and access point.
Built into Wi-Fi certified equipment.
Implemented at the MAC level.
Available in two versions:
WPA2 Personal.
WPA2 Enterprise.
Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2)
Designed to replace WEP.
128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).

Based on the IEEE 802.11i standard.

Provides government level security.

Also available in two versions:


WPA2 Personal.
WPA2 Enterprise.
EAP
EAP - Extensible Authentication Protocol.

Addition to the Wi-Fi Protected Access.


Used in internal network.

Extra security for enterprise and government Wi-Fi LANs.

Several versions available.