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RESISTENCIA DE

MATERIALES II
SEMESTRE 2017 - II

Msc. Ing. Alejandro Vera Lzaro


DEFLECTIONS OF BEAMS
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DEFLECTION OF BEAMS

Deformation of a Beam Under Transverse


Loading Sample Problem 9.8

Equation of the Elastic Curve Moment-Area Theorems

Direct Determination of the Elastic Curve Application to Cantilever Beams and


From the Load Di... Beams With Symmetric ...

Statically Indeterminate Beams Bending Moment Diagrams by Parts

Sample Problem 9.1 Sample Problem 9.11

Sample Problem 9.3 Application of Moment-Area Theorems to


Beams With Unsymme...
Method of Superposition
Maximum Deflection
Sample Problem 9.7
Use of Moment-Area Theorems With
Application of Superposition to Statically Statically Indeterminate...
Indeterminate ...
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DEFORMATION OF A BEAM UNDER TRANSVERSE LOADING


Relationship between bending moment and
curvature for pure bending remains valid for
general transverse loadings.
1 M ( x)

EI

Cantilever beam subjected to concentrated


load at the free end,
1 Px

EI

Curvature varies linearly with x


1
At the free end A, 0, A
A

1 EI
At the support B, 0, B
B PL
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DEFORMATION OF A BEAM UNDER TRANSVERSE LOADING


Overhanging beam
Reactions at A and C
Bending moment diagram
Curvature is zero at points where the bending
moment is zero, i.e., at each end and at E.
1 M ( x)

EI
Beam is concave upwards where the bending
moment is positive and concave downwards
where it is negative.
Maximum curvature occurs where the moment
magnitude is a maximum.
An equation for the beam shape or elastic curve
is required to determine maximum deflection
and slope.
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EQUATION OF THE ELASTIC CURVE


From elementary calculus, simplified for beam
parameters,
d2y
1 dx 2 d2y

dy 2 3 2 dx 2
1
dx

Substituting and integrating,


1 d2y
EI EI M x
dx 2

x
dy
M x dx C1
dx
EI EI
0
x x
EI y dx M x dx C1x C2
0 0
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EQUATION OF THE ELASTIC CURVE


Constants are determined from boundary
conditions
x x
EI y dx M x dx C1x C2
0 0

Three cases for statically determinant beams,


Simply supported beam
y A 0, yB 0

Overhanging beam
y A 0, yB 0
Cantilever beam
y A 0, A 0

More complicated loadings require multiple


integrals and application of requirement for
continuity of displacement and slope.
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DIRECT DETERMINATION OF THE ELASTIC CURVE FROM THE LOAD
DISTRIBUTION

For a beam subjected to a distributed load,


dM d 2M dV
V x 2
w x
dx dx dx

Equation for beam displacement becomes


d 2M d4y
2
EI 4
w x
dx dx

Integrating four times yields


EI y x dx dx dx w x dx

16 C1x3 12 C2 x 2 C3 x C4

Constants are determined from boundary


conditions.
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STATICALLY INDETERMINATE BEAMS


Consider beam with fixed support at A and roller
support at B.
From free-body diagram, note that there are four
unknown reaction components.
Conditions for static equilibrium yield
Fx 0 Fy 0 M A 0

The beam is statically indeterminate.


Also have the beam deflection equation,
x x
EI y dx M x dx C1x C2
0 0
which introduces two unknowns but provides
three additional equations from the boundary
conditions:
At x 0, 0 y 0 At x L, y 0
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SAMPLE PROBLEM 9.1

SOLUTION:
Develop an expression for M(x)
and derive differential equation for
elastic curve.

W 14 68 I 723in 4 E 29 106 psi Integrate differential equation twice


P 50 kips L 15 ft a 4 ft
and apply boundary conditions to
obtain elastic curve.
For portion AB of the overhanging beam, Locate point of zero slope or point
(a) derive the equation for the elastic curve, of maximum deflection.
(b) determine the maximum deflection,
(c) evaluate ymax. Evaluate corresponding maximum
deflection.
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SAMPLE PROBLEM 9.1
SOLUTION:
Develop an expression for M(x) and derive
differential equation for elastic curve.

- Reactions:
Pa a
RA RB P1
L L

- From the free-body diagram for section AD,


a
M P x 0 x L
L

- The differential equation for the elastic


curve,
d2y a
EI 2
P x
dx L
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SAMPLE PROBLEM 9.1
Integrate differential equation twice and apply
boundary conditions to obtain elastic curve.
dy 1 a
EI P x 2 C1
dx 2 L
1 a
EI y P x3 C1x C2
6 L

2 at x 0, y 0 : C2 0
d y a
EI P x 1 a 1
dx 2 L at x L, y 0 : 0 P L3 C1L C1 PaL
6 L 6
Substituting,
dy PaL x
2
dy 1 a 1
EI P x 2 PaL 1 3
dx 2 L 6 dx 6 EI L
1 a 1
EI y P x3 PaLx
PaL2 x x
3
6 L 6
y
6 EI L L
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SAMPLE PROBLEM 9.1
Locate point of zero slope or point
of maximum deflection.
PaL xm
2
dy L
0 1 3 xm 0.577 L
dx 6 EI L 3

Evaluate corresponding maximum


PaL2 x x
3
y deflection.
6 EI L L
ymax
PaL2
6 EI

0.577 0.577 3
PaL2
ymax 0.0642
6 EI

50 kips 48 in 180 in 2
ymax 0.0642

6 29 106 psi 723 in 4
ymax 0.238in
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SAMPLE PROBLEM 9.3
SOLUTION:
Develop the differential equation for
the elastic curve (will be functionally
dependent on the reaction at A).

Integrate twice and apply boundary


For the uniform beam, determine the conditions to solve for reaction at A
reaction at A, derive the equation for and to obtain the elastic curve.
the elastic curve, and determine the
slope at A. (Note that the beam is Evaluate the slope at A.
statically indeterminate to the first
degree)
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SAMPLE PROBLEM 9.3
Consider moment acting at section D,
MD 0
1 w0 x 2 x
RA x M 0
2 L 3

w0 x3
M RA x
6L

The differential equation for the elastic


curve,
d2y w0 x3
EI 2 M RA x
dx 6L
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SAMPLE PROBLEM 9.3
Integrate twice
4
dy 1 2 w0 x
EI EI R A x C1
dx 2 24 L
5
1 3 w0 x
EI y R A x C1x C2
6 120 L

Apply boundary conditions:


2 3
d y w0 x
EI M R A x at x 0, y 0 : C2 0
dx 2 6L
3
1 2 w0 L
at x L, 0 : RA L C1 0
2 24
4
1 3 w0 L
at x L, y 0 : RA L C1L C2 0
6 120
Solve for reaction at A
1 1 1
RA L3 w0 L4 0 RA w0 L
3 30 10
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SAMPLE PROBLEM 9.3
Substitute for C1, C2, and RA in the
elastic curve equation,
5
1 1 3 w0 x 1
EI y w0 L x w0 L3 x
6 10 120 L 120

y
w0
120 EIL

x5 2 L2 x3 L4 x

Differentiate once to find the slope,


dy

w0
dx 120 EIL

5 x 4 6 L2 x 2 L4
w0 L3
at x = 0, A
120EI
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METHOD OF SUPERPOSITION

Principle of Superposition:
Deformations of beams subjected to Procedure is facilitated by tables of
combinations of loadings may be solutions for common types of
obtained as the linear combination of loadings and supports.
the deformations from the individual
loadings
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SAMPLE PROBLEM 9.7

For the beam and loading shown,


determine the slope and deflection at
point B.

SOLUTION:
Superpose the deformations due to Loading I and Loading II as shown.
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SAMPLE PROBLEM 9.7
Loading I

wL3 wL4
B I yB I
6 EI 8EI

Loading II
wL3 wL4
C II yC II
48EI 128EI

In beam segment CB, the bending moment is


zero and the elastic curve is a straight line.
wL3
B II C II
48EI

wL4 wL3 L 7 wL4


yB II
128 EI 48 EI 2 384 EI
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SAMPLE PROBLEM 9.7

Combine the two solutions,

wL3 wL3 7 wL3


B B I B II B
6 EI 48EI 48 EI

wL4 7 wL4 41wL4


yB yB I yB II yB
8EI 384 EI 384 EI
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2 APPLICATION OF SUPERPOSITION TO STATICALLY INDETERMINATE
BEAMS

Method of superposition may be Determine the beam deformation


applied to determine the reactions at without the redundant support.
the supports of statically indeterminate
beams. Treat the redundant reaction as an
unknown load which, together with
Designate one of the reactions as the other loads, must produce
redundant and eliminate or modify deformations compatible with the
the support. original supports.
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PROPERTIES OF A SYSTEM
DENSITY AND SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
STATE AND EQUILIBRIUM