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Mahasiswa belajar

Apa ????
Teaching & Learning
????

Donald, 1980 ; Aneh, kita mengharap


mahasiswa belajar, tapi tidak pernah atau
jarang mengajarkan mereka tentang
mengajar.
Clement dan Lochhead, 1980, ; Kita
seharusnya mengajarkan mahasiswa
bagaimana berpikir, sebaliknya, kita
mengajarkan mereka apa yang dipikirkan .
Konsep belajar mengajar

Apa yang anda yakini anda


lakukan pada saat anda
belajar
Teacher-centred Student-centred
Berorintasi ke isi Berorientasi ke siswa

Imparting Memfasilitasi
information belajar

Mempresentasikan isi Memfasilitasi pengertian


dan proses melalui pengiktan isi dan
proses
Where do we need to be?

Teacher-Centred Student-Centred
+ +
Content-Oriented Learning-Oriented
Understanding
how people learn
Implications for
teaching & learning
Millers Triangle

Millers triangle of clinical competence (Miller GE. The assessment of clinical skills/
Competence/performance. Acad Med 1990; 65: 563-7)
Looking at Student Learning

Two approaches to learning:


surface approach
- perhatian thp mengingat kata

deep approach
- perhatian thp pengertian ide dibelakan
kata
Looking at Student Learning
surface approach students rely on the
teacher to define learning tasks
deep approach students look for
meaning and react critically with what
they are learning
not all students develop thinking
skills;
rote learners probably do not
Students acquire
Knowledge

knowledge is not absorbed

knowledge is not about remembering


Students acquire
Knowledge

Pengetahuan di bangun oleh mahasiswa


dalam pengertian yang bertumbuh dan
berubah setiap saat
the way in which knowledge is stored
is related to the way it is encoded
when it is learned
Students acquire
Knowledge

new content can be meaningfully learned


only where the student can relate the
content to already-existing cognitive
structures in a meaningful way
understanding of content is an activity of
a constructivist nature which is carried
out by the student using cognitive
strategies
Konstruktif

Filosofi tentang mengetahui dan mengerti


Proses aktif untuk memahami
Aktif membangun dan mengatur pengetahuan sendiri
(Dolmanet al 2005 dan Savery dan dan Duffy, 1995)
Savery dan dan Duffy, 1995) Pembelajaran
konstruksi individu
Manusia tidak dapat berbagi pengertian tapi dapat
menguji tingkat pengertian yang dicpai individu di
lakukan pada kelompok kolaboratif

Blooms Taxonomy

Eval.

Synthesis

Analysis

Application

Comprehension

Knowledge
Pada tutorial
Menggunakan problem
Kualitas problem pentinf
Bukan kuantitas
Aktivasi prior-knowledge
prior-knowledge
pelajaran baru di konstruksi diatas
prior-knowledge melalui elaborasi
Elaborasi pengetahuan
Pada tutorial
Menggunakan problem
Kualitas problem pentinf
Bukan kuantitas
Aktivasi prior-knowledge
prior-knowledge
pelajaran baru di konstruksi diatas
prior-knowledge melalui elaborasi
Elaborasi pengetahuan
Students acquire
Knowledge

Schema Theory
Schema: the building block of cognition
new ideas are built on to the students
existing knowledge structure
relevant prior knowledge
the student constructs
Students acquire
Knowledge

Schema Theory
schema is a valid explanation for how
learners process and interpret
information
strongly situated schemata might make it
difficult for learners to develop
functional problem-solving skills that are
appropriate across knowledge domains
Students acquire
Knowledge

Thinking & Learning


thinking is essential to the acquisition of
knowledge
knowledge is essential to thinking
skillful thinking is the ability to apply
knowledge effectively
people possessing the same knowledge can
differ significantly in how skillfully they
apply what they know
Students acquire
Knowledge

Thinking & Learning


high level thinking skills can be improved
by training
teaching of thinking skills is
complementary to the teaching of
content
thinking ability and knowledge are the
warp and woof of intellectual competence
most people have the potential to develop
Looking at how
Students acquire Knowledge

experts differ from novices in that they


know more about their area of expertise
experts not only know more,
- they know they know more,
- they know better how to use what
they know,
- what they know is better organised
and more
readily accessible,
Looking at how
Students acquire Knowledge

Cognitive skills that are necessary, or


helpful, to the acquisition, use, and
control of knowledge, and other cognitive
skills, can be thought of as metacognitive
skills

(Nickerson et al, 1985)


Looking at how
Students acquire Knowledge

Metacognition

a persons knowledge concerning


his/her own mental processes and the
active monitoring and consequent
regulation and orchestration of these
processes

(Flavell (1978)
Looking at how
Students acquire Knowledge

ethical and intellectual


development
progression from simplistic
acceptance of facts through
confusion
about the nature of knowledge to a
recognition of need for a personal
philosophy of life