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Tips for Developing the

Literacy Skills of ELLs

Reading Focus
Teachers should focus on the attention of the reading process.
Bottom Up
This model shows reading as a process of decoding symbols into sounds.
Top Down
Students process the text in a way where they use their experiences to help them understand the
Interactive Reading
The role of the reader is vital in building meaning. The students use their schema and the bottom
up and top down reading processes to construct meaning.
Educators should model the different reading
strategies in class to the ELL students to help
them strengthen their skills in Literacy.
Intensive Reading
Reading for complete understanding of an entire text.
Extensive Reading
This is rapid reading for main ideas of a large amount
of text.
Requires the reader to look for the main or general idea
of a passage.
A quick overview of text, looking for details or
Group Activity Take Five Model

A strategy to incorporate the four reading skills in the class.

Get Ready (review previous work, develop vocab.)
Read (reading with a focus, identifying main idea)
Reread (use graphic organizers and KWL charts)
Respond (complete response journals)
React (conducted as a group/pairs peer led conferences)
All students read the same text but at different proficiency levels.
Reading Strategies

Using different strategies prior, during and after reading to enhance

comprehension of the context.
Prereading Strategy
Skim the text to grasp a general
Make predictions about the context
before reading.
Read the introduction and
During Reading Strategy
Students pause their reading and predict the next
sequence in story.
Draw pictures to show what they have
A good strategy for ELL students, especially if they
experience difficulty in expressing their ideas through
After Reading Strategy
Students will have the opportunity to retell what they
have read.
Students could make connections with the text they
read (Text to Text, Text to World and Text to Self).
Expressing their thoughts and opinions.