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835 vizualizări20 paginiStory of Trigonometry
By Akshat Jain

Aug 30, 2010

© © All Rights Reserved

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Story of Trigonometry
By Akshat Jain

© All Rights Reserved

0%(2)0% au considerat acest document util (2 voturi)

835 vizualizări20 paginiStory of Trigonometry
By Akshat Jain

© All Rights Reserved

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 20

Class: Xth – B

Roll No.: 41

Topic Page No.

Acknowledgment 3

What is Trigonometry??? 4

Examples 5

Classic Trigonometry 6

Trigonometric Ratios 7-13

Pythagorean Identities 14-15

History of Trigonometry 16-17

Applications of Trigonometry 18

Calculating Trigonometric 19

2

Functions

In the course of present work it has been our

privilege to receive help and assistance from

many quarters. I take great pleasure. In

acknowledging here, my debt to them. This

endeavor has been possible with the kind and

generous direction and encouragement given

by Mr. Adhikari . I would like to show our

gratitude to him. With the help of internet it

has become easier to me to collect data and

with the support of my parents I have been

able to make this project successfully.

3

It is an important branch of mathematics .

meaning measurement.

science which deals with relationships

between the sides and angles of triangles and

with trigonometric functions, which describe

those relationships, angles in general, and the

motion of waves.

4

For example, the triangle contains an angle

A, and the ratio of the side opposite to A

and the side opposite to the right angle

(the hypotenuse) is called the sine of A, or

sin A; the other trigonometry functions are

defined similarly.

5

Until about the 16th century, trigonometry was

chiefly concerned with computing the

numerical values of the missing parts of a

triangle (or any shape that can be dissected

into triangles) when the values of other parts

were given. For example, if the lengths of two

sides of a triangle and the measure of the

enclosed angle are known, the third side and

the two remaining angles can be calculated.

Such calculations distinguish trigonometry

from geometry, which mainly investigates

qualitative relations.

6

Some ratios of different sides of

triangle are called T-ratios or

trigonometric ratios.

E.g. Sin , Cos , Tan , Cosec , Sec , Cot.

7

Sine of an angle θ

• The ratio of perpendicular/hypotenuse is

called the Sine of an angle θ.

• In short we can write it as A

Sinθ=AB/AC

Ө

B C

8

Cosine of an angle θ

• The ratio of base/hypotenuse is called Cosine

of angle θ.

• In short we can write it as

A

Cos θ=BC/AC.

Ө

B C

9

Tangent of an angle θ

• The ratio of perpendicular/base is called

Tangent of angle θ.

• In short we can write it as

A

Tan θ=AB/BC.

Ө

B C

10

Cosecant of an angle θ

• The ratio of hypotenuse/perpendicular is

called the Cosecant of an angle θ.

• In short we can write it as

A

Cosec θ=AC/AB

Ө

B C

11

Secant of an angle θ

• The ratio of hypotenuse/base is called Secant

of angle θ.

• In short we can write it as A

Secθ=BC/AC.

Ө

B C

12

Cotangent of an angle θ

• The ratio of base/perpendicular is called

Cotangent of angle θ.

• In short we can write it as A

Cot θ=BC/AB.

Ө

B C

13

sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1

i. Cos2 θ =1- sin2 θ

ii. sin2 θ =1-Cos2 θ

tan2 θ + 1 = sec2 θ

i. tan2 θ = sec2 θ-1

ii. sec2 θ- tan2 θ =1

1 + cot2 θ = cosec2 θ

i. Cot2 θ = cosec2 θ -1

ii. Cosec2 θ - Cot2 θ =1

14

For certain special right triangles the values of the

functions may be calculated easily.

15

The first trigonometric table was apparently compiled by

Hipparchus, who is now consequently known as "the father of

trigonometry.”

Ancient Egyptian and Babylonian Mathematics lacked the

concept of an angle measure, but they studied the ratios of the

sides of similar triangles and discovered some properties of

these ratios. The ancient Greeks transformed trigonometry into

an ordered science.

Ancient Greek mathematicians such as Euclid and Archimedes

studied the properties of the chord of an angle and proved

theorems that are equivalent to modern trigonometric formulae,

although they presented them geometrically rather than

algebraically.

Claudius Ptolemy expanded upon Hipparchus ' Chords in a

Circle in his Almagest.

16

The modern sine function was first defined in the Surya

Siddhanta, and its properties were further documented by the

5th century Indian mathematician and astronomer Aryabhatta.

These Greek and Indian works were translated and expanded

by medieval Islamic mathematicians.

By the 10th century, Islamic mathematicians were using all six

trigonometric functions, had tabulated their values, and were

applying them to problems in spherical geometry .

At about the same time, Chinese mathematicians developed

trigonometry independently, although it was not a major field of

study for them.

Knowledge of trigonometric functions and methods reached

Europe via Latin translations of the works of Persian and Arabic

astronomers such as Al Battani and Nasir al-Din al-Tusi.

One of the earliest works on trigonometry by a European

mathematician is De Triangulis by the 15th century German

mathematician Regiomontanus. Trigonometry was still so little

known in 16th century Europe that Nicolaus Copernicus devoted

two chapters of De revolutionibus orbium celestial to explaining

its basic concepts.

17

There are an enormous number of uses of trigonometry and

trigonometric functions. For instance, the technique

of triangulation is used in astronomy to measure the distance to

nearby stars, in geography to measure distances between

landmarks, and in satellite navigation systems. The sine and

cosine functions are fundamental to the theory of periodic

functions such as those that describe sound and light waves.

Fields that use trigonometry or trigonometric functions

include astronomy and navigation , music theory,

acoustics, optics, analysis of financial

markets, electronics, probability theory,

statistics, chemistry, number theory, seismology,

meteorology, oceanography, many physical sciences ,

land surveying and geodesy, architecture,

phonetics, economics, electrical engineering, mechanical

engineering, civil engineering, computer

18 graphics, cartography, crystallography and game development.

Trigonometric functions were among the earliest uses

for mathematical tables. Such tables were incorporated into

mathematics textbooks and students were taught to look up

values and how to interpolate between the values listed to get

higher accuracy. Slide rules had special scales for trigonometric

functions.

Today scientific calculators have buttons for calculating the main

trigonometric functions (sin, cos, tan) and their inverses. Most

allow a choice of angle measurement methods: degrees, radians.

Most computer programming languages provide function libraries

that include the trigonometric functions. The floating point

unit hardware incorporated into the microprocessor chips used in

most personal computers have built-in instructions for calculating

trigonometric functions.

19

20

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