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Session 17-18 pt

1

Topics

1. LC Oscillations, Qualitatively

2. Damped Oscillations in an RLC Circuit

3. Alternating Current

4. Three Simple Circuits

5. The Series RLC Circuit

6. Power in Alternating Current Circuits

7. Transformers

2

1. LC Oscillations, Qualitatively

grow and decay exponentially.

On the contrary, in an LC circuit, the charge, current, and potential

difference vary sinusoidally with period T and angular frequency w.

inductors magnetic field are said to be electromagnetic

oscillations.

3

The energy stored in the electric field of the capacitor at any time is

The energy stored in the magnetic field of the inductor at any time is

As the circuit oscillates, energy shifts back and forth from one type

of stored energy to the other, but the total amount is conserved.

4

The time-varying potential difference (or voltage) VC that exists across

the capacitor C is

series with the capacitor and inductor and measure the time-

varying potential difference VR across it:

5

The Electrical Mechanical Analogy:

One can make an analogy between the oscillating LC system and an

oscillating blockspring system.

potential energy of the compressed or extended spring; the other is

kinetic energy of the moving block.

Q corresponds to x, 1/C corresponds to k

i corresponds to V, L corresponds to m

6

The Block-Spring Oscillator:

7

The LC Oscillator:

8

Angular Frequencies:

But

9

The electrical energy stored in the LC circuit at time t is,

Note that

The maximum values of UE and UB are both Q2/2C.

At any instant the sum of UE and UB is equal to Q2/2C, a constant.

When UE is maximum, UB is zero, and conversely.

10

Example, LC oscillator, potential charge, rate of current change

removed. At time t=0, 12 mH coil is connected in series with the

capacitor to form an LC oscillator.

What is the potential difference VL across the inductor as a

function of time?.

What is the maximum rate (di/dt)max at which the current i change

in the circuit?

11

2. Damped Oscillations in an RLC Circuit:

L C

oscillates back and forth through the resistance, electromagnetic

energy is dissipated as thermal energy, damping ( decreasing the

amplitude of) the oscillations.

12

Where

And

13

Example, Damped RLC Circuit:

and resistance R=1,5 and begins to oscillate at t=0s.

(a) At what time t will the amplitude of the charge oscillations

in the circuit be 50% of its initial value?

(b) How many oscillations are completed within this time?

14

3. Alternating Current The basic mechanism of an

alternating-current generator is a

conducting loop rotated in an

external magnetic field.

In practice, the alternating emf

induced in a coil of many turn of

wire is made accessible by means

of slip rings attached to the

rotating loop.

Each ring is connected to one end

of the loop wire and is electrically

connected to rest of the generator

circuit by a conducting brush

against which the ring slips as the

Fig.2. An alternating-current generator loop (and it) rotates

wd is called the driving angular frequency, and I is the amplitude of the

driven current.

15

4. Three Simple Circuits:

(1). A Resistive Load:

across an alternating-current

generator

- vR = 0 vR = m Sin dt = VR Sin dt

16

17

Example, Purely resistive load: potential difference and current

device operates at amplitude m= 36 V and frequency fd=60,0 Hz.

What is the potential difference vR(t) across the resistance as a

function of time t and hat is the amplitude VR of vR(t)?

18

(2). A Capacitive Load:

Fig. 6. A capacitor is

connected across an

alternating-current

generator XC is called the capacitive reactance of

a capacitor. The SI unit of XC is the

ohm, just as for resistance R.

19

20

Fig.7. (a) The current in the capacitor leads the voltage by 900 (/2 rad)

(b) A phasor diagram shows the same thing.

21

Example, Purely capacitive load: potential difference and current

emf device operates at amplitude m =36,0 V and frequency fd=60,0

Hz.

a). What are the potential difference vC(t) across the capacitance and

the amplitude VC of vC(t)?

b). What are the current iC(t) in the circuit as a function of time and

the amplitude IC of iC(t) ?

22

(3). An Inductive Load:

VL

iL

across an alternating

current generator

23

24

Rotation of phasors

at rate d

vL VL

iL IL

the voltage by 900(=/2 rad). (b) A

phasor diagram shows the same thing.

25

Example, Purely inductive load

sinusoidal alternating emf device

Operates at amplitude m =36 V and L VL

frequency fd = 60 Hz.

(a) What are the potential difference VL(t)? iL

(b) What are the current iL(t) in the circuit

as a function of time

and the amplitude I of iL(t)? Fig. 10. An inductor is

connected across an

alternating current

generator

26

Table 1. Phase and Amplitude Relations for Alternating currents and

Voltages

Circuit Resistance or Phase of Phase Constant Amplitude

Element Symbol Reactance Current (or angle) Relation

Resistor R R In phase with 00(=0 rad) VR=IR R

VR

Capacitor C XC= 1/(dC) Leads VC by -900(=-/2 rad) VC=IC XC

900 (=/2

rad)

Inductor L XL= dL Lags VL by +900(=+/2 rad) VL=IL XL

900 (=/2

rad)

27

5. The Series RLC Circuit

alternating current in the driven RLC

circuit at time t. The amplitude I, the

instantaneous value i, and the phase

(wdt -f) are shown.

(b) Phasors representing the voltages

across the inductor, resistor, and

capacitor, oriented with respect to the

current phasor in (a).

28

Fig.11.

(c) A phasor representing the

alternating emf that drives the current

of (a).

(d) The emf phasor is equal to the

vector sum of the three voltage

(c) phasors of (b).Here, voltage phasors VL

and VC have been added vectorially to

yield their net phasor (VL-VC).

(d)

29

30

31

Resonance:

quantity (wdL -1/wdC) in the denominator is zero.

matches the natural angular frequencythat is,

at resonance.

32

6. Power in Alternating Current Circuits:

The instantaneous rate at which energy is dissipated in the resistor:

average of this over time:

33

Where

34

Example, Driven RLC circuit:

contains a resistance R=200 , an inductance with inductive

reactance XL=80 , and a capacitance with capacitive reactance XC=

150 .

a)What are the power factor cos and phase constant of the

circuit?

b) What is the average rate Pavg at which energy is dissipated in the

resistance?

c) What new capacitance Cnew is needed to maximize Pavg if the

other parameters of the circuit are not changed?

35

7. Transformers

In electrical power distribution systems it is desirable for reasons

of safety and for efficient equipment design to deal with relatively

low voltages at both the generating end (the electrical power

plant) and the receiving end (the home or factory).

operate at, say, 10 kV.

the generating plant to the consumer, we want the lowest

practical current (hence the largest practical voltage) to minimize

I2R losses (often called ohmic losses) in the transmission line.

36

A device with which we can raise and

lower the ac voltage in a circuit,

keeping the product current voltage

essentially constant, is called the

transformer.

The ideal transformer consists of two

coils, with different numbers of turns,

wound around an iron core. Fig. 12. An ideal transformer (two

In use, the primary winding, of Np coils wound on an iron core) in a

basic transformer circuit. An ac

turns, is connected to an alternating-

generator produces current in the

current generator whose emf at any coil at the left (the primary). The

time t is given by =m Sint coil the right (the secondary) is

connected to the resistive load R

when switch S is closed.

37

The secondary winding, of Ns turns, is connected to load resistance R,

but its circuit is an open circuit as long as switch S is open.

The small sinusoidally changing primary current Imax produces a

sinusoidally changing magnetic flux B in the iron core.

Because B varies, it induces an emf ( dB/dt) in each turn of the

secondary. This emf per turn is the same in the primary and the

secondary. Across the primary, the voltage : Vp =Eturn Np.

Similarly, across the secondary the voltage is Vs =EturnNs.

38

If Ns >Np, the device is a step-up transformer because it steps the

primarys voltage Vp up to a higher voltage Vs.

Similarly, if Ns <Np, it is a step-down transformer.

that

Here Req is the value of the load resistance as seen by the generator.

39

Example, Transformer

A transformer on a utility pole operates at VP=8,5 kV on the primary

side and supplies electrical energy to a number of nearby house at

VS =120 V, both quantities being rms values. Assume an ideal step-

down transformer, a purely resistive load, and a power factor of

unity.

(a) What is the turns ratio NP/NS of the transformer?.

(b)The average rate of energy consumption (for dissipation ) in the

house served by the transformer is 78 kW. What are the rms

currents in the primary and secondary of the transformer?

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