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Prepared by Ar. Joseph Tan Meng Hooi October 2015


With a Building Contract, you have ;

1. THE EMPLOYER, who will provide the site and pay

for the construction of a Building for his use and

2. THE CONTRACTOR, who will build the Building for

the payment received.

Both the Employer and Contractor form the


The PAM Contract 2006, like all Building Contracts,

attempts to be fair to both Contractual Parties by
setting out their rights and obligations.

To ensure that the Contract is administered fairly

between both Contractual Parties, PAM Contract 2006
places the administration under a third party, namely
This paper is not ambitious enough to attempt injecting
the various management theories currently floating
around into the administration of the Building Contract.

The intent of this paper is much more basic and seeks

to just high-light the areas where the Archtect is
(compulsorily) required to step in under the Contract to
perform his appointed role as the Contract's Administrator.

Performance of this role, very simply put and in the writer's

opinion, forms the basis of CONTRACT MANAGEMENT.

For the purposes of simplicity, the Contract in the following

paper refers to the PAM Contract 2006 (With Quantities).

As per the title, this paper only seeks to look into the
Architect's role during the management and administration
of the PAM Contract 2006.

Nevertheless, it must be remembered that there are obvious

steps leading up to the entry of the Contractual Parties into
the Building Contract.
These steps incude (but are not restricted to) :

- the compilation of information from which a prospective

Contractor may formulate and submit an offer,

- selection of the Contractors whom you would like to submit an


- evaluation of the Contractors' offers,

- clarification of their offers,

- negotiations to ensure that the offers are the “best” available,

- advising the Employer on the selection of the Contractor and

- after selection, preparing to award the Contract.

Although not a requirement, PAM Contract 2006 pre-supposes a
competitive tender prior to arriving at the execution of the

If a Building Contract is to be managed competently, it is only

sensible that the steps leading up to contract such as the
compilation of tender documents, the tender process, tender
clarification, negotiation, evaluation and contract award be
also managed competently with full awareness of any
implications during the execution of the contract.

The importance of the all these steps during the pre-contract

preparation cannot be minimized and are deserving of a
separate paper.
Different Architects may categorize the areas of management
but for this writer, the following categories have been chosen :

A. The Management of INFORMATION.


C. The Management of QUALITY,

D. The Management of PAYMENT & CASH FLOW,

E. The Management of CHANGE,

F. The Management of COMPLETION,

G. The Management of CONTINGENCIES and

H. The Management of DISPUTES.

Architects generally, neither pay for nor construct the buildings they work
on. Apart from administering the Building Contract to ensure that works
A. The Management
get completed according to plan,oftheInformation.
most important task of an Architect
is in conceptualizing the building followed by producing and managing
the information required to construct the works.

The types of information to be managed may comprise (and are also not
restricted to) the following :

a. Information required to construct the works or to show how the works

are to be constructed., i.e.; Contract or Construction Documents, the
Works Programme, Architect's Instructions, etc.,...

b. Information as to whether the works have been constructed correctly.

c. Information as to the status of the works, i.e.; amount of work

completed, whether the works are on schedule, the amounts due to
the Contractor, etc.,....

This section shall attempt to look into some of the above.

A. TheDocuments.
Contract Management of Information Cont.
- The Contract does not just comprise the Articles of Agreement, where
the Contractural Parties indicate their acceptance but extend to a set of
Contract Documents which Clause 3.1 specifies as the following :

a. The Letter of Award.

b. The above-mentioned Articles of Agreement.

c. The Conditions of Contract.

d. The Contract Drawings (as prepared by the respective Consultants).

e. The Contract Bills.

f. Any other documents which are to be incorporated into the Contract

A. The Management of Information. Cont.
- It is the Architect's job to compile and check through all the above and
issue them out to the Contractual Parties for the execution of the

- In addition, the Architect is also required to supply two (2) further

copies of the Contract Drawings and two (2) further copies of the
Contract Bills to the Contractor, for them to plan and execute the

PAM Contract curiously, only requires the Architect to supply these

further copies after the execution of the Contract (Clause 3.3).

It is the writer's practice to instead, look into supplying the Contractor

with the above documents immediately after the issuance of the Letter
of Award to allow the Contractor to have as much time as possible to
plans for the works.
A. The Management of Information. Cont.
- The Contract Bills should reflect the work as described in the Contract
Drawings but should there be any errors in the Bills, either in terms of
description, quantity or by omission, it is the Architect who has to
correct such errors (Clause 12.2).
A. The Management of Information. Cont.
Setting Out and Levels.

- Amongst the items required to be issued by the Architect to the

Contractor is all the necessary information to set out and determine the
levels of the works (Clause 5.1).

Once issued, the Contractor has to follow the above levels and setting
out. Should there be any errors in constructing the works relative to the
above, the Architect is empowered to either instruct that the errors be
corrected or (subject to the Employer's consent), accepted subject to
any Deductions.
A. The Management of Information. Cont.
Custody of Tender Documents.

- As noted previously, tender documents are prepared to enable a

Contractor to submit a price but between the preparation of the tender
drawings and the subsequent execution of the Contract, there may be
changes to the design and specification.

The tender documents, once having these changes incorported, shall

form the basis of the Contract Documents., i.e.; Tender drawings may
not necessarily be the same as Contract Drawings.

Tender documents as such, form a valuable record of the steps

up to the Contract and it is the Architect's job to keep copies of both
The Tender and Contract Documents (Clause 3.2)..

A. The Requirements.
Statutory Management of Information. Cont.
- It has already been noted that the Contract Documents should have
been checked and it's also assumed that the building arising out of
these documents should be in full compliance with any statutory

Compliance relative to statutory requirements remains the Architect's


Nevertheless, should there be any discrepancies or non-compliance

relative to statutory requirements which the Contractor may discover,
he may give written notice to the Architect who is in turn, now obliged
to resolve such discrepancies (Clause 4.2).
Further Drawings and Details.

- AsThe
A. and when additional information
Management of may be required (either
Information. clarify
the existing design or to cater for any variation or changes), the
Architect is again obliged to issue two (2) copies of such information to
the Contractor (Clause 3.4).

It must also be remembered that the Contract allows for the Contractor
to apply for such information and once applied for (in writing), the
Architect is obliged to issue such information within a period which
“does not materially affect the progress of the works”, i.e.; the Architect
has to issue the information in a manner which does not cause any
delays to the Contractor.
A. The Management of Information. Cont.

- The preceding pages looked at principally, information originating from

The Architect (and Consultant Team).

Nevertheless, there is also information originating from the Contractor

which has to be managed, i.e.; shops drawings or as-built plans from
specialist sub-contractors (Clause 3.10).

Again, it is the Architect's job to ensure that the above is issued at the
appropriate time and once issued, that it is checked.
A. The Management of Information. Cont.
- Management of Information is not just the production and assessment
of information between the Architect (as Contract Administrator) and
contractual parties.

It is important to remember that the form and method of transmission of

information is prescribed in the PAM Contract 2006.

In its current form, all notices or communication are only recognised

if they are physical documents (hard copies), delivered either by hand,
post or fax (Clause 36). Transmission by e-mail or social media is not
B. The Management of Work Process &
- It isConditions.
the Contractor's job to plan and execute the construction and
delivery of the works BUT nevertheless, it is the Architect's job to check
and ensure that the above execution and delivery are inaccordance
with the Contract. .

- Documents like the Works Progamme (Clause 3.5) will normally detail
out the Contractor's Work Process.

It is the Contractor's job to prepare the Programme and although this

programme does not form part of the Contract, it is the Architect's job to
evaluate it to ensure that the process is feasible and meets the
Employer's requirements – one of which may be the co-ordination of
works by others whom may also be employed directly by the Employer.
- In addition to the scheduling of the works, the Architect is also
B. The Management
empowered to have a say in theof Work
staff Process
employed &
by the Contractor to
manage the works, such as the Site Agent (Clause 8.3).
Conditions Cont.
- It is also the Architect's job to ensure that the Contractor takes all
precautions and indemnifies the Employer against any damage or injury
to persons and property (Clause 18).

This usually means that the Architect has to check and ensure that the
correct insurance coverage (as required under Clause 19 and 20) are
appropriately taken out.

- Whilst site safety is mainly the Contractor's responsibility, it must

remembered that as the Principal Submitting Person through the
Street, Drainage & Building Act, the Architect cannnot escape from
shouldering part of this responsibility.

- Very often, the work process requires the appointment of specialist
B. The Management
sub-contractors of Work
(whose nomination Process
is allowed & 27).
for under Clause

It isConditions Cont.
the Architect's job to advise the Employer on the allowance of any
required Prime Cost (PC) Sums, the subsequent identification and
selection of these sub-contractors and their nomination in accordance
to the Contract.

- Although a Nominated Sub-Contractor (NSC) is under the direct control

of the Contractor, the Architect is required ;

a. to ensure that his administration of the Contract does not jeopardize

the sub-contract and

b. to fulfill his obligations to both the contractor and the Nominated

Sub-Contractor,such as the acceptance of a NSC's work and the
notification of any sums due from the Contractor to the NSC.

are built in accordance to the Contract, i.e.; the Employer gets what he
pays for.

C. The
- The Management
Contract of Quality.
facilitates the Architect in carrying out this task by :

a. giving him access to the works or workshops and factories where

parts of the works are being carried out (Clause 9.1),

b. by having Site Staff to inspect the works (Clause 10),

c. by empowering the Architect to ask for vouchers or any other

evidence to substantiate the quality of materials (Clause 6.2) and

d. empowering the Architect to ask for samples or the opening up of

any works (Clause 6.3).

- If the works or materials employed are NOT in compliance with the
Contract, the Architect is further empowered to issue instructions for the
C. The ofManagement
removal of Quality
any materials, demolition Cont.
of any works as well as the
rectification of such works (Clause 6.5).

The Architect is also empowered to accept works which are not in

compliance subject to the imposition of an appropriate set-off (Clause

If these progressive payments are jeopardized, a Contractor may not
ableThe Management
to finance of Cash
the remaining works, thus inFlow.
turn, jeopardizing the
remainder of the works.

- Under the PAM Contract 2006, the Contractor is required to submit his
progressive claims at set intervals for the Architect to evaluate.

- Upon evaluation, the Architect is required to certify the amounts due to

the Contractor by issuing an Interim Certificate.

- Upon receipt of such an Interim Certificate, the Employer is then

required to honour the Certificate by paying the Contractor within the
period of honouring certificates.

- As the issuance of Interim Certificates ultimately involves the subject of
D. Theit Management
money, is both a contentiousof
andCash issue – important
important Cont.enough
that it deserves a paper of its own.

For those who are intereted in finding out more on this subject, they
may refer to the writer's paper entitled “Architect's Certification under
PAM Contract 2006”.

Nevertheless as seen earlier when discussing the possible differences
between tender and contract drawings, change is veryoften inevitable
with differences also possibly occuring between the Tender, Contract
E.andThe Management
Construction drawings. of Change.

PAM Contract 2006 acknowledges the inevitabilty of these changes

which result in “alterations or modifications of the design, quality or
quantity of the Works” by empowering the Architect to issue instructions
ordering such “Variations (Clause 11.2)”.

The issuance of such instructions for Variations may only take place
during Construction, i.e.; before the issuance of the Certificate of
Practical Completion UNLESS such a variation is required by a
Statutory Authority or Service Provider (Clause 11.3).

has to assess the impact such variations may have on the
progress of the works, the rights of both the Contractual Parties
and advise them accordingly.
E. The Management of Change Cont.
- Should the instruction for a variation be issued, resulting in
alterations or modifications of the design, quality or quantity of the
Works, the Architect has to ensure that the Contractor is paid
(or the Employer is compensated) accordingly by valuing the work
arising from the variation.

- The valuation of such variations follow strict rules whch identify
whether the work is of a simlar character to that already described in
the Contract and if it is of a similar nature, whether the conditions under
work is undertaken is ofalso
similar to thatCont.
already described in
the Contract (Clause 11.6).

Where the work is not similar, the Contract allows for valuations at “fair
market rates”, the use of daywork rates or valuations based on actual
cost (Clause 11.6(c) & 11.6(d)).

- The process of completion and subsequent possession is defined
under the Contract as “Practical Completion”.

- Practical
F. Completion may occur
The Management ofinCompletion.
a single stage, i.e. ALL the Works
are completed and handed over in a single stage OR, it may occur in
multiple stages.

- The stages may not have been planned for prior to entering into the
Contract, i.e.; as with Partial Possession (Clause 16.0)

OR alternatively, the stages may have been planned for with

allowances being made in the Contract, i.e. as with Sectional
Completion (Clause 21.3).

- Partial Possession under the Contract, may only occur with the
Contractor's consent UNLESS :

F.a. The Management

the Works are delayed andof
the Completion
Architect has alreadyCont.
issued a
Certificate of Non-Completion and.

b. such partial possession by the Employer shall not disturb the

progress of the Contractor to complete the remaining works.

Upon receipt of this notice, the Architect has to evaluate this notice and
within 14 days, he has to either :
F. The Management of Completion Cont.
a. reject the notice by giving a written notice in reply to the Contractor,
specifying the grounds for such rejection OR

b. where there are minor defects which do not affect the Employer
enjoying full use of the Building, he may issue the Certificate of
Practical Completion upon receipt of the Contractor's written
undertaking to make good these minor defects OR

c. he may issue the Certificate of Practical Completion, if the Works are

complete and there are NO defects.

- The responsibility in determining whether the Works have reached
Practical Completion lies solely with the Architect.

The Management of Completion
the decision as to whether Cont.
the Works are practically
completed rests on the Architect's opinion, this has to be an opinion
which is arrived at based on the factual conditions on site and whether
the Employer may enjoy the full use of the Building according to its
intended use.

a. issuance of a Certificate for the release of the 1 half of the retention

F.b. The
adjustment of the retention sums,
Management of liquidated damaged
Completion and
Performance Bond where Practical Completion involves Partial
Possession or Sectional Completion,

c. commencement of the defects liability period for the discovery (and

making good of any latent defects) and

d. commencement of the period for settling the Final Account.

- Just as Practical Completion is based on the expression of the
Architect's opinion, the determination as to whether a building fault or
damage is a bona fide defect for which a Contractor is liable shall
F.also be based
The on the Architect's
Management of opinion
at objectively and be based on fact.
which in turn, should
Completion Cont. be arrived

made good and certified with a Certificate of Making Good Defects
followed by the issuance for a Certificate for the release of the
balance of the retention sums,
F. The Management of Completion Cont.
b. the Final Account has been settled (within the “Period to complete
the Final Account”) and FINALLY,

c. upon the issuance of the Final Certificate.

PAM Contract 2006 recognizes the inevitability of this and attempts to
provide a basis for planning for the unexpected and unintended.

F. TheofManagement
- Some the unexpected and of Contingencies.
unintended events provided for in the
Contract are the perils listed under Clause 20 which range from fire
and theft, through to natural disasters like earthquakes or tsunamis to
events such as riots or civil commotions.

As noted earlier, it is the Architect's job to ensure adequate insurance

for the Works for all the above eventualities.

- Whilst it is the Contractor's responsibility to make good or repair any

part of the Works which may have been damaged, it is the Architect's
job to ensure that any money received under an insurance claim, is
paid out to the Contractor at the appropriate time.

Hostilities (Clause 31), the sustaining of War Damage (Clause 32) or
the discovery of Antiquities (Clause 33) on the site.

- It The Management
is sincerely of Contingencies
hoped that all Architects Cont.
never have to manage
contingencies such as the outbreak of hostilities but should the
need ever arise, they need to be aware of the role they are
required to undertake.

- As a young, developing nation, the discovery of antiquities in a

Malaysian context is perhaps a rarity but the title of Clause 24;
“Antiquities” can be seen as a misnomer as it also covers the discovery
of fossils and “other objects of interest and value”.

The delays may arise from the Clause 20 perils, war damage of the
discovery of Antiquities as previously discussed or it may be a result
of acts of omission or commission by the Architect, Consultants,
The Management of Contingencies
Contractor, Nominated Cont.
Sub-contractor, Statutory Authority
or Service Provider.

Should the delay be due to a “relevant event” (as detailed under

Clause 23.8), a Contractor may be entitled to claim for an Extension
of Time.

Being entitled to an Extension of Time does not automatically mean

that such an extension will be granted. Under the Contract there are
specific procedures which have to be followed by firstly, the Contractor
and secondly, the Architect.

The submission of this notice followed by the subsequent submission
of details of the relevant event and delay and the assessment of such
The Management
have to also followof Contingencies
a specific time frame. Cont.
The rationale for all the above steps is to ensure that the Contractor
continuously monitors his own progress and that all delays are dealt
with as soon as reasonably possible.

Failure to follow the procedure and time frame may either cause a
Contractor to lose his rights to claim for an extension or lead a
to suffer from time being set at large.

Employer that any interference on their part in the assessment and
granting of an extension constitutes a breach of Contract.

F. TheanManagement
- Should ofwith
extension be granted Contingencies Cont.
the issuance of a Certiicate for
An Extension of Time, setting a new completion date, the Architect
should also ensure that all affected parties such as the Employer,
Consultants and Nominated Sub-Contractors are informed and that all
insurances or Performance Bonds are extended to cover the new
completion date.

An Architect should also ensure that the Contractor endeavours to

complete the Works as soon as possible. One way of checking on this
would be request for a revised Works Programme based on the new
Completion Date.

- Apart from being granted additional time to complete the Works, a
Contractor may have also suffered additional expense or losses arising
from the delay.
F. The Management of Contingencies Cont.
- The Contract allows for the Contractor to claim under certain
circumstances (as set out under Clause 24.3) for such losses or
additional expenses (Clause 24) but as with the process of claiming for
an extension of Time, there are set procedures and time frames to be
followed by the Claimant and the Architect as the Contract

- Should the Works remain uncompleted on the Completion Date and if
the Architect is of the opinion that it ought to have been completed,
i.e.;there are no grounds for the granting of an extension of time, the
The Management of Contingencies
is obliged to issue a Certificate Cont.
of Non-Completion.

This Certificate is of extreme importance as :

a. without its issuance, time may be set at large and

b. an Employer may only claim for Liquidated Damages upon its

issuance (Clause 22)

- Another set of possible contingencies which may occur is the
Insolvency of either the Contractor (Clause 25.3) or Employer (Clause
F. The Management of Contingencies Cont.
Strictly speaking, once either of the Contractual Parties are declared
insolvent, the Contract shall no longer be able to proceed and should
be terminated.

As the Contract Administrator, this termination process has to be

managed in accordance with the Conditions of Contract to ensure that
the rights of the Contractual Parties are maintained.

- Even without disputes, breaches of Contract may still occur and such
breaches of the Contract may result in suspension of the Works by a
Contractor or Determination of a Contractor's Employment by an
G. The Management
Employer OR Determination of Disputes.
by an Contractor of his own

The Grounds for such determination by either Contractual Party are

clearly spelt out (Clause 25.1 and Clause 26.1) and should either party
decide to exercise their rights, the Architect as Contract Administrator
has to ensure that these rights are exercised correctly.

Once exercised, the Contract Administrator has to ensure that the

determination procedures are adhered to in order to ensure that the
determination is equitable and that the accounts arising from the
contract and determination are finalized fairly.

such dispute by the appointment of an independent third party through
the process of :
G.a.The Management
Mediation (Clause 35) andof Disputes.

b. Adjudication and Arbitration (Clause 34).

- Although the above are dependant on a third party, the utilisation of any
of the above Alternative, Dispute Resolution Procedures (including the
appointment of either the mediator, adjudicator and arbitrator) has still
to be in accordance to the procedures set out in the Contract.

- Although the provisions for Adjudication and Arbitration are clearly spelt
out, it must be noted that the introduction of recent federal legislation
may affect the utilisation and validityof these provisions as specifically
G. TheforManagement
allowed under PAM Contract of2006.
Disputes Cont.
All Architects as such,are advised to keep abreast of any future
developments and pronouncements with respect to these dispute
resolution clauses.

seek to briefly high-light some of these areas.

The ultimate intention of this brief look though is to spur all Architects
to examine (or review) their role in managing the Contract with much
greater detail, rigour and precsion.

T H A N K Y O U.