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Data Processing, Analyzing

& Interpretation
Data Processing
Editing and Coding: Once the fieldwork completed,
the data must be converted into a format that will
answer the decision maker’s questions.
Editing process corrects problems such as
interviewers errors before the data are transferred to
a computer.
Before data can be tabulated, meaningful categories
and character symbols must be established for
groups of responses. The rules for interpreting,
categorizing and recording the data are called
Data Analyzing
Analyzing is the application of reasoning to
understand and interpret the data that have
been collected. Appropriate analyzing
techniques for data analysis always depend on
research objective and data characters of the
research design, the nature of the data.

Statistical analysis always helps to organize,

understand data and finally making decision
in accordance with research objective.
Data Interpretation
After relevant data have been collected, the next
logical step in the research process is the
interpretation of such data. Once again, let us go
over essential phases of the research process and
find out what phase or phases are covered by
Identification of the problem

Formulation of the hypothesis or hypotheses, in

which the researcher entertains or several tentative
The collection of data
Source of Data
The analysis or classification and tabulation of
data, in which the researcher applied the process of
The synthesis of data or the formulation of
generalizations or principles that may substantiate
the hypothesis or hypotheses.
Three Modes of Presenting Data
Before data could be interpreted, they must. Of
course, be presented first. The researcher have three
modes of presentations available to him, namely:
 Textural
 Tabular and

 Graphic

The textural mode embraces the discussion and

analysis of data.
The tabular mode is used to present, through
tables, the data of the study,
The graphic mode of presenting data, through
graphs, charts, and other services
Following topics are directly related to
the interpretation of data:

 Quantification and description of data

 Classification of data

 Sorting and tabulating data

 Tables and figures

 Statistics
Quantification & description of data
People and things may be described in
Qualitative terms
Quantitative terms
Qualitative measures may answer the
questions, “How much?”
Quantitative measures may answer the
questions, “How many?”
Statistical techniques used in
analyzing data

Descriptive statistics:

Three aspects:
Frequency distribution

Measure of central tendency

Measures of variability
Measures of central tendency
The Mean
The Median

The Mode and

Measures of Variability
 TheRange
The Standard Deviation

Correlation co-efficient
Inferential Statistics

Null Hypothesis Test


Statistical Significance