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Session 2010-2011

Guided by: Submitted by:

Dr. S.K Bhatnagar Shivam Lohiya
Professor of Electronics B.Tech ECO7108
and Head 8th Semester
R & D Centre for Engg. & Sc.
(Session 2010-2011)
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
Jaipur Engineering College, Kukas
Jaipur- 303101
 Energy is basically the capacity of a body to do work.

 The different forms of energy are: Mechanical energy,

Thermal (or) Heat energy, Chemical energy, Electrical energy
Nuclear energy, Electromagnetic energy, Gravitational energy.

 The S.I unit of energy is Joule.

 There are 2 types of energy sources: conventional energy

sources and non conventional energy sources.
 Conventional energy sources include fossil fuel energy and
nuclear energy.

 It is a non renewable source of energy.

 Non conventional energy sources include wind energy, tidal

energy, solar energy, bio energy & fuel cell energy.

 It is renewable source of energy.

 The energy that is produced from sun is known as solar
 The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that
takes place deep in the sun, where hydrogen nucleus fuse into
helium nucleus.
 When such a reaction takes place then tremendous amount of
energy is produced which is escaped into the space.
 About 15% of sun’s energy is absorbed by earth’s atmosphere,
some part is absorbed by earth’s surface and rest is reflected
back to space.
Fig.(a) Internal structure of sun
Use of solar energy for domestic purposes:-

Fig (1) solar cooker

Solar energy as a source of power generation:-

Photovoltaic Solar Power

Fig (2) working of PV Cell

Electricity generation using organic photo voltaic cells:-

Organic Photo voltaic cells

Bulk hetero junction photovoltaic cells

Single layer organic photovoltaic cell


Bi layer organic photovoltaic cells & its


Eg:- magnesium phthalocyanine

Eg:-copper phthal co cyanine as electron

donor and perylene tetra carboxylic
derivative as electron acceptor
Solar energy as a source for heat energy:

125L, 250L, 375L, 500L, 750L, 1000L

Collector Type:
Black-chrome Coated

Max. Temperature of hot water: 60°C

Life of system: 15 – 20 years


Fig (3): Solar water heater


 Pollution free.
 Available in plenty.


 High initial cost.

 It requires a large area for the system to be efficient in providing
a source of electricity.

Tata Power, a subsidiary of the famous Tata Group, is planning to set up India’s largest
solar PV power plant with a generation capacity of 50 MW. The company will set up this
plant in Mithapur, Gujarat.
 Winds are caused because of two factors.
 The absorption of solar energy on the earth’s surface and in
the atmosphere.

 The rotation of the earth about its axis and its motion around
the sun.

 Because of these factors, alternate heating and cooling cycles

occur, differences in pressure are obtained, and the air is
caused to move.
• Wind energy has potential to be used as a source of power.

• This can be judged from the fact that energy available in the
wind over the earth’s surface is estimated to be 1.6x107 K.W

• And the energy available is free and clean.

Electricity generation from wind energy:

Fig (a) internal structure of windmill

(1) free
(2) Inexhaustible
(3) No pollution

(1)Wind power is not consistent.
(2)High cost
 Bio gas is generated through a process of anaerobic
degradation of Bio Mass.
 Bio Mass is organic matter produced by plants, both terrestrial
(those grown on land) and aquatic (those grown in water) and
their derivatives.
 It includes forest crops and residues, crops grown especially
for their energy content on “energy farms” and animal manure.
 Unlike coal, oil and natural gas, which takes Millions of years
to form, bio mass can be considered as a renewable energy
 It can also be considered a form of solar energy as the latter is
used indirectly to grow these plants by photosynthesis.
 Hence,

solar energy –>Photosynthesis –> Bio Mass->energy generation

Use of bio gas energy for domestic purposes:-

Fig (a) fixed dome type bio gas plant

Advantages of bio energy:
• It burns without any smoke so it is eco friendly.
• It is a renewable source of energy.

Disadvantages of bio energy:

• Low production
• Not economical for large scale use.
 Tide is periodic rise and fall of the water level of the sea.

 This rise and fall of water level occurs due to the attraction of
sea water by the moon.

 When the water is above the mean sea level, it is called flood
tide and when the level is below the mean level, it is called
ebb tide.

 These tides can be used to produce electrical power which is

known as tidal power.
Tidal energy as a source of electricity generation:-

Fig (a) Fig (b)

 Recently A Canadian Tidal Energy Technology Company has signed an Agreement

with Alstom Hydro for production of electricity through tidal energy.
 It is pollution free.
 Renewable source of energy.
 It can meet high demand of electricity.

 The supply of power is not continuous as it depends upon the
timing of tides. Therefore some arrangements (double basin or
double basin with pump storage) must be made to supply the
continuous power.
 High installation cost.
 Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combines
hydrocarbon fuel with oxygen to produce electricity and heat.

 The fuel cell consist of cathode, anode and an electrolyte.

Nickel is used as a catalyst in fuel cells.

 The cathode side receives oxygen from the surrounding air

and hydrogen is formed by the reforming process.
Electricity generation from fuel Cell energy:
 Better than other conventional sources of energy as it is always available.
 Negligible amounts of pollutants, such as NOx and SOx are produced.

 Takes larger space.
 The hydrogen evaporates as the insulation is not that perfect.
At last I conclude that this study of NON CONVENTIONAL SOURCES
OF ENERGY is valuable as it will meet the energy needs in future, as
conventional sources of energy is going to exhaust in future and these
sources of energy are also harming the environment directly or indirectly.
 Bennett, G.L. Space Applications, CRC Handbook of Thermoelectric, ed.
M.M. Rowe, p 515-537, 1995.

 Wu, C. A Silent Cool, Science News Online, September, 1997.

 Ellis, S., Ryan, D. Application of Thermoelectricity to Waste Heat

Recovery, Final Year Project, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Caulfield Campus, Monash University, 1998.

 Carbo, 1.2003. Municipal Solid Waste Management Equipment in

Colombia Report, Document 5, v01.180, no.4082, pp 155-162.