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By: JADE ROSVIR T. GO, RN

By: JADE ROSVIR T. GO, RN

LEARNING OUTCOMES:

Define the terms Curriculum and Outcome- Based Education

Discuss the different elements of Outcome- Based Education Compare the different types of Assessment Differentiate the different learning resources.

What is Curriculum?

formal and informal content and process by which learners gain knowledge and

understanding, develop skills and alter attitudes, appreciations and values auspices of that school.” Ronald C. Doll (1996)

• Outcome-based education is a process on what is to be learned – the outcomes (Kudlas,

Outcome-based education is a process on what is to be learned the outcomes (Kudlas, 1994). It emphasize to set clears standards for observable, measurable outcomes.

The basic belief of OBE is shifting the focus of educational activity from teaching to learning; skills to thinking; content to process; and teacher instruction to student demonstration (Williams, Cited in Tavner, 2005).

Four basic principles suggested by Spady (1994).

CLARITY OF FOCUS - This means that everything teachers do must be clearly focused on what they want students to know,

understand and be able to do.

DESIGNING DOWN - It means that the curriculum design must start with a clear definition of the intended outcomes that

students are to achieve by the end of the program.

HIGH EXPECTATIONS - It means that teachers should establish high, challenging standards of performance in order to

encourage students to engage deeply in what they are learning.

EXPANDED OPPORTUNITIES - Teachers must strive to provide expanded opportunities for all students.

ELEMENTS OF THE CURRICULUM
ELEMENTS OF THE CURRICULUM
  • 1. AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

  • 2. CONTENT

  • 3. TEACHING AND LEARNING METHODS

  • 4. ASSESSMENT

  • 5. LEARNING RESOURCES

AIMS and LEARNING OUTCOMES
AIMS and LEARNING OUTCOMES

Aims

describe

what

the

teacher

is

trying

to

achieve

whereas goals usually describe what the course or organization is trying to achieve.

Learning outcomes/Objectives guide teachers/trainers on what is expected (results) of the learners on completion of the education/training programme.

Learning outcomes also guide students on what they are expected to be able to do in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward completing the program or its parts.

LEARNING OUTCOMES/OBJECTIVES

3 Big Domains of Objectives: (Bloom’s Taxonomy) »Cognitive »Affective »Psychomotor

Cognitive Domain

Cognitive Domain • Domain of thought process

Domain of thought process

Affective Domain

Affective Domain • Domain of valuing, attitude and appreciation.

Domain of valuing, attitude and

appreciation.

Psychomotor Domain

Psychomotor Domain • Domain of the use of psychomotor attributes

Domain of the use

of psychomotor attributes

The Objectives should be:

Written in the future tense Identify important learning requirements Be achievable and assessable Use language which students can understand

Relate to the explicit statements of achievements

 

LEARNING

TEACHING AND LEARNING

 

ASSESSMENT

OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES

ACTIVITIES

On

completion

of

the

   

session the student will be

able to:

 
   

Students to find relevant articles

Short

answer

  • 1. Describe the mechanism of

 

on the Internet relating to

questions

as

 

controlling blood

control of blood

pressure

as

 

pressure

preparatory work. Mini lecture on mechanism controlling blood pressure Q&A discussion

part

examination

of

  • 1. Take an accurate

Practical demonstration of the

 

blood pressure reading using a range of equipment

teacher followed by students practicing in pairs in the clinical skills lab with feedback from the

teacher

CONTENT
CONTENT

The content parts of the curriculum have to be studied in relation to other parts so that the curriculum forms a coherent learning

programme.

The content is usually derived from the objectives which form the basis of the programme development and can be simply defined as the

knowledges, skills, and attitudes and values to be

learned.

Criteria used in selection of subject matter for the curriculum:

SIGNIFICANCE: contribute to basic ideas to achieve overall aim of curriculum, develop learning skills.

VALIDITY: meaningful to the learner based on maturity, prior experience, educational and social value.

UTILITY: usefulness of the content either for the present or the future

LEARNABILITY: within the range of the experience of the learners

FEASIBILITY can be learned within the time allowed, resources available, expertise of the

teacher, nature of learner

TEACHING METHODS
TEACHING METHODS

Teaching method is planned according to

content. The term teaching method refers to the general principles, pedagogy and management

strategies used for classroom instruction.

Your choice of teaching method depends on what fits you your educational philosophy, classroom demographic, subject area(s) and school mission statement.

When adopting the OBL approach, we need to adjust the assessment tasks to ensure that all the learning outcomes have been addressed by the assessment tasks to some extent.

The teaching and learning methods or learning experiences should be derived from the content and learning outcomes in a meaningful way and the methods or the organization of experiences should facilitate the attainment of respective objectives in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domain.

Points to keep in mind are:

How relevant are the teaching and learning methods to the

content and learning outcomes?

How are students supported in independent learning and study (self-directed learning)?

What resources are required and available to ensure effective teaching and learning?

Does the teaching promote critical and logical thinking at the

level of the learner?

Are the teaching and learning methods appropriate for the selected assessment methods?

ASSESSEMENT
ASSESSEMENT

Assessment is therefore a key part of outcome- based education and used to determine whether or not a qualification has been achieved.

Assessment methods

performance.

that

measure

students’

Teaching and learning methods must support the assessment strategy.

Aspects need to be checked relating to assessments:

Are the assessment methods to which relate to the

assessment of knowledge, skills, and attitudes appropriate?

Do the teaching and learning methods support the

assessment strategy?

Are the assessment methods reliable and valid?

Are the students/learners being assessed sufficiently or are they being over-assessed?

TYPES OF ASSESSMENTS
TYPES OF ASSESSMENTS

Diagnostic Assessment Assesses a student’s strengths, weaknesses, knowledge, and skills prior to instruction.

Formative Assessment Assesses a student’s performance during instruction, and usually occurs regularly throughout the instruction process.

Summative

Assessment

Measures

a student’s

achievement at the end of instruction.

Norm-Referenced

Assessment

Compare’s

– student’s performance against a national or other

a

“norm” group.

Criterion-Referenced Assessment Measures a student’s performance against a goal, specific objective, or standard. A score that compares a

student's performance to specific standards.

Interim/Benchmark

evaluates student

performance at periodic intervals, frequently at the end of a grading period.

LEARNING RESOURCES
LEARNING RESOURCES

Learning resources are the teachers, support

staff, funding, books/journals, and teaching rooms.

Curriculum planners who are developing whole programmes need to think strategic level about

the resources required and how these can be

used effectively and efficiently.

Learning resources to deliver the curriculum:

Teachers,

Technical,

and

Administrative

Staff

there should be sufficient staff to deliver and support the delivery and assessment of the course.

Equipment

including

IT

and AV equipment,

- models, and stimulators, laboratory and clinical

equipment, whiteboards, flip charts.

Finances the course will require adequate funding to sustain its activities.

Books, journals, and multimedia resources - lists of

the core textbooks for each part of the course and other resources including reference texts should be

identified by teachers and purchased for use by

learners.

Teaching

rooms,

office

space,

social

and

study

space there should be adequate provision to

accommodate learners at all stages of the course

Requirements for provision and delivery of clinical teaching/placements in course for health professionals, these areas of the course usually comprise a large part if the curriculum.

Referrences

https://www.ied.edu.hk/flanobl/view.php?secid=784

http://www.k12academics.com/education-reform/outcome-

based-education/what-obe#.WVXH5ITyvIU

http://www.educationalpolicy.admin.cam.ac.uk/curricula-

and-assessment/learning-aims-and-outcomes

Referrences • https://www.ied.edu.hk/flanobl/view.php?secid=784 • http://www.k12academics.com/education-reform/outcome- based-education/what-obe#.WVXH5ITyvIU • http://www.educationalpolicy.admin.cam.ac.uk/curricula- and-assessment/learning-aims-and-outcomes