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PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

CHAPTER 3
CONTENTS

 Photovoltaic Effect & Electrical Characteristic


 Solar Cell Technologies
 PV System Components
 PV Applications
 PV Market
 PV System Design

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SOLAR POWER GENERATION
 Three ways of electricity generation using solar:

Photovoltaic Concentrated Solar Solar Chimney


When sunlight hits the wafers, Thermal Power Solar energy are trapped
a chemical reaction occurs, The Sun's rays are concentrated and converted to heat. The
resulting in the release of with mirrors to heat up a liquid difference in pressure at
electricity to create steam, which is then higher level creates a force
used to turn the turbine of the to run generator
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generator
PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT

 A typical photovoltaic cell consists


of semiconductor material (usually
silicon) having a p-n junction
 Sunlight striking the cell raises the
energy level of electrons and frees
them from their atomic shells.
 The electric field at the p-n
junction drives the electrons into
the n region while positive charges
are driven to the p region.

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PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV)
When light (photons) is absorbed by solar cell, electrons are excited
to higher energy level and electric field is form between p-n junction.
Under the reverse electric field created by p-n junction, these
energized electrons try to flow through the external circuit (external
conductor with low resistance) to the opposite polarity site to
recombine with holes (positive charges). If they successfully flow to
the opposite site, electricity generated. However, during their way to
the external circuit, they may encounter many hurdles or obstacles.
These obstacles are called recombination. Recombination causes the
electrons to combine with the holes in the material and vanished
before they reach the external circuit with lower resistance.
Recombination may due to the material itself (p-type or n-type),
impurity, crystal structure and charges close to the surface
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CELL, MODULE AND ARRAY

Photovoltaic Module (solar panel)

Photovoltaic Array PV System or PV Power Plant


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SOLAR CELL CIRCUIT MODEL

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ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF SI PV
CELLS AND MODULES
 When the resistance is infinite, the current in the circuit
is zero and the voltage across the cell is at its maximum,
known as open circuit voltage (Voc).
 When the resistance is zero, the cells is in effect “short-
circuited” and the current reaches its maximum, known
as short-circuit current (Isc).

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CURRENT-VOLTAGE (I-V)
CHARACTERISTICS

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CURRENT-VOLTAGE (I-V)
CHARACTERISTICS AND POWER CURVE

Maximum Power Point,

Pmp = Vmp x Imp


FF = ImpVmp/(IscVoc)
Estimation, Pmp = line,
Load FF x Isc x Voc
FF is usually 0.70~0.8
Slope = 1/R

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CURRENT-VOLTAGE (I-V) CHARACTERISTICS

 If we varies the load resistance between zero and


infinity, the current (I) and voltage (V) will be found to
vary as shown I-V curve.
 The power output is zero at Voc and at Isc.
 Between these points it rises and falls so there is one
point at which the cell delivers maximum power.
 This maximum power point on I-V curve.

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OPERATING POINT OF THE CIRCUIT
 The current and voltage in the solar cell circuit are
most easily found by using a load line construction.
 I-V characteristics of the load is a straight line with a
negative slope –1/R.
 This is called load line
 The load line cuts the solar cell characteristic at P.
 At P, the load and the solar cell have the same current I’ and
voltage V’.
 Point P satisfies both load line and I-V line and thus represents
the operating point of the circuit.

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POWER CURVE FOR A SOLAR CELL
 The power (P) produced by a solar cell is the product of the
voltage and the current for the particular operating
characteristics: P=IV
 P is zero when either I or V are zero.
 This occurs at Isc, (when V = 0) and Voc (when I = 0).
 If we plot power on the I-V axes we can see how power varies in
between the two extremes.
 Maximum power (Pmp) is produced when V = Vmp at which point
the current is Imp.
 This is known as the maximum power point (MPP).
 It is important to ensure that solar cells operate at or near the point of
maximum power.

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POWER
 The power delivered to the load is Pout= I’V’
 Which is the area of the rectangle bound by I- and V- axes

 Maximum power is delivered to the load when this


rectangular are is maximized when I’=Imp & V’=Vmp
 By either changing R or the intensity of illumination.

 Since the maximum possible current is Isc and the


maximum possible voltage is Voc, IscVoc represents the
desirable goal in power delivery for a given solar cell.

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FILL FACTOR
 To compare the maximum power output ImpVmp with
IscVoc, the fill factor FF, which is a figure of merit for the
solar cell, is defined as
FF = ImpVmp/(IscVoc)
 FF is a measure of the closeness of the solar cell I-V curve to
the rectangular shape.
 It is advantageous to have FF as close to unity as possible
 Typical FF values are in the range 70-85%

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DETERMINATION OF RS AND RSH

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EFFECT OF SERIES RESISTANCE

Influence of series resistance on the solar cell characteristic curve


Source K. Mertens textbook-pv.org
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EFFECT OF SHUNT RESISTANCE

Influence of shunt resistance on the solar cell


characteristic curve
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ENERGY LOSSES IN SOLAR CELL
• Reflection
• Shading
Optical
• Transmission
• Thermalizing

• Contacts
Losses • Semiconductor
Ohmic
• Metal-SC
interface
Electrical
• Impurity
• Crystal
Recombination
structure
• Surface
Temperature

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21

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SOLAR SPECTRUM AND BAND GAP
 The spectral distribution of sunlight varies considerably
according to weather conditions and the elevation of
the sun in the sky.
 For maximum efficiency of conversion of light into
electric power, it is clearly important that the band gap
energy of the material used for a PV cell is reasonably
well matched to the spectrum of the light incident upon
it.

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RECOMBINATION LOSSES
 Auger Recombination: Due to doping
 Traps Recombination: Due to impurity and defects
 Recombination at surfaces

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EXTERNAL FACTORS WHICH AFFECT THE
PERFORMANCE OF A SOLAR MODULE
• Glass reflection
• Shading
Optical • Air mass
• Soiling
• Tilting angle

Losses • Various Contacts


Ohmic
• Cable length

Electrical
• Cell and panels
Mismatch • Shading

Temperature • Inverter
Conversion
• Battery
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IRRADIANCE EFFECT
 As the irradiance varies
 There is an almost linear variation of the short circuit current.
 The open circuit voltage, however, does not change
dramatically, it increases slightly.
 The graph assumes that the cell temperature is constant ie.
unaffected by the differing irradiance.
 Because the voltage remains reasonably constant under
varying irradiance solar cells are well suited for use as
battery chargers

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IRRADIANCE EFFECT
 As the irradiance varies 
 26mV  G 
Vmp 2  Vmp 1   ln  2 
 Almost linear variation of Isc. 
 Vmp _ singlecell  GSTC 

 Voc changes slightly.
 G 
I sc2  I sc _ STC  2  For crystalline silicon
 GSTC 

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TEMPERATURE EFFECT
 The output voltage and the efficiency of a solar cell
increases with decreasing temperature
 Assuming same illumination level
Isc2 = Isc1[1 + a (T2 – T1)]
Voc2 = Voc1[1 + b (T2 – T1)]
Pmp2 = Pmp1[1 + g (T2 – T1)]

Source: A. Virtuani, D. Pavanello, G. Friesen, 2010, “Overview of


Temperature Coefficients of Different Thin Film Photovoltaic
Technologies”, 25th EUPVSEC

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TEMPERATURE EFFECT, CONT.
Temperature
dependency of
a Si solar cell
as an example
of Bosch Solar
Cell M-3BB:
The circles
indicate the
position of
MPP

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TEMPERATURE EFFECT, CONT.
Characteristic curve of the SW-165 module from Solarworld at
various module temperatures (Irradiance: 1000W/m2; AM 1.5)

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TEMPERATURE EFFECT, CONT.
 For example, a Si solar cell that has Voc1 = 0.63V at 25C
will have Voc2 at 60C given by
Voc2 = Voc1[1 – 0.003 (60 – 25)] = 0.564V
 As a rule of thumb, for crystalline silicon cell the output
power changes 0.45% for every 1C variation in
temperature.
 Heat dissipation is very important, that is, ventilation
 Voc2 = Voc1(T2/T1) + Eg/e(1– T2/T1) (seldom use)

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TEMPERATURE EFFECT FOR BIPV
 If PV cells (in modular form) are mounted flat on a roof it
becomes difficult for heat to be dissipated through convective
cooling.
 A stand off mounting frame could be used to provide adequate
ventilation around the modules but with BIPV many customers
and architects do want the solar modules to blend in with the
roof.
 Therefore some form of ventilation should be incorporated in
the design to minimize the adverse effect of higher temperature.

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STANDARD TEST CONDITIONS (STC)
 The power of a solar module is measured according to
the STC and defined by three limiting conditions:

Irradiation = 1000 W/m2

Solar cell temperature 25˚C

Light spectrum AM 1.5

 Rated power in Watt-peak (Wp)


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NOMINAL OPERATING CELL
TEMPERATURE (NOCT)
 NOCT is used to estimate the self-heating of a particular module.
 Irradiance, GNOCT = 800 W/m2
 Ambient temperature, TA_NOCT = 20 C
 Wind velocity = 1m/s
 Typically NOCTspecs is 20~ 25  C above ambient temperature.
 Tcell = TA + (NOCTspecs - TA_NOCT) x Gtilt/GNOCT

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NOMINAL OPERATING CELL
TEMPERATURE (NOCT)
 The temperature at which solar cells are rated is 25C. However,
under normal operating conditions the temperature is generally
higher than the ambient temperature and therefore higher than
the standard test cell temperature of 25C.
 Standard test conditions (STC) give the conditions under which all
cells can be compared but nominal operating cell temperature
(NOCT) gives a better indication of what output to expect from
the cell under normal operating conditions.
 Please note that cells can still operate at temperatures higher
than NOCT and typically can be 25°C above ambient
temperature, depending on cell technology, solar module design
and mounting techniques.
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PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFICIENCIES
 Cell efficiency, c-Si :18~20%
 Module efficiency, c-Si :15~17%
 System efficiency, c-Si :11~13%

Pmp
cell  Pmp
1000 (W/m )  Acell 2 mod 
1000 (W/m 2 )  Amod

Poutput(dc or ac) Eoutput(dc or ac)


 sys  P.R. 
G (W/m 2 )  Amod PSH (h )  Capacity

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SOLAR MODULES IN SERIES
 I = I1 = I2 = …… V = V1 + V2 + ..

Series connection of solar cells: The voltages of individual cells are added
together
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SOLAR MODULES IN PARALLEL
 IT = I1 + I2 + …
 V = V1 = V2 = ..

Parallel connection of solar cells: The voltage is the same in all cells while
the currents add up

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COMBINATION SERIES/PARALLEL
CIRCUITS
 An array of 2 parallel strings with
2 modules in series in each string
is shown.
 V = V 1 + V3
IT = I1 + I2

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EXAMPLE:
SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION
 Suppose that a particular family house in a sunny
geographic location over a year consumes a daily
average electrical power of 500W. If the annual average
solar intensity incident per day is about 5 kWhm–2, and
a photovoltaic device that converts solar energy to
electrical energy has a system efficiency of 12%, what is
the required device area?

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SOLUTION
 Since we know the average light intensity incident,
Total energy available for 1 day = Incident solar energy in 1 day per unit
area x Area x Efficiency,
Which must equal to the average energy consumed per house in 1
day. Thus,
Enery per house
Area 
Incident solar energy per unit area  Efficiency
0.5kW  24hr.day 1

 
5kW  hr  m  2 day 1  0.12
 20m 2

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SOLAR CELL TECHNOLOGIES

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SOLAR CELL TECHNOLOGIES
Solar Cell types

Crystalline Si Thin Film Nanostructured


/ Emerging Tech.
Mono-C Si Multi-C Si Amorphous (α-Si)
DSSC
Standard p- Standard p- Amorphous/micro-
type (Cz) type Si Stacked (m-Si) OPV
N-type Back- Quantum Dot
contract
Back-contact (MWT, EWT) CIS CIGS, CZTS, CSS Perovskite

EFG, Ribbon CdTe


Compound
III-V CPV Semiconductor
HIT
CRYSTALLINE SILICON

Mono Crystalline
Si Ingot
Mono Si Mono C-Si Solar Cell Mono C-Si PV Module
Wafer

Poly Si
Feedstock
Multi C-Si PV
Multi Crystalline Si Ingot Multi Si Wafer Multi C-Si Solar Cell Module

Solar Power Plant

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STRUCTURE OF C-SI SOLAR CELL

Front Metallization
Back Metallization
SiNx AR coat
Low R emitter layer
High R emitter layer
Si substrate
Al silicate back field

Source: pv magazine
C-SI SOLAR CELL APPEARANCE
 Mono C-Si cell has two dimensions: 125mm x 125mm 和 156mm x 156mm,
present typical efficiency of 18~22%

 Multi C-Si cell mostly are 156mm x 156mm, present typical efficiency of
16~18%

156 Mono 156 Quasi Mono 156 Multi


STRUCTURE OF C-SI PV MODULE

Al frame

Low iron glass

EVA encapsulate

Solar cell strings

EVA encapsulate

TPT back sheet

Junction box

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GLASS TO GLASS STRUCTURE

50
THIN FILM PV TECHNOLOGIES
 Thin film technologies:
 Amorphous Si (a-Si:H) Si based
 Copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2/CIS)
 Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) compound
semiconduc
 Cadmium telluride (CdTe) tors from II-
 Copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) IV junction

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THIN FILM PV:
AMORPHOUS SI CELL STRUCTURE
 Transparent conducting oxide (TCO)

Structure of the thin


film cell: the overall
thickness of the
deposed material is
less than 2mm

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THIN FILM PV:
AMORPHOUS SI
 Good temperature co-efficient
 Less performance drop in low
irradiation
 Less efficient than mono- & poly-
crystalline Si.
 The maximum efficiency in the
laboratory is about 12%.
 It degrades within a few months from
an initial 6-10%, stabilizing at around 4-
8%.
 a-Si allows deposition on flexible
substrate but with lower conversion
efficiency

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THIN FILM PV:
CIGS/CIS/CIGSS/CZTS
 Copper indium gallium Source: http://www.360doc.com/
diselenide, Cu(In,Ga)Se2
 Indium is scarce, Cd is toxic,
therefore some
manufacturers replaces with
CZTS or CIS, CIGSS;
 Able to be coated on flexible
sheet (such as plastic and
Process
stainless steel) with lower flow
efficiency.
 Lower temperature co-
efficient than c-Si, -0.31% /oC;
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THIN FILM PV:
CIGS/CIS/CIGSS/CZTS
 Better low irradiance and under shadowing performance
 Have attained ~22.6% efficiency by ZSW in 2016 and 22.0% by Solar
Frontiers,
 CIGS/CIS modules with stable module efficiency of ~13.8% are
produced by Solar Frontiers Source: http://www.tf.uni-kiel.de/
http://www.plasticstoday.com/articles/

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THIN FILM PV:
CDTE
 CdTe (Cadmium Telluride)
 In 2016, First Solar achieve
world record efficiency of
22.1%.
 Stable production module
efficiency at 17.0%, record
efficiency of 18.6%;
 Recycling services available
Process
through First Solar’s flow Source: http://www.360doc.com/
industry-leading

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THIN FILM PV:
CDTE
 Cd is highly toxic
substance, and Telluride
is scarce, so stringent
pre-cautions need to be
taken during their
manufacture, use and
disposal.
 Lower temperature
coefficient than c-Si, -
0.28% /oC;
Source: www.pv-tech.org

First solar has once become the world number one in production
capacity and power installation capacity

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III-V JUNCTION PV:
GALLIUM ARSENIDE (GAAS)
 GaAs (compound semiconductor)
 has a high light absorption coefficient, so only a thin layer is required.
 more efficient than mono-crystalline Si cells
 can operate at relatively high temperatures without the
appreciable reduction in efficiency
 GaAs are substantially more expensive than Si cells.

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MULTI-JUNCTION PV CELLS:
TRIPLE JUNCTION GAAS
Structure of a monolithic
GaInP/GaAs/Ge stacked cell of
Spectrolab Company (left) and a
mechanically stacked triple cell (down)

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CONCENTRATED PV SYSTEM
 Another way of getting more energy out of a given number of PV
cells is to use mirrors or lenses to concentrate the incoming
solar radiation onto the cells – Concentrated PV (CPV)
 This has the advantage that substantially fewer cells are required
to an extent depending on the concentration ratio
 Vary from two to several hundred or thousand times
 Due to high cost and high efficiency of III-V multi-junction solar
cells, they are more suitable to be used as CPV system

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CONCENTRATED PV SYSTEM
 High efficiency at high concentration of sun, 50~1000x

 Low Concentration PV (LCPV) : 2~50x


 Silicon based CPV system achieved 28% by SunPower
Co., not continue in production
 III-V triple junction achieve 46% by Soitec and 44% by
Sharp in 2014, 43.5% by Solar Junction in 2013.
 GaInP/GaAs/Ge , GaInP/GaInAs/Ge ,
GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs/Ge , InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs ….

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CONCENTRATED PV SYSTEM
 In concentrating PV systems, the cells usually need to
be cooled, either passively or actively, to prevent
overheating
 Systems with the highest concentration ratios use
complex sensors, motors & controls
 to allow them to track the sun on two axes: azimuth and
elevation.
 ensuring the cells always receive the maximum amount of
solar radiation
 System with low concentration ratios often track the
sun on one-axis
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SINGLE CELL TYPE CPV MODULE AND
RECEIVER
Bypass
diode AIN

CPV

Conductor
Direct-bonded
Copper, DBC

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64

SINGLE CELL TYPE CPV SYSTEM –


FRESNEL LENS

Source: http://www.sonnenseite.com/

Source: http://cpvrs.com/

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65

DENSE ARRAY CPV SYSTEM


Source: Solar Systems Pty Ltd.
Parabolic Dish + CPV
dense array module

Source: Spectrolab
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UTAR - CPVT

Source: UTAR

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LOW CONCENTRATION PV
Source: Anuhui YingTian Renewable Energy Co., Ltd.

1.5kW
LCPV
System

1MW
LCPV
Power
Plant

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EMERGING PV:
ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAIC (OPV)
 OPV is a type of polymer solar cell that uses organic electronics
for light absorption and charge transport to produce electricity
from sunlight by the photovoltaic effect
www.nanochemistry.it energyvulture.com
kawngroup.com

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EMERGING PV:
DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL (DSSC)
 It is based on a semiconductor formed between a photo-
sensitized anode and an electrolyte, a photo-electro-
chemical system

 Simple to make using


conventional roll-
printing techniques
 It is semi-flexible and
semi-transparent, which
offers a variety of uses
not applicable to glass-
based systems
 Low-cost materials
Source: www.solarnenergy.com
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BEST RESEARCH-CELL EFFICIENCIES

70
PV SYSTEM COMPONENTS

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PV SYSTEM 72

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PV SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND
FUNCTIONS
PV Array
• To convert sunlight to electricity

Inverter
• To convert DC power from solar PV panels to AC power

Foundations and Mounting Rack


• To support PV panels

PV Cable
• To transmit generated electricity to a specific location

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PV SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND
FUNCTIONS
Combiner Box / Array Junction Box
• to parallel connecting a few strings before connecting to inverter

Battery storage
• to store extra energy for off-grid generation use or to smooth the
power generation profile.

Step-up station
• to step-up the AC voltage after inversion to the level of the grid
voltage

Data logging and monitoring


• to monitor the performance of the PV system and to store data for
future analysis or display purpose
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SYSTEM INTEGRATION:
GRID CONNECTION
oC sensor Solar Array HV Grid
G meter

Combiner Box

Step-up
DC Switchgear Inverter Station

Data Monitoring

Computer Internet Remote Computer

Source: http://en.zkenergy.com/product/solugds/323.html
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SYSTEM INTEGRATION – OFF GRID

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PV MODULES
 No. of cells: 60 cells, 72 cells
 Power: 250 ~270 W330 ~ 360 W
 Size: 0.95m x 1.65m, 0.95m x 2m
 Solar cells tech.:
 Mono c-Si
o Standard
o PERC
o Back contact
o HIT
o Bifacial
 Multi c-Si
 CdTe
 CIS, CIGS
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PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE

TSM-PC05A / TSM-PA05A The Honey Module

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PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE
PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE
TASKS OF THE INVERTER
 Converting DC into a possibly sinusoidal-form AC
 Achieving high efficiency in partial and peak loads
 MPPT tracking;
 Feeding the current synchronously with the grid frequency
 Monitoring the grid
 Anti-islanding protection;
 Low voltage ride through, zero voltage ride through, high voltage ride
through capabilities
 Data logging and external communications
 Measures for personnel protection

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INVERTER STRUCTURES

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MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING

Principle of MPPT: The output power is maximized by measuring the


current and voltage with simultaneously variation of the duty factor

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MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING

Source: Konrad Mertens


2014, “Photovoltaics:
Fundamentals, Algorithm of Perturb and Observe
Technology and Practice”

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DC/AC CONVERSION

The DC is chopped into pulses of varying widths using PWM technique and
then filtered by means of low pass filters so that a 50 Hz sinusoidal voltage
is achieved
Source: Konrad Mertens 2014, “Photovoltaics: Fundamentals, Technology and Practice”

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TYPES OF SOLAR INVERTER
 Central inverter
 String inverter
 Micro-inverter
 Bi-directional inverter

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CONNECTION TO GRID

Source: Konrad Mertens


2014, “Photovoltaics:
Fundamentals,
Technology and Practice”

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SOLAR CHARGE CONTROLLER /
BATTERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (BMS)
 A key component directs
the output of the PV array
to the load and to battery
recharging when electricity
is being generated
 When the array is not
generating, it extracts
electrical energy from the
battery for the load
 It also provides the
capability to direct battery
power to an inverter for
AC loads.

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COMBINER BOX AND COMPONENTS

Source: http://solarcombinerbox.sell.curiousexpeditions.org/

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COMBINER BOX AND COMPONENTS

Isolator switch Surge protection devices Fuses

Blocking diode
DC Circuit Breaker
MCB
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DC SWITCHGEAR/ SWITCH CABINET

Current AC220V 50HZ


Monitoring
Module RS485
Circuit
Breaker
… Diodes

K1 D1

DC Output, +
DC
Volt
K2 D2 mete
Connected to
r V Inverter

DC Output, -

K2 D2 Surge
5 5 Protec
tion
Device
PC

DC Switchgear
Source: http://www.smart-energy.ag/
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CABLES AND CONNECTORS

http://www.mc-pv-portal.com/

Source: Wikipedia
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AC SWITCHGEAR

CB
AC
Output
CB CB
1
AC Grid AC
Output
2
AC 415/240, 50 Hz CB
AC
Meter Output
SPD 3

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MONITORING AND DATA
COMMUNICATIONS

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VARIOUS TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS

https://www.nuanceenergy.com/solar-blog/structural-overview-of-earth-anchors-for-pv-ground-mounted-arrays

http://www.ino-
via.com/index.php/en/
ground-mounting-
system

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MOUNTING RACK
Chiko’s rack

Schletter’s Uno

Unirac Schletter’s Duo


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BAPV STRUCTURE (RETROFITTED)

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BUILDING INTEGRATED PV (BIPV)
Source: pv-
magazine

Source:
Anhui
Tianzhu
Green
Technology
DR. LIM BOON HAN 1/30/2018 98
Co. Ltd.