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Uri Mahlab 1
Communication system

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Block diagram of an Binary/M-ary signaling

Channel noise

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Block diagram Description


For Tb

For Tb

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Block diagram Description (Continue - 1)


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Block diagram Description (Continue - 2)



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Block diagram Description (Continue - 3)


Tb Timing


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Block diagram Description (Continue - 4)
X(t ( HT(f) HR(f)
Information Pulse Trans
source generator filter
+ Receiver
Channel noise n(t)

Tb 2Tb 5Tb 6Tb

3Tb 4Tb t

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Block diagram Description (Continue - 5)

Tb 2Tb 5Tb 6Tb

3Tb 4Tb t

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Block diagram of an Binary/M-ary signaling

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Block diagram Description

Tb 2Tb 5Tb 6Tb

3Tb 4Tb t

1 0 0 0 1 0
1 0 0 1 1 0
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Typical waveforms in a binary PAM system

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Block diagram of an Binary/M-ary signaling

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Explanation of Pr(t)

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The element of a baseband binary PAM system

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The input to the A/D converter is

For and is the total time delay in the

system, we get.

Y t m 
t2 t3
t1 tm t
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The output of the A/D converter at the sampling time

tm =mTb+td

Tb 2Tb 5Tb 6Tb

Y t m  3Tb 4Tb t
t2 t3
t1 tm t
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ISI - Inter Symbol

Y t m 

t2 t3
t1 tm t
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Explanation of ISI


f f

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Explanation of ISI - Continue

f f

Tb 2Tb 5Tb 6Tb

3Tb 4Tb t

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-The pulse generator output is a pulse waveform

If kth input bit is 1

if kth input bit is 0

-The A/D converter input Y(t)

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- minimize the combined effects of inter symbol

interference and noise in order to achieve minimum
probability of error for given data rate.
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5.2.1 Baseband pulse shaping
The ISI can be eliminated by proper choice
of received pulse shape pr (t).

Doe’s not Uniquely Specify Pr(t) for all

values of t.

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To meet the constraint, Fourier Transform Pr(f) of Pr(t), should
satisfy a simple condition given by the following theorem


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1 / 2 Tb

p r ( nTb )  T
1 / 2 Tb
b exp( j2fnTb )df 

Which verify that the Pr(t) with a transform Pr(f)

Satisfy ______________
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The condition for removal of ISI given in the theorem is called
Nyquist (Pulse Shaping) Criterion

-2Tb -Tb Tb 2Tb

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The Theorem gives a condition for the removal of ISI using a Pr(f) with
a bandwidth larger then rb/2/.
ISI can’t be removed if the bandwidth of Pr(f) is less then rb/2.

Tb 2Tb 5Tb 6Tb

3Tb 4Tb t

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Particular choice of Pr(t) for a
given application

pr )t(

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A Pr(f) with a smooth roll - off characteristics is preferable
over one with arbitrarily sharp cut off characteristics.

Pr(f) Pr(f)

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In practical systems where the bandwidth available for
transmitting data at a rate of rb bits\sec is between rb\2 to rb
Hz, a class of pr(t) with a raised cosine frequency
characteristic is most commonly used.
A raise Cosine Frequency spectrum consist of a flat amplitude portion and a roll off
portion that has a sinusoidal form.

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raised cosine frequency characteristic

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The BW occupied by the pulse spectrum is B=rb/2+ .
The minimum value of B is rb/2 and the maximum value is rb.

Larger values of  imply that more bandwidth is required for a

given bit rate, however it lead for faster decaying pulses, which
means that synchronization will be less critical and will not cause
large ISI.

 =rb/2 leads to a pulse shape with two convenient properties.

The half amplitude pulse width is equal to Tb, and there are zero
crossings at t=3/2Tb, 5/2Tb…. In addition to the zero crossing
at Tb, 2Tb, 3Tb,…...
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Optimum transmitting and receiving

The transmitting and receiving filters are chosen to provide
a proper

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-One of design constraints that we have for selecting the filters
is the relationship between the Fourier transform of pr(t) and

Where td, is the time delay Kc normalizing constant.

In order to design optimum filter Ht(f) & Hr(f), we will assume that Pr(f),
Hc(f) and Pg(f) are known.

Portion of a baseband PAM system

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If we choose Pr(t) {Pr(f)} to produce Zero ISI we are left
only to be concerned with noise immunity, that is will choose

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Noise Immunity

Problem definition:

For a given :
•Data Rate -
•Transmission power -
•Noise power Spectral Density -
•Channel transfer function -
•Raised cosine pulse -

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Error probability Calculations
At the m-th sampling time the input to the A/D is:

We decide:

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The noise is assumed to be zero mean Gaussian at the receiver input

then the output should also be Zero mean Gaussian with variance No
given by:

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-A A

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Perror decreases as increase

Hence we need to maximize the signal
to noise Ratio

Thus for maximum noise immunity the filter transfer functions H T(f)
and HR(f) must be xhosen to maximize the SNR

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Optimum filters design calculations

We will express the SNR in terms of HT(f) and HR(f)

We will start with the signal:

The PSD of the transmitted signal is given by::

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And the average transmitted power ST is

The average output noise power of n0(t) is given by:

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The SNR we need to maximize is

Or we need to minimize

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Using Schwartz’s inequality

The minimum of the left side equaity is reached when

If we choose :

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 2 is minimized when

The filter should have a linear phase response in a total time delay of td

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Finally we obtain the maximum value of the SNR to be:

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For AWGN with
pg(f) is chosen such that it does not change much over the
bandwidth of interest we get.

Rectangular pulse can be used at the input of HT(f).

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5.2.3 Design procedure and Example

The steps involved in the design procedure.

Example:Design a binary baseband PAM system to
transmit data at a a bit rate of 3600 bits/sec with a bit
error probability less than 10 4.
The channel response is given by:

The noise spectral density is Gn ( f )  10 14 watt / Hz

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rb  3600bits / sec
pe  10  4
B  2400 Hz
Gn ( f )  10  4 watt / Hz

If we choose a braised cosine pulse spectrum with

  rb / 6  600

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We choose a pg(t)

We choose K1  (3600)(103 )

p g ( f ) H T ( f ) Dr.
H c (Uri
f ) Mahlab
H R ( f )  pr ( f ) 57
Plots of Pg(f),Hc(f),HT(f),HR(f),and Pr(f).

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To maintain a e  10

For Pr(f) with raised cosine shape  P ( f ) df
r 1

And hence ST  (14.06)(3600)(10 10 )  23dBm

Dr. Uri Mahlab

Which completes the design. 59

In order to transmit data at a rate of rb bits/sec with zero ISI PAM

data transmission system requires a bandwidth of at least r b /2

Binary PAM data

+ transmission at a
rate of rb bits/sec
with zero ISI

1.such filters are physically unrealizable

2. Any system with this filters will be extremely
sensitive to perturbations.
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The duobinary scheme utilizes controlled amounts of ISI
for transmitting data at a rate of rb /2 HZ.
The shaping filters for duobinary are easier to
realize than the ideal rectangular filters.

The duobinary signaling schemes use pulse spectra


The pulse response Pr(t): Pr  t  

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The output Y(t) of the receive filter can be written as:

If the output is sampled at tm= mTb/2+ td than it is obvious

that in the absence of noise:

The Am' s can assume one of two values +/-A depending on

whether the m th input bit is 1 or 0. Since Y(tm) depends on
Am & Am-1 assuming no noise :
+2A if the m th and (m-1st)bits are both 1's
Y(tm) = 0 if the m th and (m-1st)bits are different
-2A if the m Uriand
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(m-1st)bits are both
5.3.2 Transmitting and receiving filters for optimum performance

The receiving levels at the input to the A/D converter are 2A,
0, and -2A with probabilities 1/2, 1/4.
The probability of bit error pe is given by:

Since no is a zero mean Gaussian random variable with a

variance No we can write pe as:

For the direct binary PAM case :

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Where /2=Gn(f) is the noise power spectral density the
probability of error is:

The integral can be evaluated as :

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In baseband binary PAM we use pulses with one of 2 possible

In M-ary baseband PAM system we allowed M possible levels
(M>2) and there M distinct input symbols.

During each signaling interval of duration Ts  1 rs

the source is converted to a four-level PAM pulse train by the
the pulse generator.
The signal pulse noise passes through the receiving filter and
is sampled by the A/D converter at an appropriate rate and

the M-ary PAM scheme operating with the preceding

constraints can transmit data at a bit rate of r s log2M bit/sec
and require a minimum bandwidth of rs/2 HZ.
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5.7.1 Eye Diagram
The performance of baseband PAM systems depends on
the amount of ISI and channel noise.

The received waveform with no noise and no distortion is

shown in Figure 5.20a the “open” eye pattern results

Figure 5.20b shows a distorted version of the waveform the

corresponding eye pattern.

Figure 5.20c shows a noise distorted version of the

received waveform and the corresponding eye
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In the figure 5.21 we see typical eye patterns of a
duobinary signal

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If the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver is high
then the following observations can be made from
the eye pattern shown simplified in Figure 5.22:

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1. The best time to sample the received waveform is
when the eye is opening is largest.
2. The maximum distortion is indicated by the vertical
width of the two branches at sampling time.
3. The noise margin or immunity to noise is proportional
to the width of the eye opening.
4. The sensitivity of the system to timing errors is
revealed by the rate of closing of the eye as sampling
time is varied.
5. The sampling time is midway between zero crossing.
6. Asymmetries in the eye pattern indicate nonlinearities
in the channel.
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5.7.2 synchronization
Three methods in which this synchronization can be obtained
1. Derivation of clock information from a primary or secondary
2. Transmitting a synchronizing clock signal.
3. Derivation of the clock signal from the received waveform

An example of a system used to derive a clock signal from

the received waveform is shown in figure 5.23.

To illustrate the operating of the phase comparator network let

us look at the timing diagram shown in figure 5.23b
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Scrambler and unscrambler

Scrambler: The scrambler shown in figure 5.24a

consists a “feedback” shift register.

Unscrambler:The matching unscrambler have a ”feed

forward” shift register structure.

In both the scrambler and unscrambler the outputs of

several stages of of shift register are added together
modulo-2 and the added to the data stream again in
modulo-2 arithmetic

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Scrambler affects the error performance of the
communication system in that a signal channel error
may cause multiple error at the output of the

The error propagation effect lasts over only a finite

and small number of bits.

In each isolated error bit causes three errors in the

final output it must also be pointed out that some
random bit patterns might be scrambled to the
errors or all ones.
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