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Uri Mahlab 1

Communication system

Block diagram of an Binary/M-ary signaling

scheme

+

Channel noise

+

Block diagram Description

{dk}={1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,0,0,0,1,1,1}

For Tb

For Tb

Block diagram Description (Continue - 1)

{dk}={1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,0,0,0,1,1,1}

Block diagram Description (Continue - 2)

{dk}={1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,0,0,0,1,1,1}

100110

Block diagram Description (Continue - 3)

{dk}={1,1,1,1,0,0,1,1,0,0,0,1,1,1}

Tb Timing

100110

t

Dr. Uri Mahlab 7

Block diagram Description (Continue - 4)

Timing

X(t ( HT(f) HR(f)

Information Pulse Trans

source generator filter

+ Receiver

filter

Channel noise n(t)

3Tb 4Tb t

Block diagram Description (Continue - 5)

3Tb 4Tb t

Block diagram of an Binary/M-ary signaling

scheme

Timing

Block diagram Description

3Tb 4Tb t

t

1 0 0 0 1 0

1 0 0 1 1 0

Dr. Uri Mahlab 11

Typical waveforms in a binary PAM system

Block diagram of an Binary/M-ary signaling

scheme

Timing

Explanation of Pr(t)

The element of a baseband binary PAM system

Dr. Uri Mahlab 16

The input to the A/D converter is

system, we get.

Y t m

t

t2 t3

t1 tm t

Dr. Uri Mahlab 17

The output of the A/D converter at the sampling time

tm =mTb+td

Y t m 3Tb 4Tb t

t2 t3

t1 tm t

Dr. Uri Mahlab 18

ISI - Inter Symbol

Interference

Y t m

t2 t3

t1 tm t

Dr. Uri Mahlab 19

Explanation of ISI

t

t

f f

Explanation of ISI - Continue

t

t

f f

3Tb 4Tb t

Dr. Uri Mahlab 22

-The pulse generator output is a pulse waveform

Dr. Uri Mahlab 24

5.2 BASEBAND BINARY PAM SYSTEMS

interference and noise in order to achieve minimum

probability of error for given data rate.

Dr. Uri Mahlab 25

5.2.1 Baseband pulse shaping

The ISI can be eliminated by proper choice

of received pulse shape pr (t).

values of t.

To meet the constraint, Fourier Transform Pr(f) of Pr(t), should

satisfy a simple condition given by the following theorem

Theorem

Proof

1 / 2 Tb

p r ( nTb ) T

1 / 2 Tb

b exp( j2fnTb )df

Satisfy ______________

Dr. Uri Mahlab 28

The condition for removal of ISI given in the theorem is called

Nyquist (Pulse Shaping) Criterion

The Theorem gives a condition for the removal of ISI using a Pr(f) with

a bandwidth larger then rb/2/.

ISI can’t be removed if the bandwidth of Pr(f) is less then rb/2.

3Tb 4Tb t

Particular choice of Pr(t) for a

given application

pr )t(

A Pr(f) with a smooth roll - off characteristics is preferable

over one with arbitrarily sharp cut off characteristics.

Pr(f) Pr(f)

In practical systems where the bandwidth available for

transmitting data at a rate of rb bits\sec is between rb\2 to rb

Hz, a class of pr(t) with a raised cosine frequency

characteristic is most commonly used.

A raise Cosine Frequency spectrum consist of a flat amplitude portion and a roll off

portion that has a sinusoidal form.

raised cosine frequency characteristic

Summary

The BW occupied by the pulse spectrum is B=rb/2+ .

The minimum value of B is rb/2 and the maximum value is rb.

given bit rate, however it lead for faster decaying pulses, which

means that synchronization will be less critical and will not cause

large ISI.

The half amplitude pulse width is equal to Tb, and there are zero

crossings at t=3/2Tb, 5/2Tb…. In addition to the zero crossing

at Tb, 2Tb, 3Tb,…...

Dr. Uri Mahlab 35

5.2.2

filters

The transmitting and receiving filters are chosen to provide

a proper

-One of design constraints that we have for selecting the filters

is the relationship between the Fourier transform of pr(t) and

pg(t).

In order to design optimum filter Ht(f) & Hr(f), we will assume that Pr(f),

Hc(f) and Pg(f) are known.

If we choose Pr(t) {Pr(f)} to produce Zero ISI we are left

only to be concerned with noise immunity, that is will choose

Noise Immunity

Problem definition:

For a given :

•Data Rate -

•Transmission power -

•Noise power Spectral Density -

•Channel transfer function -

•Raised cosine pulse -

Choose

Error probability Calculations

At the m-th sampling time the input to the A/D is:

We decide:

A=aKc

then the output should also be Zero mean Gaussian with variance No

given by:

b

Dr. Uri Mahlab 42

0

Dr. Uri Mahlab 43

-A A

Dr. Uri Mahlab 45

Q(u)

dz=

U

A

N0

Hence we need to maximize the signal

to noise Ratio

Thus for maximum noise immunity the filter transfer functions H T(f)

and HR(f) must be xhosen to maximize the SNR

Optimum filters design calculations

And the average transmitted power ST is

The SNR we need to maximize is

Or we need to minimize

Using Schwartz’s inequality

V(f)=Const*W(f)

If we choose :

2 is minimized when

The filter should have a linear phase response in a total time delay of td

Finally we obtain the maximum value of the SNR to be:

For AWGN with

and

pg(f) is chosen such that it does not change much over the

bandwidth of interest we get.

5.2.3 Design procedure and Example

Example:Design a binary baseband PAM system to

transmit data at a a bit rate of 3600 bits/sec with a bit

error probability less than 10 4.

The channel response is given by:

Dr. Uri Mahlab 55

Solution:

rb 3600bits / sec

pe 10 4

B 2400 Hz

Gn ( f ) 10 4 watt / Hz

rb / 6 600

We choose a pg(t)

We choose K1 (3600)(103 )

p g ( f ) H T ( f ) Dr.

H c (Uri

f ) Mahlab

H R ( f ) pr ( f ) 57

Plots of Pg(f),Hc(f),HT(f),HR(f),and Pr(f).

4

P

To maintain a e 10

For Pr(f) with raised cosine shape P ( f ) df

r 1

Which completes the design. 59

5.3

data transmission system requires a bandwidth of at least r b /2

HZ.

+ transmission at a

rate of rb bits/sec

with zero ISI

2. Any system with this filters will be extremely

sensitive to perturbations.

Dr. Uri Mahlab 60

204

Dr. Uri Mahlab 61

The duobinary scheme utilizes controlled amounts of ISI

for transmitting data at a rate of rb /2 HZ.

The shaping filters for duobinary are easier to

realize than the ideal rectangular filters.

Pr(f):

Dr. Uri Mahlab 62

5.3.1

that in the absence of noise:

whether the m th input bit is 1 or 0. Since Y(tm) depends on

Am & Am-1 assuming no noise :

+2A if the m th and (m-1st)bits are both 1's

Y(tm) = 0 if the m th and (m-1st)bits are different

Dr.th

-2A if the m Uriand

Mahlab 63zero

(m-1st)bits are both

5.3.2 Transmitting and receiving filters for optimum performance

The receiving levels at the input to the A/D converter are 2A,

0, and -2A with probabilities 1/2, 1/4.

The probability of bit error pe is given by:

variance No we can write pe as:

Where /2=Gn(f) is the noise power spectral density the

probability of error is:

5.4 M-ARY SIGNALING SCHEMES

amplitude,

In M-ary baseband PAM system we allowed M possible levels

(M>2) and there M distinct input symbols.

the source is converted to a four-level PAM pulse train by the

the pulse generator.

The signal pulse noise passes through the receiving filter and

is sampled by the A/D converter at an appropriate rate and

phase.

constraints can transmit data at a bit rate of r s log2M bit/sec

and require a minimum bandwidth of rs/2 HZ.

Dr. Uri Mahlab 66

5.7 MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS

5.7.1 Eye Diagram

The performance of baseband PAM systems depends on

the amount of ISI and channel noise.

shown in Figure 5.20a the “open” eye pattern results

corresponding eye pattern.

received waveform and the corresponding eye

pattern.

Dr. Uri Mahlab 67

Dr. Uri Mahlab 68

In the figure 5.21 we see typical eye patterns of a

duobinary signal

If the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiver is high

then the following observations can be made from

the eye pattern shown simplified in Figure 5.22:

1. The best time to sample the received waveform is

when the eye is opening is largest.

2. The maximum distortion is indicated by the vertical

width of the two branches at sampling time.

3. The noise margin or immunity to noise is proportional

to the width of the eye opening.

4. The sensitivity of the system to timing errors is

revealed by the rate of closing of the eye as sampling

time is varied.

5. The sampling time is midway between zero crossing.

6. Asymmetries in the eye pattern indicate nonlinearities

in the channel.

Dr. Uri Mahlab 71

5.7.2 synchronization

Three methods in which this synchronization can be obtained

are:

1. Derivation of clock information from a primary or secondary

standard.

2. Transmitting a synchronizing clock signal.

3. Derivation of the clock signal from the received waveform

itself.

the received waveform is shown in figure 5.23.

us look at the timing diagram shown in figure 5.23b

Dr. Uri Mahlab 72

Dr. Uri Mahlab 73

5.7.3

Scrambler and unscrambler

consists a “feedback” shift register.

forward” shift register structure.

several stages of of shift register are added together

modulo-2 and the added to the data stream again in

modulo-2 arithmetic

Dr. Uri Mahlab 75

Scrambler affects the error performance of the

communication system in that a signal channel error

may cause multiple error at the output of the

unscrambler.

and small number of bits.

final output it must also be pointed out that some

random bit patterns might be scrambled to the

errors or all ones.

Dr. Uri Mahlab 76

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