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# Chapter 1 - Introduction to Electronics

Introduction

Microelectronics

## Integrated Circuits (IC) Technology

Silicon Chip

Microcomputer / Microprocessor

Discrete Circuits
Signals

Signal Processing
Transducers

http://www.eas.asu.edu/~midle/jdsp/jdsp.html
Signals

Voltage Sources

Current Sources

## Thevenin & Norton

http://www.clarkson.edu/%7Esvoboda/eta/ClickDevice/refdir.html
http://www.clarkson.edu/%7Esvoboda/eta/Circuit_Design_Lab/circuit_design_lab.html
http://www.clarkson.edu/%7Esvoboda/eta/CircuitElements/vcvs.html
Signals

Voltage Sources

Current Sources
Signals

Voltage Sources

Current Sources

http://www.clarkson.edu/~svoboda/eta/ClickDevice/super.html
http://javalab.uoregon.edu/dcaley/circuit/Circuit_plugin.html
Frequency Spectrum of Signals

Fourier Series
frequency
x
time

Fourier Transform

## Fundamental and Harmonics

http://www.educatorscorner.com/experiments/spectral/SpecAn3.shtml
Frequency Spectrum of Signals

Fourier Series

## Def i ni ng t he Si gnal or Func t i on t o be Anal y z ed:

  
f ( t)  sin 0 t   ( t)  .2 cos 7 0 t 
2

f ( t) 0

2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
t
http://www.jhu.edu/%7Esignals/fourier2/index.html
Frequency Spectrum of Signals

Fourier Series
Four i er Ser i es ( Tr i gonomet r i c f or m) of f ( t ) :
T
1 
a0    f ( t) dt a0  0 av er age v al ue
T  0

T
2 
a   
n T 
 
f ( t)  cos n  0 t d t c os i ne c oef f i c i ent s
0
n v ar y i ng f r om 1 t o N

an
0.1
0

0
10 20 30 40 50 60
n
Frequency Spectrum of Signals

Fourier Series

T
2 
n T 
 
b    f ( t)  sin n  0 t d t s i ne c oef f i c i ent s
0

bn
0.5
0

0
10 20 30 40 50 60
n
Frequency Spectrum of Signals

Fourier Series

## Rear r angi ng t ot al ex pr es s i on t o i nc l ude a0 i n t he c ompl et e s pec t r um

a1  a b1  b
n n n n

a1n2  b1n2
1
c1   c  a0
n 2 0

0.4
c1 n

0 0.2

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
n
Frequency Spectrum of Signals

Fourier Series

## f2( t)   an1cos n10t  bn1sinn10t  a0

n1

f2( t )
0
f ( t)

2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
t
Frequency Spectrum of Signals

Fourier Series
Four i er Ser i es ( Compl ex For m) of f ( t ) :

w    N     n
1
n 2 

1   i w n  0 t
C    f ( t)  e dt
n T  0

0.04

Cn

0
0.02

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
n
Frequency Spectrum of Signals
Four i er Tr ans f or m of f (t ) gi v es :

 1  N      1  N    .25   1  N
     
 2   2  2

  i   t
F    f ( t)  e dt

0

0.3

F(  ) 0.2

0
0.1

0
30 20 10 0 10 20 30

The magni t ude of F( ) y i el ds t he c ont i nuous f r equenc y s pec t r um, and i t i s
obv i ous l y of t he f or m of t he s ampl i ng f unc t i on. The v al ue of F( 0) i s A.
A pl ot of | F( ) | as a f unc t i on of  does not i ndi c at e t he magni t ude of t he
v ol t age pr es ent at any gi v en f r equenc y . What i s i t , t hen? Ex ami nat i on of
F  s hows  
t hat , i f f ( t ) i s a v ol t age wav ef or m, t hen F  i s di mens i onal l y
" v ol t s per uni t f r equenc y , " a c onc ept t hat may be s t r ange t o mos t of us .
Frequency Spectrum of Signals

http://www.jhu.edu/%7Esignals/fourier2/index.html
http://www.jhu.edu/%7Esignals/listen/music1.html
http://www.jhu.edu/%7Esignals/phasorlecture2/indexphasorlect2.htm
Analog and Digital Signals

## Binary number system

http://scholar.hw.ac.uk/site/computing/activity11.asp

Analog-to-Digital Converter

Digital-to-Analog Converter

Amplifiers

Vin Vout

## Voltage gain (Av) = Vout/Vin

Linear - output is proportional to input

## Power amplifiers power gain (Ap) = Pout/Pin

Amplifiers
vo
 
Voltage_Gain A v
vi
Signal Amplification
 
load_power PL v o  io
Power_Gain  A p 
Distortion input_power PI v I iI

io
Non-Linear Distortion  
Current_Gain A i
iI

Ap Av Ai
Symbols

## Gains – Voltage, Power, Current

Voltage_gain_in_decibels 
20 log A v  dB

Decibels Coltage_gain_in_decibels 
20 log A i  dB

Power_gain_in_decibels 
10 log A p  dB
Amplifier Power Supplies
Efficiency
Amplifiers

## Gain in terms of decibels

Typical values of voltage gain, 10, 100, 1000 depending on size of input signal

Decibels often used when dealing with large ranges or multiple stages

## Av in decibels (dB) = 20log|Av|

Ai in decibels (dB) = 20log|Ai|
Av = 10 000 20log|10 000| = 80dB
Ap in decibels (dB) = 10log|Ap| Av = 1000 20log|1000| = 60dB
Av = 100 20log|100| = 40dB
Av = 10 20log|10| = 20dB
Av = -10 20log|-10| = 20dB

## Av negative - indicates a phase change (no change in dB)

dB negative - indicates signal is attenuated
Amplifiers
Example 1.1
9
A v  Av  9 Ii  0.0001
1

## A v  20 log  9  A v  19.085 dB

9 Io
Io  3 A
1000 Io  9  10 A A i  A i  90
Ii A

A i  20 log A i  A i  39.085 dB Vorms 
9
2
Iorms 
9
2
1 0.1
PL  Vorms  Iorms Virms  Iirms 
PL  40.5 mW 2 2

PL W
A p  A p  810
PI W

## Pdc  10 9.5  10 9.5 Pdc  190 mW

Pdissipated  Pdc  PI  PL
Pdissipated  149.55 mW
PL
   100   21.316 %
Pdc
Amplifiers

Saturation

An amplifier transfer
characteristic that is linear
except for output
saturation.

Amplifiers

## An amplifier transfer characteristic that shows considerable nonlinearity. (b) To obtain

linear operation the amplifier is biased as shown, and the signal amplitude is kept small.
Amplifiers

## + + •EPOLY is a dependent source is SPICE; a

I=0 voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS)
Vin Vout
•EPOLY has a gain of Avo
- -
•The input to EPOLY is the voltage across
Ri

## Vout = Avo Vin

Ri = input resistance
Ro = output resistance
Amplifiers
Voltage amplifier with input source and load

+ +
Vin Vout
- -

## •Avo - gain of VCVS only, o indicates What should we design Ro to be?

output is open
•Av = Vout/Vin = Avo RL/(RL + Ro)
•Av - gain of entire circuit
•Let Ro < < RL to make Av maximum
Av changes with circuit, Avo does not!
•Ideally Ro = 0
Amplifiers

+ +
Vin Vout
- -

## What should we design Rin to be? If Rin = infinity, then all of Vs

makes it to the the amplifier;
•Vin = Vs Ri/(Ri + Rs) otherwise part of the signal is lost
•Let Rin >> Rs to make Vin = Vs

Amplifiers

Rout = 0

Rin = infinity
Amplifiers

Example 1.2

## v I  0.6  0.61  0.69

 11 40 vI
 
v o v I  10  10 e

10

 
vo vI 5

0
0.58 0.6 0.62 0.64 0.66 0.68 0.7
vI
Amplifiers
Lminus  0.3

## Example 1.2 v o  0.3 v I  0 inital value

given
 11 40 vI
vo 10  10 e

 
v I  Find v I v I  0.69

v I  0

40 vI
 
v o v I  10  10
 11
e

Lplus  v o ( 0) Lplus  10

v I  0
v o  5 given

 11 40 vI
vo 10  10 e

 
v I  Find v I v I  0.673
Amplifiers

Example 1.2

##  11 40 vI highlight equation use symbolics

10  10 e
then differentiate

1
2500000000
 
 exp 40 v I

1
 exp ( 40 0.673)  196.457
2500000000
Circuit Models For Amplifiers

Voltage Amplifiers

Common Models

## Show example on board

Circuit Models For Amplifiers

Example 1.3

Class assignment
Circuit Models For Amplifiers

Other Amplifiers

Current

Transconductance

Transresistance
Circuit Models For Amplifiers
Example 1.4

Large-signal equivalent-circuit models of the npn BJT operating in the active mode.
Frequency Response of Amplifiers

Bandwidth
Frequency Response of Amplifiers

Bandwidth

## Single-Time Constant Networks

http://www.clarkson.edu/%7Esvoboda/eta/plots/FOC.html

http://www.clarkson.edu/%7Esvoboda/eta/acWorkout/Switched_RCandRL.html
Frequency Response of Amplifiers

Bandwidth

(a) Magnitude and (b) phase response of STC networks of the low-pass type.
Frequency Response of Amplifiers
Frequency Response of Amplifiers

Bandwidth
Frequency Response of Amplifiers

(a) Magnitude and (b) phase response of STC networks of the high-pass type.
Frequency Response of Amplifiers

Example 1.5

Class assignment
Frequency Response of Amplifiers

Classification of Amplifiers

## Based on Frequency Response

Frequency Response of Amplifiers

Exercise 1.6

Class assignment
The Digital Logic Inverter

Function

Transfer Characteristics

Noise Margins
The Digital Logic Inverter

Function

Transfer Characteristics

Noise Margins
The Digital Logic Inverter

Inverter Implementation