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K 12 Grade 11

Second Semester 80 hours/sem
Research Skills

*Reading For each of the skills,

*Observing give yourself a grade on
*Listening a scale of 1(low) to 10
*Questioning Which skills do you
*Summarizing consider yourself to be
*Organizing best at?
What is research?

Searching for a theory, for testing theory for problem

It means a problem was identified and it needs solution
or improvement
A systematic controlled, empirical, and critical
investigation of hypothetical propositions about the
presumed relations among natural phenomenon
(Kerlinger, 1973)
Systematic collection and interpretation of data to
illuminate, describe or explain new facts and
relationships (Treece, 2002)
Why conduct research?
(Importance of research in daily life)

1. Efficiency and Effectiveness in the profession

The primary reason for conducting research is to
foster optimum care for life. The scientific profession
exists to provide service to society based on accurate
knowledge. The scientific method is conceived to be
the most objective, systematic way of obtaining these
2. Worth and Value of Research to
Education/Profession and to
Scientific knowledge is indispensable to
man’s survival, Research helps professionals
deliver quality education services. It provides
proofs or evidences to validate and justify
the professional existence in the society.
3. Identifying, Implementing and Evaluating
Effective Decisions and actions in Life

Scientific researches assess individuals or

groups plan of actions as basis for accurate
inventions and decisions in life.
4. Research, has the Potential for providing Quality
life. It is concerned with the following tasks:
a. The systematic study of problems or
phenomena, using the scientific process of
assessing, planning, implementing and evaluating

b. Appropriateness of Technology use

c. Identifying interventions that can help
individuals respond to change

d. The initiation and assessment of change as a

result of new knowledge or technology
Reasons for Conducting Research

1. Gathers data or information on life situations

or conditions about which little knowledge is
Identify research gap in different areas
2 . Provides scientific knowledge from which
theories emerge and develop.
Consequently, theories derived from research findings serves as
bases and guide to scientific practice and future researches.

3. Helps correct, clarify and validate perceptions .

Knowledge is never absolute, its value is either diminishing or
increasing depending on the extent of its use. However, this knowledge must
be continuously tested and validated through research.
4. Provides theoretical and scientific basis for
scientific practice.
Research helps improve science and technology practice,
firms up the credibility of ones profession; defines the
accountability of scientific practice, and documents the cost
effectiveness of science and technology.

5. Defines the parameters of research and

identifies its boundaries.
Research helps expand knowledge and use of the technology
process in life situations. This consists of assessment, planning
actions or intervention, evaluation and documentation of life
6. Documents the social relevance and efficacy of
scientific practices to people and environment
Research enables men to verify the strengths and weaknesses of
certain modalities of education and their implications in the process of
meeting the needs and problems of people;

7. Describes the characteristics of the

phenomenon/situation about which little knowledge is
More issues and concerns about technology, climate change, and food
security, and health care arise as technology advances.
8. Predicts probable outcomes of scientific
decisions in relation to life comfort and well

Research makes it easy for professionals to forecast the

effects or consequences of certain actions and helps anticipate

9.Provides knowledge for purposes of problem

solving and decision making.

Knowledge that relate to social, economic, political,

cultural and technological phenomena may have serious
implications to life and social practice as it is used in deciding
better ways of solving problems.
10. Develops and evaluates theories and

concepts, and practices these for clarity and

validity of scientific actions.
Research helps knowledge grow and develop, determines its
significance in order to modify or develop new ones, and or revise these
knowledge, based on current research findings.

11. Prevents undesirable human reactions.

Research predicts outcome and potential problems, hence it

requires the balancing of phenomena that will generate positive results
and control undesirable outcome; and
12. Develops a considerable degree of

Professional undertakings are intended to achieve desired men

behaviors. Adequate knowledge sustains self-confidence that
makes work easier and lighter, unburdened with uncertainties and
doubtful consequences of actions intended to restore men’s
comfort and makes life easier.
General and Specific Purposes of
Specifically, research aims to do the following

Description – Research describes phenomenon.


care. Refers to services rendered by professional and non- professional

nursing personnel to respond to the health needs and problems of individuals,
families, groups, and communities, intended to bring comfort and ease to
2. Exploration – Research explores the phenomenon.

“What factors influence, affect or relate to the adjustment of salary
increase among teachers?”

3. Explanation – Research seeks clarification of a prevailing

situation to answer questions that ask “why” a phenomenon occurred.

“Why does climate change occur ?”
4. Prediction and Control – Research anticipates
possible psychology and physiological reactions to nursing

“Incidence of low performance in math in young learners is
expected to increase with the millennium age”
Criteria for Choice of Research

* Significance of the Problem

*Problem Research ability
*Feasibility of the problem
*Potentials of the Researchers
Ethical Principles and Guidelines for
1. Informed Consent
The participants must be fully informed about the nature of
research, its purposes and potential risk and benefits.

2. Beneficence and Nonmaleficence

This is a fundamental ethical principle in research, which means,
“to do good” and “to do no harm” to study participants.
3. Respect for Human Dignity
The rights of the study participants must be well protected and

4. Justice and Fairness

Study participants deserve fair and equitable treatment before,
during and after the study period. The researcher should provide
equal chances in the selection process, must comply with agreements
in regard to procedures, techniques or benefits due to participants.

5. Intellectual honesty and respect

Giving acknowledgment/recognition or due respect to the
original/previous work of art.
INTRODUCTION (Background of the Study)
It is a brief statement of the origin of the problem. It is an
account describing the circumstances which suggested the
research. It may include a justification of the selection of the
study. It gives brief origin of the problem.
Parts – lead paragraph, body, rationale

It is for these reasons that the researchers would like to relate the factors that
may trigger smoking. The researchers would also like to arrest the onset of
smoking to help the parents at home and teachers in school identify young
smokers so as to prevent smoking at a specific age bracket. Thus, this
correlates of smoking.

Hurlock (1998) implied that young students often result to smoking when they are
not busy and preoccupied. Often times students experiment on new
adventures. They experiment and experience the sensual effects of smoking
cigarette. Fifty percent of the young smokers reported that they enjoyed
smoking at the beginning. However, when they realized the bad effects of
smoking in their bodies it is already difficult to evade in the system.

In the school students find their friends or peers. Some are good and some are
bad. Peer pressure is one factor that enhances vices among young students. It
is also noted that peer pressure could encourage smoking among young
students (Enriquez, 1999).
The Research Process

Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
Quantitative research Qualitative research

*Associated with tradition (there is *Associated with Naturalistic inquiry

reality out there that can be ( reality is not a fixed entity but
studied and known) rather a construction of individual
* Gathers numerical values as its participating in research)
* Gathers narrative description as
* Investigates concepts, constructs its data
and variables
*Investigates phenomena, and
*Uses deductive reasoning concepts
*Uses control (imposing condition so *Use subjectivity that enriches the
that biases are minimized and analytical insights
validity and precision are
maximized) *Gather information, insights that
lead to search for further evidence
*Gathers empirical evidence (from (subjective)
objective reality collected through
senses) *Takes place in the field
*Takes place both in natural as well
as in laboratory setting
Types of Quantitative Research

*Descriptive research – Objective is accurate depiction of the characteristics of a

person, situation or groups and or frequency with which certain phenomenon occurs.
*Correlational research-Express the interrelationship among variables of interest
without any active intervention by the researcher
*Quasi-experimental research- conducted to determine the effects of
treatment or independent variables on the dependent or outcome variables.
It lacks the control of the design, sample or setting.
*Experimental research- it examines the cause and effect relationship
between independent and dependent variables under highly controlled
*Phenomenological research- concerned with lived experience of human. It is an
approach to thinking about what life experiences of people are like and what
they mean.

*Grounded theory research- seeks to describe and understand the key social
psychological and structural processes that occur a social setting. A major
component is the discovery of a core variable that is central in explaining what is
going on in that social scene.

*Ethnographical research- the primary research tradition within anthropology,

which provides a framework for studying the meanings, patterns, and
experiences of a defined cultural group in a holistic fashion.

*Historical research- narrative description or analysis of events that occurred in

the remote or recent past.

*Case studies- in Depth examination and analysis of people or group of people in

relation to nursing issues or problems that are important to the client and the

*Field studies- natural investigations done in the community, such as in nursing

home, housing projects and clinical wards.
Other types of research according to purpose

Applied Research
Basic Research
*To widen the knowledge base
*To finding solutions for existing
*Formulation or refinement of problems
*Focuses on factors which can be
*For discovery of general
changed by intervention to achieve
a desired goal
*For solving problems
Exploratory Research

*Begins with phenomenon of

interest then investigates the full
nature of the phenomenon, the
manner in which it is manifested
and the other factors to which it is

Explanatory Research
*The goal is to understand the
underpinnings of specific natural
phenomena and to explains
systematic relationships among
Suggested topics

*information about the quality of HEIs, schools, review centers as source for
improved student/parent choice.
*the information system of schools to reach out to their students
*organizational capabilities of an institution
*tracer studies, employment experience of graduates
*profiling and typology of (schools, HEIs) in the following __________
*socio-economic profile of students in the public schools, vendors, profile of
labor force in different barangays (learn to use secondary data from NSO,
NEDA) any competent agencies
*evaluation of projects conducted in the school or any agency
*partnership between institutions and industries or agencies in the
* Food security
* poverty alleviation
*effect of global warming on education sector
*Gender studies
*improving schooling for language minorities
**Multilingual language instruction in the classroom
* Multicultural classroom
* Mapping of reading programs of different schools,
* evaluation of schools materials that may encourage
reading or any cognitive development
*Multi language teaching
*Children’s language development in a multi language or
multicultural environment
*association of Reading, language and play
* children’s language development
* educating children with special needs in speech or
language difficulties.
*Trends in computer games, TV shows its effects
on reading and English communication
*development of standardized English test or
English proficiency test for First Year, 2nd, 3rd,
4th year.
*employment status of ABE graduates 20______
*Effectiveness of mother tongue language users
in their English communication
*Culture in the farming community in ______
*Culture of drivers (or groups)
*Income and Expenditure pattern of employees
*Profile of vendors in Bayambang
*Business opportunities in Bayambang
*Problems affecting socio economic progress
*Factors behind the socio- economic growth of jobless people
*Commodity flow for priority products in
*Reluctance of local entrepreneurs to tap the export market
*Determining the competitiveness of recreational facilities in
*Values and attitudes of students towards
*Role of community organizations in the developmental
*Educational institution and business partnership in

*Manpower and instructional capabilities of PSU or (any

SUC or private higher education institution)
*Assessment of impact of government projects to
job generation
*Effectiveness of law enforcement of traffic rules in
*Barangay budgetary allocations on basic social services
*Training needs analysis of different sectors in Bayambang
is best learned by doing it,
not copying it.

you have not done anything in research
unless you have written and
communicated it.

The future of the world is in our

hands. Research improves the
quality of life.