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A

SEMINAR REPORT ON
ELECTRICAL ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE
(EMI)
BY
NKUPURUK, IMOH NSINI
TO THE
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ELECTRONIC
ENGINEERING
(POWER & MACHINE)
OVERVIEW
 Introduction
 Examples
 Wireless Devices
 Natural Interferences
 Switching Circuits
 Radio Frequency
 Electromagnetic warfare
 Prevention and Mitigations Techniques
 Standards and Regulations
 Summary
BACKGROUND

 What is EMI?

 Electromagnetic Interference is disturbance that affects an electrical


circuit
 Caused by induction or outside radiation
 Can temporary and permanently disrupt circuit components
 Big design issue for new products
HOW DOES EMI WORK?

 Causes
 Electric fields radiating from currents
 Switching circuits, clocks, natural fields, ect.
 Coupling of electric fields into circuits and components
 Unintentional and intentional

 Effects
 Causes problems for electronics
 Loss and disruption of data
 Growing problem with more advanced devices
EXAMPLES OF EMI
SOLAR INTERFERENCE
 2012 Solar Maximum
 11 year solar cycles
 Flight routes over north pole changed

 Solar Storm of 1859


 March 1989 Solar Storm
 X-class solar flare
 Power outage in Quebec
 Communications with some satellites disrupted for hours

 Other potential issues


 Spacecraft communication
 Induced currents on underground piping
 HF radio interference
INTERFERENCE AT 2.4 GHZ
 Why use 2.4GHz?  Devices and protocols
 Part of the ISM Band that operate in this band
 No license needed to design  Cordless telephones
devices in this range  Baby monitors
 FCC originally designated  Bluetooth
2.4-2.483 GHz band for
 Wi-Fi 802.11b and 802.11g
microwave ovens
wireless devices (most
routers)
 Wireless cameras and
controllers
CELLULAR DEVICE INTERFERENCE
 Airplanes
 No proven scientific basis for banning cell phone use on airplanes
 FAA, FCC, and aircraft OEMs are unwilling to spend money to do
testing
 Ban on cell phone use errs on the side of caution

 Medical Equipment
 2007 Mayo Clinic study showed that phones have no negative effect
on medical equipment
 FDA has developed standards for pacemaker OEMs to ensure safety
POWER CONVERTERS

 Capacitive, Inductive, and Resistive loads

 Caused by sudden load changes

 Found in many household items


 Computers, phone chargers, TVs, etc.

 Minimal or no EMI effect created


ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE

 Intense surge of electromagnetic radiation


 Created using high-energy explosion (i.e. nuclear)

 Gamma rays trap high-energy electrons in earth’s magnetic


field
 Destroys all power electronics connected to affected
power grid
RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE

 Two way transmitters, radio


stations, amateur radio
broadcast
 Interrupted signal before
reaching receiver
 Results in signal masking and
distortion
PREVENTION AND MITIGATION
EMI FILTERS AND CHOKES
 Coil of wire wound around magnetic core
 Blocks high-frequency AC in a circuit
 Passive inductor
 Impedance is proportional to frequency
 Simple and inexpensive
 Energy
 Reflected back up the cable
 Absorbed resistively within ferrite core (heat)

 Audio vs. Radio


ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING
Shields Examples
 Enclosure formed by  Cables
conducting material  MRI scan room
 Isolates electrical devices and  Microwave oven
blocks external electric fields
 Electronic devices
 Often known as Faraday Cage
(invented in 1836)
 Amount of reduction depends
 Material and its thickness
 Size of shielded volume
 Frequency of fields
MITIGATION SOFTWARE AND
TECHNIQUES
 EMI Analyst is a tool used for meeting EMI requirements set
by regulatory agencies
 Combines all four areas of EMI analysis
 Conducted Emissions
 Radiated Emissions
 Conducted Susceptibility
 Radiated Susceptibility

 Money Saving Tool


 Reduction of circuit design area
FINAL EMISSIONS SCREENSHOT
STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS
EMI TESTING PROCEDURE
REGULATION COMMITTEES
FCC CISPR
 Federal Communications  The International Special
Commission Committee on Radio Frequency
 United States Interference
 Modems, Printers, and other  International
I/O devices  House hold appliances, Ignition
systems, fluorescent lamps
CLASSES OF REGULATIONS

Class A Class B
“A computing device that is “A computing device that is
marketed for use in a commercial, marketed for use in a residential
industrial, or business environment notwithstanding use
environment; exclusive of a device in a commercial, business, and
which is marketed for use by the environmental environments.”
general public, or which is
intended to be used in the home.”
FCC AND CISPR CLASS A
FCC AND CISPR CLASS B
OTHER TYPES OF STANDARDS

MIL-STD-416D CE - Conformité Européenne


 Department of Defense  European Conformity
 Even harder-to-meet standards  Identifies that a product or
than FCC and CISPR machine is compliant with all
 Dependent on reliability of safety requirements
electronic and communication  Requirement not a voluntary
equipment process
CONCLUSION

Introduction and Background


Examples of Electromagnetic Interference
Prevention and Mitigation Techniques
Laws and Regulations
Questions?