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Joko Mulyanto

Bagian IKK / IKM

Jurusan Kedokteran FKIK UNSOED
 Concept & Scope of Epidemiology
 Disease patterns
 Number and rates
 Person, Place and Time variable.
 Distribution of determinants
 Health-related states or events
 Specified population
 Application to control the health problem
 Distribution: frequency and pattern of health
events (diseases).
 Determinants: causes and factor influence the
occurrence of health events.
 Health related events: not only disease,
behaviors related to health.
 Specified population : focus on population
exposed to the source of disease.
 Descriptive epidemiology
Concern with characteristics and distribution
of health related events.
Answering the question: “ what, when, where”
 Analytic epidemiology
Search for cause of diseases.
Answering the question: “why, how”
 Disease pattern is the result of descriptive
 Descriptive epidemiology concern with the
distribution of disease.
 Two main aspects:
- Frequency / number
- Pattern of disease based on person, place and
 Occurrence of disease by time, place, and
personal characteristics.
 Time characteristic: annual occurrence,
seasonal occurrence, daily / hourly during
 Place characteristics: geographic variation,
 Personal characteristics: demographic factors,
SES, environmental exposure.
 Comparison of disease occurrence
 Absolute and relative numbers.
 Relative numbers : rate , ratio
 Disease occurrence changes over time.
 Some changes are regular and can be
 Description of these changes is very
important and useful health information.
 Graphic presentation is the most common of
time-disease descriptions.
 Time : horizontal (x) axis
Disease occurrence : vertical (y) axis
 Secular (long-term) trends.
- graphing the case annually
- useful to predict disease incidence in the
 Seasonality
- graphing the occurrence of disease by week
or month.
- suggest the transmission of disease,
contributing risk factor
 Day of week and time of day
- Display disease occurrence by the day of
the week or time of day.
- Analysis of regular events.
 Epidemic period
- Epidemic curve
 To get information about the geographical
extent of disease occurrence.
 Unit of analysis: geographical unit such as
administration unit, rural-urban.
 Analyze where the disease start, multiply and
 Graphical presentation: spot map
 Description of disease occurrence based on
personal characteristics.
 Demographic: age, sex, marital status, race /
 Behavior /activity: occupation, risky behavior
(smoking, alcohol consumption)
 Socioeconomic: education, income status.
 The most fundamental and important is age
and sex.
 The single most important personal attribute.
 Almost every disease related to age.
 Usually, age categorized into groups with 5-
years interval.
 Can be further analyzed with different groups
to get more precise information.
 Sex : differences of disease occurrence
between male and female. Caused by inherent
differences between male and female such as
anatomic, hormonal, susceptibility and
physiological response.
 Ethnic and racial group: common
characteristic both biologically and socially.
 Socioeconomic status: different opportunity
to get exposed by risk factor.