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Redactarea unei lucrări ştiinţifice

Corin Badiu, 2016


Tipuri de lucrări ştiinţifice

• Articol ştiinţific
• Poster
• Prezentare orală
• Lucrare de diplomă / master / doctorat
• Grant de cercetare
• Articole de educaţie continuă
• Book review
Structura: Strategia Stilului

If a man can group his ideas, then he is a Ending


writer.
Robert Louis Stevenson

Middle

Beginning
Cum se scrie un text ştiinţific ?
• Logic, astfel incat alti cercetatori sa poata
repeta studiul !
• Afla ce se stie deja (limita cunoasterii); obtine
literatura relevanta
• Referinte bibliografice!
• Material / Metode
• Rezultate
• Discutia rezultatelor
• Concluzii
Gasirea literaturii adecvate

• Reference manager, End note


• Verifica formatul referintelor conform
instructiunilor pentru autori si sunt incluse pe
masura ce se scrie protocolul
• Se pastreaza copii ale tuturor referintelor
• PubMed:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed
• Comunicari personale (cine si cand)
• Date nepublicate (Cel mai bine se evita)
Reference manager
• Sistem de documentare si editare a referintelor in articol
• Formarea unei baze de date: import din sisteme internationale, sau prin
filtre (NLM medline), introducere manuala (Ins). Tipuri de baze de date:
tematice (KW), abstract, autori, reviste, date, LA, CP
• Prelucrarea bazei de date: duplicate, cautari, reference list display, link
catre PM, pdf, url; copieri intre baze de date.
• Modulul Cite While You Write (CWYW) in Word.
• Alegerea si editarea stilului
• Scrierea referintelor in text si lista bibliografica; schimbarea paragrafelor
in text.
Se incepe din laborator…

Note detaliate despre materiale, reactivi, metoda.

• În laborator, datele se pastreaza atat în forma


scrisa cat şi organizata electronic!
• Date precise + unităţi de masura
• Valori normale, kit de lucru
• Ne asiguram ca am trecut toate datele necesare
pentru articol.
Inregistrarea datelor
Esential!
Inregistrarea informatiei este
facuta cu grija si precizie.
Note de laborator:
• Materiale folosite
• Metoda urmata
• Rezultate observate
• Observatii in timpul
experimentelor
Alte tehnologii de inregistrare:

• Audio
• Video
• Baze de date
• Fotografii
Aceleasi cerinte:
Inregistrari precise, organizate, suficient de clare
pentru a da informatii cand sunt citite mai tarziu
Consecventa de inregistare este Vitala…

• Se inregistreaza acelasi tip de date

• Formulare tipizate pentru studiu

• Se completeaza integral, fara spatii


libere

• Se transcriu in format electronic


Incepem sa scriem articolul…

Cine sunt?
Audienta
Ce stiu?
De ce vor citi?
Cum vor citi?

Caiet de laborator
Format
Structura
Target
Etica si Politica
Proces si Termene

Pentru a informa
Scop
Pentru a convinge
Un text stiintific are 4
componente….
IMRaD + C

Introducere
Material si Metode

Discutie

Rezultate
I. Introducere
• Fondul problemei, nivelul de cunoastere
international /national
• Conduce cititorul catre ipoteza de lucru
Introducerea pregateste cititorul pentru actiune

Topic?
Structura?
Importanta?
Fondul problemei?

Introducere
Introducerea defineste scopul si limitele cercetarii

Femeile pot avea Nu se considera


alte efecte Istoricul medical
scop

Efectele alcoolului
asupra sperantei de viata

Studiu de 10 ani
Trei categorii de subiecti:
nu consuma alcool
consum moderat
alcoolici Sunt supravegheati
barbati

Alte efecte,
Comorbiditati,
Efort fizic

limite
II. Materials and Procedure
(also called Experimental Section, Methodology, Method)

• ALWAYS describes and/or lists materials or


instruments used
• ALWAYS describes the procedure used,
including relevant calculations
• ALWAYS uses chronological order (through time)
III. Results and Discussion

• ALWAYS presents test results with relevant


calculations; usually includes accompanying visuals –
tables, graphs, etc.
• ALWAYS discusses the results, explains why things
happened, tells what is significant
• USUALLY uses chronological order for results seen
and cause-to-effect order for discussion of results.
IV. Conclusions

• ALWAYS includes a brief summary that tells


how the test results, findings, and analysis
meet the objectives established at the
beginning of the report.

• SOMETIMES uses chronological order;


SOMETIMES uses priority order.
Why to write ?
Publication / Proposal

• End Product of • To obtain funding for


Scientific work you and/or your group
• To get other people • to be able to
interested in and to start/continue
know your work interesting and
• To show your activity important research
On Your topic

• New scientific results -> Publish it


• lab measurements, field campaigns,
development of new devices and new
methods, basic theories, modelling
• How much material in one paper?
• In principle all scientific work will result as
publication: if not look your supervisor/advisor
Publication Chain

• Abstract
• Extended abstract
• Real paper in International Journal
• Nature/ Science paper

• Thesis (M.Sc. / Ph.D)


• Reports
Writing process

• Alone or in group
• Ask comments as soon and as often as possible from
co-authors and other people
• Example (on co-operation): A makes outlines and
main results and B writes details etc.
• Alone A could make 1-2 papers per year together A
and B can make 4-5 papers per year
• Remember: as writer you would like other people to
read it, take this into account when you write
On Publications

• Authorship
 all authors must have scientific contribution
 How many authors?
• Review process
 if you get somewhat postive comments it means that you are
able to publish the paper after some (even major) work;
Typically possible to negotiate
 Nature, Science and PRL: you need to convince editors that
your topic is widely interested and significant
• Letters to editros / covering letters
Some scientific research may require a survey of
current research.

Include the following information when


recording information:
• The information
• Whether the information is a direct quote or not
• The source of the information and date
• The subject matter of the information
Formatting and Organizing Lab
Reports

Lab Reports always answer these questions:


• What was the purpose of
the lab?
• What materials were used?
• What was the procedure?
• What were the results?
• What are the conclusions?
Additional Sections of Lab Reports
May Include the Following:

• Theory section – Explains the


scientific theory behind the lab
• Calculations section – if the labs
used involve mathematical calculations
• Recommendation section – comes
after the conclusion and used if
necessary for the lab
• Appendix section – separate section
at the end of the report, that contains
tables and graphs whose complexity
and length disrupt the flow of the report
itself.
Composing the Lab Report

A few more important things to remember…


Results vs. Conclusions…

Experiments require writers to observe results and to draw conclusions


from those observations. Observable results, however, are different from the
conclusions drawn.
A result is simply what happened; a conclusion goes beyond what
happened. A conclusion requires a scientist to draw an inference, to make a
point about the results.
For example, Paul Broca measured women’s brains in the mid-1800’s.
When he observed that they weighed an average of 181 grams less than a
man’s brain, he wrongly concluded that smaller brains meant women were less
intelligent than men. His observation, the result of his measurements, was
correct. The brains did weigh less. But less weight doesn’t lead to the
conclusion that women are not as smart. (Interesting note: What would he
have concluded if he had known Einstein’s brain weighed nearly ½ pound less
than the average man’s brain?)
Structure
Publication / Proposal

• Abstract • Summary
 summary including main • Introduction / background
results
• Aims, objectives
• Introduction
 why and short litterature • Methods
review • Research Group
• Materials and Methods  Best publications
 instruments, equations etc  Significant results
• Results • Links to other research
 your results  lists
• Discussion • Scientific education, research
 comparison with other training
results  lists
• Conclusions • Schedule
 focus on new things and • Budget
wide connections
Submission
Publications / Proposals

• To which Journal • Private foundations


• Look the format and other • National science foundation
instructions carefully (like Romanian Academy)
• Citation index • NMR, NoRFA
 more than 1 • EU, ESF
 Nature around 20 • Private Companies
 JGR ~4 • PHARMA type (You need
• How much it costs ? companies to find out
• Do you expect to have national funding)
reasonable editors/revievers • Ministry of …
Anatomy of a Scientific Paper
• Title: Descriptive, concise, and interesting
• Abstract: Include all components of the manuscript
• Body:
 Introduction: State objectives, any questions, reason for writing
 Materials and Methods: Provide details
 Results: Stick to the facts, make sure it makes sense
 Discussion: Draw conclusions from your data, compare to previous
studies
 Conclusion: Studies implications, supported by results, and related to
objectives
• References: Include retrievable sources, follow format
• Tables: Do not imbed in text, follow guidelines, keep simple
• Figures: Do not imbed in text, look professional
• Figure Legends: Descriptive and concise
Your paper….. how?
Do not dive in without a plan – mind map to outline
Relevant background
Aims & Obj. to the problem Title &
abstract
Hypothesis
Introduction Materials and
Methods
Figures
Reading
My paper Analysis
References
Results
References Tables

Discussion Text statistics


Abstract
• Précis writing
• Informative, not descriptive
• Some numbers, but not in
excess
• Determines if paper will be
read
• Is distributed freely in
databases
Title
• Max info in least words
• <12 words
• <100 characters
• The title is a label
• Should almost never contain abbreviations
• Question: easier to understand, more
impact
• State results
Figures
• Axes
- Minimize tick marks
- Don’t number each tick
• Lettering
- Uniform, lower case
- Minimize, avoid bold
- After reduction, 2-3 mm high
• Legend
- Gives message
Tables
• Single unit, understood without text
• Exceed 1 sheet: redraw
• Avoid narrow/broad; rotate all 90o
• No added vertical/horizontal lines
• If small: move data to text
Concentration
• Need stretch of several hours
• When time is short: prepare, revise
• Avoid distractions: phone, beeper
• Location
- Very boring area

- Nothing to distract
First Draft
• Write as quickly as possible
• As if thinking out loud
• Get everything down
• Ignore spelling, grammar, style
• Skip troublesome words
• Correct and rewrite only when the whole text is
on paper
• Do not split the manuscript among the co-
authors
Good Writing

• Content, accuracy
• Clarity
• Precision
• Logic
• Order of presentation
Clarity

• Clear
• Exact
- Ambiguity, inconsistency

• Concise
- Least words
- Short words
- One word vs many
Simplify
a majority of = most
at the present time = now
give rise to = cause
in some cases = sometimes
is defined as = is
it is believed that = I think
on the basis of = by
pooled together = pooled
subsequent to = after
with the result that = so that
Writing: Sentences

• Only one idea in a sentence


• Keep short: <20 words
• Vary length
• Long sentences: greater risk of grammatical
error
Writing: Paragraph

• The unit of thought in a group of sentences


• Subheading over each one in early drafts
• Not too long solid block of printing (<125
words)
• Long paragraph: bad
Writing: Narrative Flow

• Telling a story
• Reader follows from start to end
• Writing is sequential: logic is the glue
• Sentences hold hands
• Smooth transitions
• Every step is inevitable
Typing
• Clean
• Wide margins (2.5 cm)
• On one side of the sheet only
• Adherence to the style of the
journal
• Proofread, proofread, proofread
Effective Scientific Writing
Correct use of units
 The correct term for weight is mass
 Units such as cm/h, mg/mL, mL/kg/min and l/g are
written as cm h-1, mg mL-1, mL kg-1min-1 and L g-1
respectively
 Centrifugation units given in g
 Greek symbols    
 Use proper symbols for +/- i.e. , and for degrees i.e.C
(Celsius)
 Space between number and unit (2 cm NOT 2cm)
Ce publicam?

• Rezultate noi  Publicati

• Metode, teorii, modele

• Cat material intr-un articol? (la atata


munca...)
Authorship
• Decided as early as possible
• Should include persons who:
- Can defend the intellectual content, including data
and conclusions
- Must be willing to concede publicly any errors
- In the case of fraud be willing to state publicly the
nature and extent, and account for its occurrence
Authorship: Criteria

• All the following criteria should be met:


- Generate at least part of the intellectual
content (conception or design, data
analysis and interpretation)
- Drafting, reviewing or revising critically for
important intellectual content
- Final approval of the version to be published
Authorship: Order
• Some journals use the alphabetical order
• Most of them assume an order based on each
author’s importance to the study
- The first author is primarily responsible for
collecting and analyzing data, and writing
- The last one, an established investigator,
assumes the overall responsibility for the study
- The middle authors are listed according to heir
order of importance to the study
Authorship: Responsibilities
The authors must comply with the following rules
when submitting the manuscript for publication:
• The manuscript is not under consideration elsewhere and
the research will not be submitted elsewhere until a final
decision has been made by the journal
• The manuscript is a trustful, original work without
fabrication, fraud or plagiarism
• The authors have made an important scientific contribution
and are familiar with the primary data
• The authors have read the manuscript and take
responsibility for its content, and understand that if the
paper, or part of it, is found to be faulty or fraudulent, they
share responsibility
Benefits of Writing
• Benefit greater to author than reader
• Invaluable mental discipline
• Enhances clear thinking
• Making a subject intelligible to others
means you understand it
• Improve your reading skills
• Satisfies a creative instinct
Cine scrie?

• Singur sau in grup


• Cereti comentarii cat mai repede si cat mai des de la
co-autori si altii (carora le multumim)
• Primul – cel care face munca
• Ultimul- cel care coordoneaza grupul
• Importanta cea mai mica - in mijlocul articolului

• In rest- Multumiri pentru..... sfaturi, tehnicieni,


finantare, etc....
Unde Publicam

• ISI / Medline

• NEJM, Lancet, - recenzie critica (respins)

• Apoi reviste realiste (Factor de impact 1-4), cu mai


mult succes
Stop and Think!!!

•Write the study!


•Describe & classify the variables.
•Instruments for measure?
•Bias?
•Prepare to analyze data!