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OIL & FAT APPLICATION - SOAP

BY NURUL FARIHAH BINTI ABU SAIRI 55213115262


INTRODUCTION
SOAP BACKGROUND

• A combination of plant oil and caustic soda or animal fat


• Defined as a chemical compound producing from the interaction fatty
glycerides with a metal radical (sodium and potassium)
• Water-soluble salt
• Fatty acids that contains 8 or more carbon atoms
• Generally used as cleanser or perfume
• Glycerin is their useful by product
• Process known as saponification
• Two method manufacturing process – kettle method and continuous process
PROBLEM STATEMENT

•Common appearance problems

•Issues in manufacturing
DESCRIPTION
SOAP THEORY
• Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids
• Alkaline hydrolysis of esters or Saponification

• Exothermic in nature
SOAP MOLECULES – MICELLES
• Has two ends with different properties
1. Hydrophobic (a long hydrocarbon part) – end hate water
2. Hydrophilic ( a short ionic part) – end love water
SOAP MECHANISM
COMPOSITION OF SOAP

50% of fats

Tallow with 20% grease

Coconut 15%
Sources of
RAW MATERIALS Glycerides

Perfumes &
perfumes Rosin
Fixatives

Colouring Caustic soda


matter

Fillers Sodium
Chloride

Binding
Materials
TYPES OF SOAP

• Hard soap ( Laundry Soap)


- made from cheaper materials
- For clothes washing ONLY
- Excessive of alkali
• Soft soap ( Toilet Soap)
- made from best quality materials of animal or
vegetable fats
- high contains from 60% to 80% of fatty materials than in hard soap
- safe for bathing
MANUFACTURE OF SOAP

• Soap is either made by hot process or cold process


• The hot process is divide into two types,

Batch process – kettle method

Continuous process
BATCH PROCESS

• The kettle is supplied with steam with a mixture of melted fats, grease, oil in a proper
amount for the mixture. The amount of caustic soda is regulated to undergo the
hydrolysis reaction. The boiling is continued until the saponification is completes. The final
product contains soaps, water, glycerol, unused alkalis, sodium chloride, sodium
carbonate, sodium sulfate as impurities. After this saponification is complete and the
steam is cut off with the separation of salt on the surface for the batch process to stop
and deliver the soap product.
In the continuous process the raw materials oils and fats and
CONTINUOUS PROCESS the catalyst usually zinc oxide are blended and fed into a
hydrolyser or splitting tower fitted with steam coils through
which steam is passed for heating the charge. The splitting of
fat takes place continuously in a counter current manner and
about 250 0C and 40 atm pressure. The fat raises again the
aqueous phase which also dissolves glycerol in reaction. The
fatty acids were discharged from the hydrolyser to a flash tank
called decanter where excess of water is separated. They fatty
acids are the passed to a heat exchanger and then to a
vacuum still and distilled. The distillate was collected as
overhead and bottoms are stored for recovery. Then the
distillate neutralized by caustic soda in a continuous neutralizer.
As the result of this soap is obtained which is withdrawn hot
into an agitator tank. This soap contains Water, NaOH and
NaCl. This is dried in a high pressure steam exchanger by heat
and pressure, finally collected in a flash tank. The pasty mass
is missed with air and cooled to 65 0C. Here the soap is
continuously extracted and collected into soap frames where it
solidifies on cooling. Then it is cut into bars as usual. The
particular process delivers the product in a day whereas the
batch process operates for few more days.
Bubbles
mar
appear
Soap look Soap look
scummy cloudy &
crumbly
Common
appearance
problem
Soap Soap
streaked cracked &
brittle
Fuzz
cover the
soap
PROBLEM WITH SOAP MANUFACTURING
ENERGY CRISIS
Negative impact to company
The most victim is Pakistani SMEs
Cost production increases & had to cut profit

UNSTABLE CONDITION
Political situation, inflation, production cost & economic slump
The investor not interested in investing any soap or raw material to the
company

CUSTOMER TREND CHANGES


Domestic soap industry not responding to the demand and trend
changes.
They unable to capture market & understanding of customer

COST PRODUCTION HIGHER THAN SALES


Oakistani soap industry produced expensive product
Reduced foreign demand & hard to compete in local market

HIGHLY COST OF RAW MATERIALS


Inflation reduced the sale and increses the cost production
APPLICATION
• As the cleaning agent
- bathing & laundry

• Great agent in lubrication


- lubricate the metal rails of sticking desk drawer

• Detecting the gas leakage


- mix soap & water then applied to the leakage spot. Bubbles formed where the
leakage is detected

• As a coating
- applied in a moveable part of equipment (fastener the process)
CONCLUSION
• Soap is essential use in daily life & have a big market from the previous
century ages.
• Faisalabad, the biggest producer of soap hub in the country
• Faisalabad soap industry can achieve competitive advantage and can be
dominant market force in the global competition based on value chains of
itself.
• But, Faisalabad is far behind the global market due to not mature from the
previous discussion to achieved core-competency in the global soap market.
Q&A
THANK YOU