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2017/2018
Direito e regulação do
ambiente

Introdução: Contexto da questão


ambiental e a função do direito
O Antropoceno

• “O Antropoceno não é apenas um período de


perturbações causadas pelo homem. É também um
momento de rápida tomada de consciência de si
própria, no qual a espécie humana está a ficar mais
ciente de si mesma enquanto força planetária.
Estamos não apenas a liderar o aquecimento global e a
destruição ecológica; sabemos que estamos a fazê-lo.”
(Timothy Morton)
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O contexto da questão ambiental:


quatro Textos inspiradores

① Naomi Oreskes, Erik Conway, The Collapse of Western


Civilization, 2014
② Papa Francisco, Encíclica Laudato Si’ , 2015
③ UNGA, Transforming Our Word: The 2030 Agenda for
Sustainable Development, 2015
④ EEA, Late Lessons From Early Warnings, 2013
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• How would a historian in 2393 write about this century if


we continue self-destructively ignoring climate science —
and as a result modern civilization as we know it had
collapsed 300 years earlier?

• That’s the question answered by Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway


in their excellent and unique new entry in the emerging Climate-
Fiction genre, The Collapse of Western Civilization: A View From
The Future.
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• Part history, part science fiction, the book grapples with


what I expect will be the greatest puzzle to the countless
future generations who will suffer terribly — and
needlessly — for our greed and myopia:
• To the historian studying this tragic period of human history, the
most astounding fact is that the victims knew what was
happening and why. Indeed, they chronicled it in detail
precisely because they knew that fossil fuel combustion was to
blame. Historical analysis also shows that Western civilization
had the technological know-how and capability to effect an
orderly transition to renewable energy, yet the available
technologies were not implemented in time.
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• So why didn’t knowledge lead to action — or, rather, to


the relatively low-cost actions that could have averted
centuries of misery? The authors offer several reasons.
• They blame a rigid adherence to “free-market fundamentalism”
— the notion that the market will solve all problems and that
government can’t play a positive role.
• They blame scientists for being too reticent to spell out the
dangers clearly.
• And, you won’t be surprised that the authors of the now-classic
book “Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured
the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming” also
blame the group they label the “carbon combustion complex”.
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• A key attribute of the period was that power did


not reside in the hands of those who understood
the climate system, but rather in political,
economic, and social institutions that had a
strong interest (short-term) in maintaining the use
of fossil fuels.
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Laudato Si’

“Louvado sejas, meu Senhor”, cantava São Francisco de


Assis. (…) “Louvado sejas, meu Senhor, pela nossa irmã, a
mãe terra, que nos sustenta e governa e produz variados
frutos com flores coloridas e verduras.”

Esta irmã clama contra o mal que lhe provocamos por


causa do uso irresponsável e do abuso dos bens que
Deus nela colocou. Crescemos a pensar que éramos
seus proprietários e dominadores, autorizados a
saqueá-la. A violência … vislumbra-se nos sintomas de
doença que notamos no solo, na água, no ar e nos seres
vivos.”
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Laudato Si’

“Quando os seres humanos destroem a biodiversidade na


criação de Deus; quando os seres humanos comprometem
a integridade da terra e contribuem para a mudança
climática, desnudando a terra das suas florestas naturais
e destruindo as suas zonas húmidas; quando os seres
humanos contaminam as águas, o solo, o ar... Tudo isso
é pecado. (...)
... as raízes éticas e espirituais dos problemas
ambientais, que nos convidam a encontrar soluções não
só na técnica mas também numa mudança do ser
humano; ...”
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Laudato Si’

“O urgente desafio de proteger a nossa casa comum


inclui a preocupação de unir toda a família humana na
busca de um desenvolvimento sustentável e integral,
(…)
Precisamos de um debate que nos una a todos, porque o
desafio ambiental, que vivemos, e as suas raízes humanas
dizem respeito e têm impacto sobre todos nós.
O movimento ecológico mundial já percorreu um longo e
rico caminho, ... . Infelizmente, muitos esforços na
busca de soluções concretas acabam, com frequência,
frustrados não só pela recusa dos poderosos, mas
também pelo desinteresse dos outros.”
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Laudato Si’

“Façamos uma resenha, certamente incompleta, das


questões que nos causam inquietação ... “
• Poluição, resíduos e cultura do descarte
• O clima como bem comum
• A questão da água [“O acesso à água potável e segura é um
direito humano essencial, fundamental e universal, porque
determina a sobrevivência das pessoas ...”]
• Perda da biodiversidade
• Deterioração da qualidade de vida humana e degradação
social
• Desigualdade planetária [“... há uma verdadeira “dívida
ecológica” entre o Norte e o Sul”.]
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Laudato Si’

• A fraqueza das reações

“Torna-se indispensável criar um sistema normativo


que inclua limites invioláveis e assegure a proteção
dos ecossistemas, antes que as novas formas de poder
derivadas do paradigma tecno-económico acabem por
arrasá-los …”
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Laudato Si’
• O poder da ciência e da tecnologia

“ (…) Não podemos ... ignorar que a energia nuclear, a


biotecnologia, a informática, o conhecimento do nosso próprio DNA
e outras potencialidades que adquirimos, nos dão um poder
tremendo. Ou melhor: dão, àqueles que detêm o conhecimento e
sobretudo o poder económico para o desfrutar...

“É preciso reconhecer que os produtos da tecnociência não são


neutros,. (…) “… o paradigma tecnocrático tornou-se tão
dominante … (…) A economia assume todo o desenvolvimento
tecnológico em função do lucro, sem prestar atenção a eventuais
consequências negativas para o ser humano. (…) Nalguns círculos,
defende-se que a economia atual e a tecnologia resolverão todos os
problemas ambientais, …”
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Laudato Si’

• Algumas Linhas de Orientação e Ação

• “Nas últimas décadas as questões ambientais deram origem a um


amplo debate público, que fez crescer na sociedade civil espaços
de notável compromisso e generosa dedicação. A política e a
indústria reagem com lentidão, longe de estar à altura dos
desafios mundiais. Neste sentido, pode-se dizer que enquanto a
humanidade do período pós-industrial talvez fique recordada como
uma das mais irresponsáveis da história, espera-se
que a humanidade dos inícios do século XXI possa ser lembrada
por ter assumido com generosidade as suas graves
responsabilidades.
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Laudato Si’

• As cimeiras mundiais sobre o meio ambiente dos últimos


anos não corresponderam às expectativas, porque não
alcançaram, por falta de decisão política, acordos ambientais
globais realmente significativos e eficazes.”
• “(…) Retomando alguns conteúdos da Declaração de Estocolmo (1972),
a Cimeira da Terra (1992) sancionou, entre outras coisas, a cooperação
internacional ..., a obrigação de quem contaminar assumir
economicamente os custos derivados, o dever de avaliar o impacto
ambiental de toda e qualquer obra ou projeto.
• Propõe o objectivo de estabilizar as concentrações de gases com efeito
de estufa na atmosfera para inverter a tendência do aquecimento global.
Também elaborou uma agenda com um programa de ação e uma
convenção sobre a biodiversidade, declarou princípios em matéria
florestal. (…)”
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Diálogo e Transparência nos Processos Decisórios

• “ (…) Um estudo de impacto ambiental não deveria ser


posterior à elaboração dum projeto produtivo ou de
qualquer política, plano ou programa. (...) Deve aparecer
unido à análise das condições de trabalho e dos
possíveis efeitos na saúde física e mental das pessoas,
na economia local, na segurança. … É sempre
necessário alcançar consenso entre os vários atores
sociais, …”
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• Conflitos de interesse, Incertezas e


Controvérsias científicas

• “Quando surgem eventuais riscos para o meio


ambiente que afectam o bem comum presente e futuro,
esta situação exige ‘que as decisões sejam baseadas
num confronto entre riscos e benefícios previsíveis para
cada opção alternativa possível’.”
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Laudato Si’
• O princípio da precaução
• (…) o princípio da precaução permite a proteção dos
mais fracos, que dispõem de poucos meios para se
defender e fornecer provas irrefutáveis. Se a informação
objectiva leva a prever um dano grave e irreversível,
mesmo que não haja uma comprovação indiscutível, seja
o projeto que for, deverá suspender-se ou modificar-se.
Assim, inverte-se o ónus da prova, já que, nestes casos,
é preciso fornecer uma demonstração objectiva e
contundente de que a gravidade proposta não vai gerar
danos graves ao meio ambiente ou às pessoas que nele
habitam. Isto não implica opor-se ... toda e qualquer
inovação tecnológica ...”
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O papel do direito
• “Perante a possibilidade duma utilização irresponsável
das capacidades humanas, são funções inadiáveis de
cada Estado planificar, coordenar, vigiar e sancionar
dentro do respectivo território. (…) Um factor que atua
como moderador efetivo é o direito, que estabelece as
regras para as condutas permitidas à luz do bem
comum.

• Os limites que uma sociedade sã, madura e soberana deve impor


têm a ver com previsão e precaução, regulamentações
adequadas, vigilância sobre a aplicação das normas, combate da
corrupção, ações de controlo operacional sobre o aparecimento de
efeitos não desejados dos processos de produção, e oportuna
intervenção perante riscos incertos ou potenciais.”
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UNGA, Transforming our World: The 2030


Agenda for Sustainable Development

• This Agenda is a plan of action for people,


planet and prosperity. It also seeks to
strengthen universal peace in larger freedom.
We recognise that eradicating poverty in all its
forms and dimensions, including extreme poverty,
is the greatest global challenge and an
indispensable requirement for sustainable
development.
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• Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere

• Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and
promote sustainable agriculture

• Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

• Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote


lifelong learning opportunities for all

• Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

• Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and


sanitation for all
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• Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and


modern energy for all

• Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic


growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

• Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and


sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

• Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries

• Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient
and sustainable
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• Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

• Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

• Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine
resources for sustainable development

• Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial


ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and
halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
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• Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for


sustainable development, provide access to justice for all
and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions
at all levels

• Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and


revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable
Development
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UNGA, Transforming our World: The 2030


Agenda for Sustainable Development

• In these Goals and Targets, we are setting out a


supremely ambitious and transformational vision. We
envisage a world free of poverty, hunger, disease and
want, where all life can thrive. We envisage a world
free of fear and violence. A world with universal
literacy. A world with equitable and universal access to
quality education at all levels, to health care and social
protection, ... A world where we reaffirm our commitments
regarding the human right to safe drinking water and
sanitation and where there is improved hygiene; and
where food is sufficient, safe, affordable and nutritious.
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• A world where human habitats are safe, resilient and


sustainable and where there is universal access to
affordable, reliable and sustainable energy.
• We envisage a world of universal respect for human
rights and human dignity, the rule of law, justice,
equality and non-discrimination; of respect for race,
ethnicity and cultural diversity; and of equal opportunity
permitting the full realization of human potential …
• One in which development and the application of
technology are climate-sensitive, respect biodiversity and
are resilient. One in which humanity lives in harmony
with nature …
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• The new Agenda is guided by the purposes and principles


of the Charter of the United Nations, including full
respect for international law. It is grounded in the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, international
human rights treaties, the Millennium Declaration and
the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document. It is
informed by other instruments such as the Declaration on
the Right to Development.
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• We reaffirm all the principles of the Rio Declaration on


Environment and Development, including, inter alia, the
principle of common but differentiated responsibilities.

• The challenges and commitments contained in these


major conferences and summits are interrelated and
call for integrated solutions. To address them
effectively, a new approach is needed.
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• We reaffirm the outcomes of all major UN conferences


and summits which have laid a solid foundation for
sustainable development and have helped to shape the
new Agenda.
• These include the Rio Declaration on Environment and
Development; the World Summit on Sustainable
Development; the World Summit for Social Development;
the Programme of Action of the International Conference
on Population and Development, the Beijing Platform for
Action; and the United Nations Conference on
Sustainable Development (“Rio+ 20”).
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• We also reaffirm the follow-up to these conferences,


including the outcomes of the Fourth United Nations
Conference on the Least Developed Countries, the Third
International Conference on Small Island Developing
States; the Second United Nations Conference on
Landlocked Developing Countries; and the Third UN
World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction.
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• We envisage a world in which every country enjoys


sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic
growth and decent work for all.
• A world in which consumption and production patterns
and use of all natural resources – from air to land, from
rivers, lakes and aquifers to oceans and seas - are
sustainable.
• One in which democracy, good governance and the
rule of law …, are essential for sustainable development,

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• Indicators are being developed to assist this work. Quality,


accessible, timely and reliable disaggregated data will be
needed to help with the measurement of progress and to
ensure that no one is left behind.

• Such data is key to decision-making. Data and information


from existing reporting mechanisms should be used where
possible. We agree to intensify our efforts to strengthen
statistical capacities in developing countries, ...

• We are committed to developing broader measures of


progress to complement gross domestic product (GDP).
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• Our Governments have the primary responsibility for


follow-up and review, at the national, regional and global
levels, in relation to the progress made in
implementing the Goals and targets over the coming
fifteen years.
• To support accountability to our citizens, we will provide
for systematic follow-up and review at the various levels,
as set out in this Agenda …The High Level Political
Forum under the auspices of the General Assembly
and the Economic and Social Council will have the
central role in overseeing follow-up and review at the
global level.
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EEA, Late Lessons


From Early Warnings
• The implicit links between the sources of scientific
knowledge about pollutants, changes in the environment
and new technologies, and strong vested interests, both
economic and paradigmatic, are exposed.

• A number of authors also explore in greater depth the


short-sightedness of regulatory science and its role in the
identification, evaluation and governance of natural
resources, physical and chemical hazards.
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• A. Lessons from health hazards;


• B. Emerging lessons from ecosystems;
• C. Emerging issues;
• D. Costs, justice and innovation;
• E. Implications for science and governance.
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Lessons from health hazards


Minamata disease
• 1950s - Chisso knew it was discharging methylmercury
and could have known that it was the likely active factor
but it chose not to collaborate and actively hindered
research.

• The government concurred, prioritising industrial growth over public


health.
• The second part of the story addresses the discovery that
methylmercury is transferred across the placenta to affect the
development of unborn children, resulting in serious mental and
physical problems in later life. Experts missed this at first because
of a medical consensus that such transfer across the placenta was
impossible.
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Lessons from health hazards


Minamata disease
• The third phase focuses on the battle for compensation. Initially,
Chisso gave token 'sympathy money’.

• In 1971, the Japanese government adopted a more generous


approach but after claims and costs soared a more restrictive
definition was introduced in 1977, justified by controversial 'expert
opinions'.

• Legal victories for the victims subsequently made the government's


position untenable and a political solution was reached in 1995–
1996. In 2003, the 'expert opinions' were shown to be flawed and
the Supreme Court declared the definition invalid in 2004.
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Implications for science and governance


Bisphenol A
• Contested science, divergent safety evaluations.

• Studies have suggested that even exposure to low doses of BPA


may cause endocrine disrupting effects.

• Different approaches to risk assessment for BPA by US and


European authorities are presented. It throws light on the ways in
which similar evidence is evaluated differently in different risk
assessments and presents challenges for applying the
precautionary principle.

• The intense discussion and scientific work on BPA have slowly


contributed to a process of improving test strategies.