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PRESENTATION ON CEG 812 (INTRODUCTION TO NAVAL

ARCHITECTURE, PART 1)

BY

ENGR. I. DICK
GENERAL COURSE OBJECTIVES

• This course is a remedial/basic course that


aims at introducing Naval Architecture to
students who are new entrants into a degree
level marine/offshore engineering program.
• It is therefore designed to present the basic
principles of Naval Architecture that provides
foundational knowledge essential for the
understanding of all other fields of marine and
offshore engineering.
LECTURE EXPECTATION

• At the completion of the course, students are


expected to show appreciable understanding
of some basic knowledge of the concepts and
principles that are rudimentary to advanced
courses on the subject or other marine
engineering courses.
LECTURE OUTLINE
In this lecture, we shall take a cursory look at the following topics in no particular order.
1. Functions of a ship
2. Ship types
3. Principal terms and profile of ship
4. Hydrostatic curves
5. Ship Calculation; Areas, Volumes, Moments, Displacements, TPC, Form coefficients,
BONJEAN Curves, Centre of gravity, Buoyancy,
6. Stability; Transverse and Dynamic
7. Inclining Experiment,
8. Calculations; GZ, GM and BM
9. Curves of stability; Free Surface effect
10. Trim; Change in trim and draughts
11. Statutory regulations
12. Classification Societies requirements
13. IMO REGULATIONS
14. Ship motion
15. Practical Drawing and Laboratory
1.1 The Origin of Naval Architecture
• Believed to be born in the • In 1600s aesthetics were given
mountains of Peru in 1735 by a more importance than the actual
French astronomer named construction of, and function of a
Pierre Bouguer (who never built ship, neglecting vital
a ship in his life) in an expedition characteristics such as stability
sent by the French Navy and the and hull proportion. Even the
science community that lasted drawings were made without the
for 10years to affirm the true application of geometry.
shape of the Earth which at the
time was unsure to be spherical.
On that journey, He wrote Traite
du navire, which is supposed to
be known as the first book and
the cornerstone of naval
architecture and which set down
the scientific aspects of ship
building. Meta-center is still used
to measure ship stability today as
it was then used.
1.2 WHAT THEN IS NAVAL ARCHITECTURE?
• An engineering discipline that deals with design,
construction, operations and maintenance of water-
borne crafts.

• Deals with formulation of safety standards, damage


control rules and certification of vessel designs.

• Concerned with the modification, modernization and


repair of old vessels.
1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF MARINE
CRAFTS
• From hydrodynamic point of view, marine
crafts can be classified according to their
maximum operating speed.

• The Froude number is commonly used for this


purpose for a marine craft sailing at constant
speed.
Classification of marine crafts cont’d
• For a Displacement vessel where buoyancy
force (restoring forces) dominates relative to
hydrodynamic force, fn < 0.4

• For Semi-displacement vessels where the


buoyancy force is not dormant at maximum
operating speed for a high speed submerged
hull type of craft, 0.4 – 0.5 < fn < 1.0 – 1.2

• For Planning Vessel, fn > 1.0 – 1.2. Here, the


hydrodynamic force mainly carries the weight;
flow separation is strong and aerodynamic lift
and drag forces start playing a role.
1.4 MYTH ABOUT VESSEL, BOAT OR
SHIP
Vessel, Boat or Ship are generally used interchangeably. Distinguishing
factors in specific terms are:
• Vessel: Hollow structure that is larger than a row boat.
• Ship: A large floating vessel capable of crossing open water. Any
vessel of > 500 tons of displacement is a ship.
• Submersibles are generally called boats regardless of their sizes.
• Submarine: Any naval vessel that is capable of propelling itself
beneath the water surface as well as on the water surface.
• Underwater vehicle: small vehicle that is capable of propelling itself
beneath the water surface as well as on the water surface e.g. Un-
manned underwater vehicles (UUV), remotely operated vehicles
(ROV), Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and underwater
robotic vehicles (URV). They are used commercially and by the
Navy.
1.5 SHIP TYPES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

• Merchant/commercial ships, e.g. ULCC, VLCC,


Ore Carriers, General cargo ships, Passenger ships
etc.

• Naval ships, e.g. Aircraft carriers, destroyers,


cruisers, etc.

• Exploration ships etc.


SHIP TYPES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS CONT’D

• Merchant/commercial • Naval ships, e.g Aircraft


ships, e.g. ULCC, VLCC, Ore carriers, destroyers,
Carriers, General cargo
cruisers, etc
ships, Passenger ships,
Container ships, etc
SHIP TYPES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS CONT’D

• Exploration ships
1.6 Characteristics of a ship
Type of ship or name Typical DWT (tones or m3) LBP (m) Typical Cb Service speed
fully knots
loaded
ULCC, VLCC and 565,000 – 100,000 440 – 250 0.85 – 0.82 13 –15 3Τ4
super-tankers • ULCC has deadweight > 320,000 tons ; VLCC has
deadweight between 160,000 and 320,000tonnes

Medium-sized oil 100,000 – 50,000 250 – 175 0.82 – 0.80 15 – 15 3Τ4


tankers

Ore carriers Up to 323,000 200 – 300 0.79 – 0.83 14 1ൗ2

− 15 1ൗ2
General cargo ships 3,000 – 15,000 100 – 150 0.70 14 – 16

LNG, LPG Ships 130,000 – 75,000 up to 280 0.66 – 0.68 20 3ൗ4 − 16

Passenger liners 5,000 – 20,000 200 – 300 0.6 – 0.64 24 – 30

Container ships 10,000 – 72,000 200 – 300 0.56 – 0.60 20 – 28

Roll on / roll off car 2,000 – 5,000 100 – 180 0.55 – 0.57 18 – 24
and passenger ferries
1.7 CATEGORIES OF OCEAN VEHICLES

Three (3) categories of ocean vehicles exist


namely:
• Categorization by means of support system

• Categorization by means of the mission


(purpose)

• Categorization by configuration
Categorization by means of support
system
Under support,
(restoring forces)
we have:

• Support by buoyancy
force: e.g.
conventional
displacement ships
(Tanker)
Categorization by means of support
system
• Support by
hydrodynamic force:
e.g. Hydrofoil ships and
planing hull ships at full
speed. These crafts rise
above the surface of the
water (due to
hydrodynamic lifting
force) when travelling
fast.
Categorization by means of support
system
• Support by Aerostatic
force (pressure):
Examples are Air-
cushion vehicles at full
speed. Hovercraft is an
example and it’s
designed to ride on a
cushion of air formed
by down-thrusting fans.
GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR SHIP
CATEGORIES
These are design expectations for the vessel categories.
 For ocean transportation vehicles
Design must optimize speed (mobility), ability to carry
pay load (weight/total displacement), cost and
performance
 For work platform
Design must optimize in terms of Performance: motion,
station keeping and strength of structure. In terms of
logistics: mobility, efficient delivery system, support
systems should be achieved. In terms of Economics the
initial, operating and maintenance cost has to be
optimized.
Categorization by means of support
system
• Ground supported:
Ocean drilling platform
(medium and shallow
waters) fall into this
category. Example is a
jack up drill ships, jacket
structures (drilling
platform), gravity-based
structure., etc.
Categorization by means of the
mission (purpose)
• Military Purposes
Categorization by means of the
mission (purpose)
• Non –military purpose
 Transportation, e.g.
Passenger ships
 Work platform, e.g.
FLNG,
 Offshore commerce,
e.g. Break waters,
artificial reefs, etc.
Categorization by configuration
• Near surface, e.g.
• Surface displacement, Hovercraft, Hydrofoil,
e.g. Catamaran etc.
(SWATH) craft.
Excellent stability
Categorization by configuration
• Semi-submersible, e.g.
Sea star,
• Bottom supported, e.g.
jacket structures,
gravity-based
structures, e.t.c
Categorization by configuration
• Submerged, e.g. ROVs,
underwater Habitat, etc
2.0 THE EVOLUTION OF THE SHAPE
OF A SHIP’S HULL FORM
• Evolved from the shape a Viking See the classical hull shape of a
long ship or even a Nineteenth traditional building technique that
Century tea clipper. of a “Clinker built Boat”.

• Recent hull shapes, still similar


even with earlier failures (The
“Wasa”, 16th century warship
capsizing on launching due to
excessive top weight)

• The Aft and fore may be double


ended or the stern may be
“chopped short” by a flat
transverse bulkhead, called the
“transom”

REQUIREMENTS OF A SHIP’S HULL
• A good carrying capacity for the overall size of the
vessel
• Good sea – keeping qualities
• The ability to be easily driven through the water
• The possession of the ability to remain basically
upright in a seaway
• The strength to withstand the stresses and strains
due to the motions of the sea.
Note: Meeting these requirements are often in
conflicts with each other.
2.1 COMMON FEATURES AND TERMINOLOGY OF A SHIP’S HULL
HULL MEASUREMENTS (PRINCIPAL
DIMENSIONS)
• Length overall (LOA): maximum length of ship
• Lwl = Load water line (calculation length)

• Length between perpendiculars (LBP): Horizontal distance between aft


and fore perpendiculars
Aft/after perpendicular-vertical line through the rudder pintle;
Fore/forward Perpendicular-vertical distance through the point of
between the stem and the waterline.

• Depth of hull (extreme and moulded):, vertical distance between the


uppermost continuous decks measured at mid-ships. When plate
thickness is included, it is extreme depth. Without plate thickness , it is
moulded depth.

• Depth of beam or Breadth (extreme and moulded): Maximum transverse


distance from portside to starboard side of ship, measured at mid-hips.
Inside of plate on one side to another side is moulded breadth.
HULL MEASUREMENTS CONT’D

• Freeboard: distance measured downwards from the deck to the W.L;


usually minimum at mid-ships. Minimum f.b is required by
International Law.
• Draft/Draught: vertical distance between waterline and keel of ship. If
W.L. is parallel to the baseline (keel line), the ship is floating evenly/even
keel.
• Not parallel, the ship has a trim.
Trim = da – df
Trim (in radius) = (da – df )/ L
Average draft = (da + df )/ 2
• Sheer: height of the hull above the freeboard line; zero amidships. Sheer
fore = (Sheer aft)*2
• Air draft: This is the vertical distance from the waterline to the highest
point on the ship.
• DISPLACEMENT (Volume, Mass, Load displacement, Light displacement)
2.2 INTERNAL DIVISION WITHIN THE
SHIP’S HULL
• Why divide the Ship’s hull internally?
1. To provide essential stiffness and
strength to the hull structure.
2. To create suitably sized segregated
spaces for fuel, water, ballast, cargo
and machinery rooms
3. To restrict the possible movement
of individual cargo stows,
particularly liquids that will flow
back and forth with the ship’s
motion
4. To limit the extent of flooding that
can occur if a ship is accidentally
“holed” under the waterline and to
provide it with some chance of
remaining afloat.
2.3 INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR A NEW-BUILD SHIP

• Type of vessel
• Deadweight of the new ship
• Required service speed
• Route in which the new vessel will operate due to length
and breadth restrictions on the different routes.
(E.g. For Panama Canal: lengthmax289.56m, Beam 32.26m,
Draft restriction is 12.04m up to the tropical fresh mark, Air
draft, not greater than 57.91m; For St. Lawrence seaway:
Length 225.5m, Beam 23.8m, maximum air draft is to be
35.5m, Draft must not be more than 8.0m)
3.0 INTRODUCTION TO SHIP DRAWING

In general, drawings that associate with ship buildings can


be divided into the following categories:

I) Lines Plan Drawing


ii) General Arrangement Drawing
iii) Shell Expansion Drawing
iv) Schematic Systems Drawing
v) Detail / Production Drawing
vi) 3-D Product Drawing
Ship lines plans/Drawing
• Sectional drawings of the hull form (drawn
to suitable scale, usually 1:50 0r 1:200
• Generally called “Sheer drawing” using the method of prescriptive
“Lines Drawing,” or simply the “lines” geometry) obtained by the intersection of
or “lines plan. See figure below: three sets of mutually orthogonal planes
(longitudinal vertical (buttock) plane,
horizontal water plane and transverse
plane) with the outside surface. The plans
so generated by connecting points of
intersection between these planes and
the ship’s form are the sheer, half-
breadth and the body plans respectively.
Lines Plans Cont’d (Sheer plan)
• The Sheer plan is revealed when • Sheer plan is finally generated
Vertical Buttock planes that are by the lines connecting the
parallel to, and of distances 2m, points of intersection of Vertical
4m, etc from the longitudinal buttock planes and vessel’s
central plane cut the vessel’s form.
form longitudinally and the
section viewed from the side.
Lines Plans Cont’d (1/2 breadth plan)
• This is revealed when Horizontal • Half-breadth Plan is generated by
waterlines planes that are connecting the points of
parallel to, and of distances 2m, intersections of horizontal
4m, etc. from the base plane; cut waterline planes and vessel’s
the vessel’s form and the section form.
viewed from the top.
Lines Plans Cont’d (Body Plan)
• It is almost a standard practice to
• This plan is revealed when
show the stations of the rear
Transverse planes that are
region of the ship at the left side
placed parallel to the mid-section
of body plan while the right hand
and at equal station interval cut
side of the body plan represents
the vessel’s form and the section
the stations at the forward
viewed from the rear or front.
region due to symmetry.
• Number of stations can be 11 or
21. (AP)0-10 being UK notation,
and (AP)10-0 being US notation.
Table of Offsets
Offsets data Cont’d
• Offsets data is the data that is extracted (measured) from the lines plan
drawing and considered the most important data for the design,
calculation, analysis and construction of the ship.

• Offset Data is the distance measured from the center line of the ship to
the specific point on the curves (station or waterline curves, etc).

• Offset data could also be called half breadth data because it represents
the half breadth of the ship at every station and waterlines.
Drawing Lines Plans from Table of
Offsets
• Drawing lines plan normally begins with the reading of the data from the
offset tables. This is followed by drawing the grid lines that form the
body plan, sheer plan and half-breadth plan.

• Lines that represent the shape of the vessel must be smooth and fair.
Beside smoothness and fairness, accuracy is also very important, that is
measurements at every line must match in all the three different views.
Choosing the right scale is also essential task in the drawing of lines plan.
Scale that is too small will lead to larger error and inaccuracy on the lines
that were drawn. On the other hand scale that is too large requires large
drawing paper and may be beyond the size of the drawing equipment.
Drawing Lines Plans from Table of
Offsets Cont’d
• This exercise is purely PRACTICAL and so, the
following should be noted in the practical session.
• Although, all the Three (3) Plans are linked together
in drawing;
• “The height above base” section of the Table of
Offsets is specifically needed to Draw the Sheer Plan.
while;
• “The half-breadth” section of the Table of Offsets is
needed to Draw both the Body and the Half-breadth
plans.
General Arrangement Drawing

• Entails the assignment of spaces


for all the required functions and
equipment to enable a properly
coordinated location , access
and performance.
Scantling Drawing
• This drawing is meant for the
construction of the structures
and plating of a ship during
construction. The structure’s
dimensions and the plate
thicknesses are determined to
withstand the load that is going
to apply to the vessel during
operation.
• Three locations of the structures
that are generally shown in the
scantling drawing are mid-ship,
location of 25% from forward of
perpendicular and location of
25% from aft-ward of
perpendicular.
Detail / Production Drawing
• Production drawing shows the details of the
system onboard in their functional positions,
the method of fabrication and assembly
process.

• Also shows sectional details, tolerances and


the depth of finishing required, etc.
IMPORTANCE OF SHIP DRAWINGS
• They help to represent the unique hull shape of any ship since drawings of a
particular hull cannot be interchanged or shared with another hull.

• Ease the modification, repair and maintenance of ship which ordinarily would
have been difficult.

• Used in all the design calculations and analyses, particularly at the initial stages
when power and performance of a vessel are predicted.

• They are considered as the basic data and essential tools for the production
process. Previous old shipyard builds vessel based on experience, but when a new
design of hull is being introduced, ship drawings are essential to make sure that
the accuracy and requirement are fulfilled for a vessel.

• They form part of the contractual matters. Without ship drawing, a vessel cannot
be classed as no classification society will approve and class a ship without the
proper ship drawing.

NOTE that amongst the various drawings in ship drawing, the most important and
basic ship data is Lines Plan Drawing and from it, other drawings are made.
SHIP FORM/HULL COEFFICIENTS

• Non-dimensional coefficients describing the underwater


form/shape of ships.
• Related to the resistance and stability of the ship and can be
used to estimate them empirically.
• They include:

a. Block coefficient (𝑪𝒃 )


b. Mid-ship section coefficient (𝑪𝒎 )
c. Prismatic/Longitudinal coefficient (𝑪𝑷 )
d. Water plane coefficient (𝑪𝒘 )
SHIP FORM/HULL COEFFICIENTS Cont’d
• Block coefficient (𝑪𝒃 )
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 • Prismatic/longitudinal
=
𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑏𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘 coefficient (𝑪′𝑷 ) =
𝛻 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑝 𝑠 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡
= ; =
𝐿×𝐵×𝐷𝑅𝐴𝐹𝑇 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑠𝑚
𝛻
𝐿×𝐴𝑚
Where 𝛻 = Volume displacement, L=lbp,
B=max. breadth. Ranges btw 0.38~0.80 Where Am = Ship’s mid-ship area
and even bigger. Ranges btw 0.55~0.80
SHIP FORM/HULL COEFFICIENTS Cont’d

• Water plane coefficient (𝑪𝒘 ) • Mid-ship section coefficient


𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 (𝑪𝒎 ). It ranges between
= 0.67 ⋍ 0.98
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝐴𝐵𝐶𝐷
𝑊𝑃𝐴 𝑀𝑖𝑑𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑝 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝐴𝑚
= = =
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝐵 ×𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑡
𝐿×𝐵
• Ranges btw 0.67-0.87
SHIP FORM/HULL COEFFICIENTS Cont’d

• A little consideration would show that:


𝐴𝑚 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑝′ 𝑠 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡
Cm × Cp = =
𝐵 × 𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑡 𝐿 × 𝐴𝑚
𝛻
= = Cb
𝐿 × 𝐵 × 𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑡

i.e. Cm × Cp = Cb
Cb
Hence, Cp =
Cm
• Also note that Cp is always slightly higher than Cb at each
waterline.
BODY RATIOS
• Ratios of principal ship particulars of basic ships normally used to
estimate those of new- build for preliminary analysis.

Examples are:-
𝜵 𝑪𝒃 𝑳𝑩𝑻
• Displacement / length ratio: =
𝑳𝟑 𝑳𝟑

𝑩
• Breadth / length ratio:
𝑳

𝑫
• Draft / length ratio:
𝑳

𝑫
• Draft / breadth ratio:
𝑩
Flotation and Buoyancy
• A ship floats by pushing its own weight of water
up and out of the way. The displaced water then,
exerts a supporting force on the ship’s hull as
gravity tries to restore the original undisturbed
level. The resulting upward force is called the
Upthrust or Buoyancy.
• The buoyancy force acts at the Center of
Buoyancy situated at the geometrical center of
the underwater volume.
Flotation and Buoyancy Cont’d
• To remains afloat, this weight of water displaced must
equal weight of ship. This occurs as average density,
including enclosed void spaces, becomes less than that
of the water in which it floats.

• As weight increases more volume of water must be


displaced to support increasing hull depth below the
water.

• If all the enclosed spaces of the ship are completely


immersed due to increased loading, further increase in
cargo weight will not produce any further increase in
displaced water because there is no hull to displace
again. The vessel will then sink since the Upthrust is now
less than the increased weight of the vessel.

• Alternatively, a ship may sink if some of its enclosed hull
spaces are “holed or flooded”. Here, the ship’s weight
remains the same but the flooded compartment no
longer contributes to the displacement of water hence
the buoyancy is now reduced.

• This ship must sink lower in the water and, if there is


sufficient remaining enclosed space to compensate for
the flooding, the vessel will remain afloat at a new
deeper draft. If, however, the enclosed spaces become
fully submerged without fully compensating the lost
buoyancy, the ship will sink.
Flotation and Buoyancy Cont’d
We can say therefore that:
• When the weight of the immersed body (𝑨𝒅𝝆𝑩 𝒈) is equal to
the weight of the liquid(𝑨𝒅𝝆𝟏 𝒈) displaced by the body, then
the body will not move up or down but will be stationary.
This occurs when 𝝆𝟏 (𝒍𝒊𝒒𝒖𝒊𝒅 𝒅𝒆𝒏𝒔𝒊𝒕𝒚) = 𝝆𝑩 (Body density)
• When 𝝆𝟏 < 𝝆𝑩 then, 𝑨𝒅𝝆𝟏 𝒈 < 𝑨𝒅𝝆𝑩 𝒈 and the body will
sink because the body is heavier or denser than the liquid
weight displaced.
• When 𝝆𝟏 > 𝝆𝑩 , i.e. 𝑨𝒅𝝆𝟏 𝒈 > 𝑨𝒅𝝆𝑩 𝒈, 𝐭𝐡𝐞 body will rise
because it is lighter than the weight of the liquid which it
displaces. As the upthrust (vertical force = buoyant force)
acting on the fully immersed body is greater than the weight
of the body, it will rise until the weight of the body = weight of
the liquid displaced by the body.
EFFECT OF DENSITY ON DRAFT AND DISPLACEMENT

Effect of change of density when the displacement is


constant
• Mathematically, Displacement = L × B × d × ρ
• This means that if draft increases, displacement will
also increase and vice versa. The same holds true for
density also.
• If a vessel moves from high density(sea water) to low
density water (fresh water), draft will increase and vice
versa, for the same mass of vessel (constant
displacement).
• It is therefore the draft change that is maintaining the
constant displacements in the two water bodies of
different densities.
Effect of change of density when the displacement is
constant Cont’d

Typical scenario for Box-shaped vessel.


• New mass of water displaced = old mass of water displaced
i.e. L × B × dnew × ρ(new) = L × B × dold × ρ(old)
⇒New volume × new density = old volume ×old density
𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦
i.e., = or
𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦
𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑡 𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦
= , for the same length and breadth of
𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑡 𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦
vessel
Effect of density on displacement when the draft is
constant
When the density is changing, and the draft is not changing,
then the displacement in the two water bodies are no longer
the same.
Two things are possible for this scenario: Either;
1. Cargo is discharged from the vessel when movement is from
a high to a lower density water in order to maintain draft or,
2. Cargo is loaded onto the vessel when movement is from a
low to a higher density water in order to maintain draft.
Note: Either of the above operations is needed to keep draft
constant at changing displacement and densities.
𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡
In all cases, =
𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦
Tonnes Per Centimeter Immersion (TPC)
• The TPC for any draft is the mass of cargo which
must be loaded or discharged to change a ship’s
mean draft in salt water by one centimeter.
• Generally, 𝑇𝑃𝐶 = • 𝑇𝑃𝐶(𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟) = 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑜 = 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 ∗
𝑊𝑃𝐴 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
×𝜌 =𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 ∗ 1 𝑐𝑚 ∗ 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
100
1 (𝑚) 1025𝑘𝑔 1 (𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑛𝑒)
= 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 ∗ 100 ∗* 1000
𝑐𝑚 𝑚3 𝑘𝑔
1 (𝑚)
= 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 (𝑚2 ) ∗
100 𝑐𝑚
1025𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑠

1000𝑚3
𝑊𝑃𝐴
= 𝑡/𝑐𝑚
97.5
𝑊𝑃𝐴
• 𝑇𝑃𝐶(𝐹𝑟𝑒𝑠ℎ 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟) = 𝑡/𝑐𝑚
100
𝑅𝐷𝑑𝑤
• 𝑇𝑃𝐶𝑑𝑤 = × 𝑇𝑃𝐶𝑆𝑊
1.025
RESERVE BUOYANCY

• The reserve buoyancy may be defined as the


volume of the enclosed space above the
waterline. It may be expressed as a volume or as
a percentage of the total volume of the vessel.
• This volume is not providing buoyancy but is
being held in reserve. If extra weights are loaded
to increase the displacement, these spaces above
the waterline are there to provide the extra
buoyancy required.
The Effect of Density on Ship-shaped vessels
(FRESH WATER ALLOWANCE)

• It has already been shown that when the density of the


water in which a vessel floats is changed the draft will
change, but the mass of water in kg or tonnes displaced will
be unchanged; i.e.
𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡
or,
𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 ∗ 𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 ∗ 𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦
𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦
⇒ =
𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦
• With ship shapes this formula should not be simplified further
as it was in the case of box-shape because the underwater
volume is not rectangular. To find the change in draft of a ship
shape due to density change, a quantity known as the “Fresh
Water Allowance” must be known.
Fresh Water Allowance (FWA)

• The Fresh Water Allowance


is the number in millimeters
by which the mean draft
changes when a ship passes
from salt water to fresh
water, or vice versa, whilst
floating at the loaded draft.
It is found by the
expression:
⇒ 𝐹𝑊𝐴 𝑚𝑚 =
𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 (𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑠)
4∗𝑇𝑃𝐶
Dock Water Allowance (DWA)
• When the ship is loading in dock water which is of density between
these two limits, ‘S’ may be submerged such a distance that she will
automatically rise to ‘S’ when the open sea and salt water is
reached. The distance by which ‘S’ can be submerged, called the
Dock Water Allowance, is found in practice by simple proportion as
follows:
Let X = Dock Water Allowance
Let 𝜌𝐷𝑊 = Density of dock water
Then,
𝑋𝑚𝑚 1025 − 𝜌𝐷𝑊
=
𝐹𝑊𝐴 1025 − 1000
Or
𝐹𝑊𝐴 (1025 − 𝜌𝐷𝑊 )
𝐷𝑜𝑐𝑘 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝐴𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 =
25
7.0 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION FOR SHIP FORMS

• Ship forms in most cases are not regular shapes/figures and


so, determining their areas and volumes take the form of
numerical integration and the methods in common use
includes the following:
• The trapezoidal rule (linear)
• Simpson’s 1st (1/3rd) rule (Quadratic)
• Simpson’s 2nd (3/8th) rule (cubic)
• Simpson’s 3rd (5+8-1)/(5/8-1) rule
METHODS OF NUMERICAL INTEGRATION FOR SHIP FORMS

• Measurement of Area and Volume


Any quantity which can be represented by the area under a
curve can be determined by measuring the area under the
curve between limits.
• If the equation of the curve is known, then the techniques
of integral calculus can be used. If, as is generally the case
with ship data, there is no equation which describes the
bounding curve, one of the techniques of numerical
integration must be used. All these techniques rely upon
dividing the area to be measured into segments and then
applying various formulae to the ordinates bounding the
segments. However, the accuracy depends upon the
spacing of the ordinates and the nearness of the curve that
follows the law.
METHODS OF NUMERICAL INTEGRATION FOR SHIP FORMS
Cont’d

• The trapezoidal rule


(Linear)
This rule assumes that the
bounding curve between
two ordinates Y1 and Y2 is
linear (straight line) i.e.
𝑦 = 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑐.
The trapezoidal rule Cont’d

• 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 =
𝑏
‫ = 𝑥𝑑 𝑥 𝑓 𝑎׬‬σ1𝑖=0 𝑐𝑖 𝑓 𝑥𝑖 = 𝑐0 𝑓 𝑥0 +
𝑐1 𝑓 𝑥1

= 𝑓 𝑥0 + 𝑓(𝑥1 )
2

Which in our case = 𝑦1 + 𝑦2 =
2
𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑝𝑒𝑧𝑖𝑢𝑚

• The rule may be extended to any number of


ordinates and when done is then known as
the compound trapezoidal rule .
The trapezoidal rule Cont’d

• Here, 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝑦0 + 2𝑦1 + 2𝑦2 + 2𝑦3 + 𝑦4 how?
2
Consider the figure 7.2 to be made up of 4 areas
• A1 bounded by y0 and y1
• A2 bounded by y1 and y2
• A3 bounded by y2 and y3
• A4 bounded by y3 and y4
• Applying the rule, we have;

• For 𝐴1 = 𝑦0 + 𝑦1
2

• 𝐴2 = 𝑦1 + 𝑦2
2

• 𝐴3 = 𝑦2 + 𝑦3
2

• 𝐴4 = 𝑦3 + 𝑦4
2
• ⇒ 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝐴1 + 𝐴2 + 𝐴3 + 𝐴4 =

• 𝑦0 + 𝑦1 + (𝑦1 +𝑦2 ) + 𝑦2 + 𝑦3 + (𝑦3 + 𝑦4 ) =
2

• (𝑦0 + 2𝑦1 + 2𝑦2 + 2𝑦3 + 𝑦4 )
2
• Here, Trapezoidal Multipliers are: 1,2,2,2,1
Simpson’s 1st (1/3) rule

This law assumes that the


bounding curve defined
by three ordinates y0, y1
and y2 is a second order
polynomial (parabola) i.e.
y = ax2 + bx + c.
• See figure 7.3 below
Simpson’s 1st (1/3) rule Cont’d

• From which,
𝐴
𝑏 1

= න 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = ෍ 𝑐𝑖 𝑓 𝑥𝑖 = 𝑐0 𝑓 𝑥0
𝑎 𝑖=0
+ 𝑐1 𝑓 𝑥1 + 𝑐2 𝑓 𝑥2

= 𝑓 𝑥0 + 4𝑓 𝑥1 + 𝑓(𝑥2 )
3

𝐴 = 𝑦0 + 4𝑦1 + 𝑦2
3
Simpson’s 1st (1/3) rule Cont’d

• This rule may be extended


to any area which is divided
by odd number of ordinates
in which case the number of
segments is even. The
compound first rule obtains
the total area under the
curve by adding together
the areas defined by groups
of three ordinates as follows
as in Fig. 7.4 below
Simpson’s 1st (1/3) rule Cont’d

• From fig. 7.4 above, Total Area = A1 + A2



• 𝐴1 = 𝑦0 + 4𝑦1 + 𝑦2
3

• 𝐴1 = 𝑦2 + 4𝑦3 + 𝑦4
3

• Hence, AT = A1 + A2 = 𝑦0 + 4𝑦1 + 𝑦2 + 𝑦2 + 4𝑦3 + 𝑦4
3

= 𝑦0 + 4𝑦1 + 2𝑦2 + 4𝑦3 + 𝑦4
3

• Graphically, we can show in short hand form how the Simpson’s


First rule multipliers can easily be determined in fig. 7.5 below
Simpson’s 1st (1/3) rule Cont’d

• Here; 1, 4, 2, 4, 2, 4, 2, 4, 2, 4, 1 • COROLLARY: The first rule is


are called Simpson’s multipliers applicable only if the number of
segments is even or ordinate is odd.
For example:

Area Divisions

No. of 3 5 7 9 11 13 15,
Ordinates etc.

No. of 2 4 6 8 10 12 14,
Segments etc.
(Spaces)
APPLICATION OF FIRST RULE TO INTERMEDIATE ORDINATES (ORDINATE
BETWEEN TWO MAIN ORDINATES)

• The first rule can further be extended to reduce computation when some
segments of an area are bounded by a curve which is changing rapidly
while other parts of the curve are changing very slowly or not at all. For
example, the bow and stern portions of a ship’s shape are parts of the ship
where shape changes rapidly, while over the parallel middle body, the
shape remains constant.
• The 1st rule is modified by the insertion of intermediate ordinates which
are measured at points half way between two of the main ordinates as
follows.
APPLICATION OF FIRST RULE TO INTERMEDIATE ORDINATES (ORDINATE BETWEEN
TWO MAIN ORDINATES) Cont’d

• From fig. (7.7) above,



1ℎ 1 𝑦0 𝑦1
• 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 1 = 𝑦0 + 4𝑦1 + 𝑦1 = ℎ + 2𝑦1 +
32 2 3 2 2 2

• 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 2 = 𝑦1 + 4𝑦2 + 𝑦3
3
1ℎ 1 𝑦3 𝑦4
• 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 3 = 𝑦3 + 4𝑦31 + 𝑦4 = ℎ + 2𝑦31 +
32 2 3 2 2 2
ℎ 𝑦0 𝑦1 𝑦3 𝑦4
• ⇒𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = + 2𝑦1 + + 𝑦1 + 4𝑦2 + 𝑦3 + + 2𝑦31 +
3 2 2 2 2 2 2
ℎ 𝑦0 3𝑦1 3𝑦3 𝑦4
• = + 2𝑦1 + + 4𝑦2 + + 2𝑦31 +
3 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
• 𝑆𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑠𝑜𝑛′ 𝑠𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑟𝑠 (𝑠. 𝑚) = , 2, 1 , 4, 1 , 2,
2 2 2 2
• N/B: The Simpson’s expressions for Areas A1 and A3 are divided by 2 because of the intermediate
ordinates between ordinates y0 and y1 for area A1 and ordinates y3 and y4 for A3
Simpson’s 2nd (3/8) Rule
• This rule assumes that the bounding curve defined by
four ordinates y0, y1, y2 and y3 is a third order polynomial,
i.e. 𝑦 = 𝑎𝑥 3 + 𝑏𝑥 2 + 𝑐𝑥 + 𝑑,

From which the area is found to be:


3
• 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = ℎ (𝑦0 + 3𝑦1 +3𝑦2 + 𝑦3 ) =
8
𝑏 3

න 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = ෍ 𝑐𝑖 𝑓 𝑥𝑖 = 𝑐0 𝑓 𝑥0 + 𝑐1 𝑓 𝑥1 + 𝑐2 𝑓 𝑥2
𝑎 𝑖=0
+ 𝑐3 𝑓 𝑥3

= 3 𝑓 𝑥0 + 3𝑓 𝑥1 + 3𝑓 𝑥2 + 𝑓 𝑥3
8
Simpson’s 2nd (3/8) Rule Cont’d

• This rule may be extended to any area which is defined by a number of


ordinates such that the number of spaces or segments between the
ordinates is divisible by three. For example:

Area Divisions

No. of Ordinates 4 7 10 13 16 19, etc.

No. of Segments (spaces) 3 6 9 12 15 18, etc.


THE COMPOUND SECOND RULE

The compound second rule obtains the total area under the curve by adding the areas
defined by groups of four ordinates as follows;
From fig. 7.9, total area = Area 1 + Area 2
3ℎ
But, 𝐴1 = 8 (𝑦0 + 3𝑦1 +3𝑦2 + 𝑦3 ) and;
3ℎ
𝐴2 = (𝑦 + 3𝑦4 +3𝑦5 + 𝑦6 )
8 3
3ℎ
⇒ 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝐴 𝑇 = 8 𝑦0 + 3𝑦1 +3𝑦2 + 2𝑦3 + 3𝑦4 +3𝑦5 + 𝑦6
Where the multipliers inside the brackets for the 2nd rule become;
1, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3, 1.
THE COMPOUND SECOND RULE, Cont’d

• Graphically, we can show in short hand • COROLLARY: The second rule is applicable
form how the Simpson’s Second rule only if the number of segments is
multipliers can easily be determined in fig. divisible by three (3).
7.10 below • N/B: Derivation of Simpson’s second rule
• Here, 1, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3, is a Trial question for any curious student!
2, 3, 3, 1 are the multipliers for the • Corollary about the application of
second rule. Simpson’s rules;
• Rule 2 is used to obtain area when the
first rule will not fit
• Where both rules will fit, it is conventional
to use the first rule in preference to the
second.
• Where neither of these rules fit, then the
area must be divided into subsections,
and each area found separately and the
sum of the areas found.

APPENDAGES

• It is often the case that there are small areas which it is inconvenient to
include within the main area to be measured using the rules. These
appendages such as the bulbous bow must be measured separately and
added to the main area. In many cases these appendages will be
approximately triangular in shape. The darker shaded appendage areas
are assumed to be triangular with base lengths “a” and “b” and
perpendicular heights “w2” and “w8” respectively. Thus:
𝑎∗𝑤2 𝐿 𝑤2 𝑤8 𝑏∗𝑤8
Total WPA = 2 + + 𝑤3 + 𝑤4 + 𝑤5 + 𝑤6 + 𝑤7 + +
2 10 2 2 2
VOLUMES OF SHIP SHAPES AND SIMILAR FIGURES

• If the areas of these ordinates are known at equidistant intervals then, the
volume can be found using suitable application of Simpson’s rule. For Fig.
7.12 below, we can apply Simpson’s 1st rule, hence; Volume = h/3* ∑f
(volume), where h = common interval. Thus the volume of displacement
of a ship to any particular draft can be found first by calculating the areas
of water plane or transverse areas. And then using these areas as
ordinates to find the volume by Simpson’s rules.
𝟓 𝟓
Simpson’s third rule 𝒐𝒓 − 𝟏 𝒓𝒖𝒍𝒆
𝟖 𝟖

• This rule is used to find the 𝒉


• i.e. 𝑨 = ሾ𝟓𝒄 + 𝟖𝒃 −
area between two 𝟏𝟐
consecutive ordinates when
three consecutive ordinates
are known. It states that the
area between two consecutive
ordinates is equal to five times
the first ordinate plus eight
times the middle ordinate
minus the external ordinate,
all multiplied by 1/12 of the
common interval.
MOMENTS OF AREAS & VOLUME & CENTROID

First Moments of areas and volumes: Why do we


need them?
• Needed to calculate the position of the centroid of the area. The
position of the centroid represents the position of the center of
floatation (C.F) of a water plane and the position of the center of
buoyancy (C.B) of the underwater volume of a vessel. Ideally, these
positions are always situated very close to middle of the water-
plane/underwater volume and so, it is natural to determine them
relative to amidships although, they can be found relative to either
Aft or Fore Perpendiculars. However, from the aft or fore
perpendiculars, the mid-ships position can be worked out easily:
LCB (aft/fore of amid-ships) = 0.5*LBP - LCBAP/FP
Second moments of areas and volumes/moment of
inertia.

Why require them?

• The 2nd moment of area is a mathematical form which


arises from the moment of inertia of a rotating mass.
• Ships and other floating bodies also rotate about some
axes when they are exposed to Rolling and pitching
motions of the sea and so, moment of inertia plays vital
role in the analysis of transverse and longitudinal
stability of ships and other floating bodies.
THE PARALLEL AXES THEOREM
• 𝐼𝑦𝑦 = 𝐼𝑁𝐴 + ℎ2 𝐴 𝑜𝑟 • Used in cases where we
• 𝐼𝑁𝐴 = 𝐼𝑦𝑦 − ℎ2 𝐴 wish to determine the
2nd moment of an area
about an axis (YY) when
we already know or can
find the value of the
2nd moment of the
area about another axis
(NA) which is parallel to
axis (YY).
APPLICATION OF SIMPSON’S RULES

In working with water planes and underwater


volumes of ships and other structures, we need
to apply Simpson’s rules to finding;

• Areas and volumes of curved shapes.


• 1st moments of these areas and volumes
• 2nd moments of curved areas
To find moment about Transverse axis, YY/Longitudinal
moment
• Area of strip = y*dl
𝑙
Area of ½ water-plane = ‫׬‬0 𝑦 ∗ 𝑑𝑙

• 1st moment of area of ½ WP about


𝑙
Transverse axis YY= ‫׬‬0 𝑦𝑙𝑑𝑙

• 2nd moment of area of ½ WP about


𝑙
Transverse axis yy = ‫׬‬0 𝑦𝑙 2 𝑑𝑙
• N/B: The integral part can be evaluated by
Simpson’s rules using the values of l2y as ordinates, and
the second moment about YY is found by multiplying
the result by two.
Standard Proforma for Calculating Area of 1/2WP using
Simpson’s 1st rule

Table 8.1 (Area)

Station Ordinate Simpson’s multiplier F(area)


s

0 y0 1 0

1 y1 4 4y1

2 y2 2 2y2

3 y3 4 4y3

4 y4 2 2y4

5 y5 4 4y5

6 y6 1 y6

Σ f(Area)


𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝛴𝑓(𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎)
3
Standard Proforma for Calculating 1st moment of 1/2WP using
Simpson’s 1st rule

Table 8.2 (1st moment)

Station Ordinate Simpson’s multiplier F(1st moment)


s

0 0y0 1 0

1 hy1 4 4hy1

2 2hy2 2 4hy2

3 3hy3 4 12hy3

4 4hy4 2 8hy4

5 5hy5 4 20hy5

6 6hy6 1 6hy6

Σ f(1st moment)


1st moment about station 0 = 𝛴𝑓(1𝑠𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡)
3
Standard Proforma for Calculating 2nd moment of Area
of 1/2WP using Simpson’s 1st rule
Table 8.3 (2nd moment)

Station Ordinates Simpson’s multiplier F(2nd moment)

0 0y0 1 0

1 h2y1 4 4h2y2

2 4h2y2 2 8h2y2

3 9h2y3 4 36h2y2

4 16h2hy4 2 32h2y2

5 25h2y5 4 100h2y2

6 36h2y6 1 36h2y6

Σ f (2nd moment)


2nd moment about station 0 = 𝛴𝑓 2𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡
3
General Solution Table using Simpson’s 1st rule.
Table 8.4: GENERAL SOLUTION TABLE USING SIMPSON’S 1ST RULE

Station Ord. S.M F(area) Lever for Lever for


1st moment F(1st moment) 2nd moment F(2nd moment)

0 y0 1 y0 0 0 0 0
1 y1 4 4y1 1 4y1 1 4y2
2 y2 2 2y2 2 4y2 2 8y2
3 y3 4 4y3 3 12y3 3 36y2
4 y4 2 2y4 4 8y4 4 32y2
5 y5 4 4y5 5 20y5 5 100y2
6 y6 1 y6 6 6y6 6 36y6
Σ f(Area) Σ f(1st moment) Σ f(2nd moment)

ℎ ℎ 1st moment of area about station 0 (AP) 2nd moment of area about station
Area = 𝛴𝑓(𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎) = 2∗ 𝛴𝑓(𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎) for the full water-plane
3 3
ℎ 0 (𝐴𝑃) =
= ℎ𝛴𝑓 1𝑠𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 =
3
𝐿𝑜𝑛𝑔𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎 =
ℎ2
𝛴𝑓 1𝑠𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = ℎ2
3
ℎ 𝛴𝑓 2𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 =
3
ℎ2
2* 𝛴𝑓 1𝑠𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 for the full water ℎ3
3
𝛴𝑓 2𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 2*
3
plane
ℎ3
𝛴𝑓 2𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 for the full water-
3

plane
Determining Centroid of Water-Plane
• In general, we need to use the area and 1st moment of the area to
find the position of the centroid of the area (or of the volume
when volume is being considered). Thus, to find the position of the
centroid of the area about axis YY, we use;

1𝑠𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 .ℎ𝛴𝑓(1𝑠𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡) ℎ𝛴𝑓(1𝑠𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡)
• 𝑥ҧ = = 3
ℎ =
𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝛴𝑓(𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎) 𝛴𝑓(𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎)
3

• For work on longitudinal stability which governs vessel


responses to pitching motion, we require the 2nd moment
about the transverse axis which passes through the centroid
of the area by making use of the theorem of parallel axes:

• 𝐼𝑁𝐴 = 𝐼𝑦𝑦 − 𝐴𝑥ҧ 2 = 2 ∗ 13 × ℎ3 𝛴 𝑓 2𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 − 𝐴𝑥ҧ 2


TRANSVERSE MOMENT/ MOMENT ABOUT A LONGITUDINAL AXIS
X.X/CENTRELINE

Why do we need them?

• The first and 2nd moments of the ship’s water-


plane about its centerline are important
values in the calculation of its Transverse
stability data as the ship responds to the
Rolling motions of the sea.
TRANSVERSE MOMENT/ MOMENT ABOUT A LONGITUDINAL AXIS
X.X/CENTRELINE

• Area of strip = y*dl


𝑙 𝑦2
• 1st moment of the area= ‫׬‬0 ൗ2 𝑑𝑙
• second moment of the 3
area along
𝑙𝑦
the ship length = ‫׬‬0 𝑑𝑙 =
3
𝑙𝑦3
2 ‫׬‬0 3 𝑑𝑙 for the full area.

The integral part of the above


expression can then be evaluated by
relevant Simpson’s Rule using the
value of y3 (i.e., the cube of the half-
breadth) as ordinates and the second
moment of area about center-line, ICL,
is found by multiplying the result by
2/3.
Standard Proforma for determining the 1st moment of the
water-plane about its centerline using Simpson’s 1st rule

Table 8.5

Station Ord Ord2 Simpson’s Multiplier F(Second moment)

0 y0 y02 1 y02

1 y1 y12 4 4y12

2 y2 y22 2 2y22

3 y3 y32 4 4y32

4 y4 y42 2 2y42

5 y5 y52 4 4y52

6 y6 y62 1 y62

Σ f(1st moment)

And 1st moment of the water plane about centerline or longitudinal axis =
ℎ 1 ℎ 1
. Σ f(1st moment) = 2* . Σ f(1st moment) for the full water-plane.
3 2 3 2
Standard Proforma for determining the 2nd moment of the
water-plane about its centerline using Simpson’s 1st rule
Table 8.6

Station Ord Ord3 Simpson’s Multiplier F(Second moment)

0 y0 y03 1 y03

1 y1 y13 4 4y13

2 y2 y23 2 2y23

3 y3 y33 4 4y33

4 y4 y43 2 2y43

5 y5 y53 4 4y53

6 y6 y63 1 y63

Σ f(2nd moment)

And 2nd moment of the water plane about centerline or longitudinal axis =
ℎ 1 ℎ 1
. Σ f(1st moment) = 2 . . Σ F (2nd moment) for the full water-plane.
3 3 3 3
General solution Table using Simpson’s 1st rule
9.0 CENTROIDS AND THE CENTRE OF GRAVITY

• Position of center of
• If W = displacement acting at the Centre of
gravity G.
gravity relative to keel

w0, w1, w2 = weights making up the light ship


cargo etc., acting at g0, g1, g2 respectively,
⇒ W x KG = w0 Kg 0 + w1 Kg1 + w2 Kg 2

And 𝐾𝐺 =
w0 Kg 0 + w1 Kg 1 + w2 Kg 2
𝑊
𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑘𝑒𝑒𝑙
• i.e. 𝐾𝐺 = =
𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡
𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑘𝑒𝑒𝑙
CENTROIDS AND THE CENTRE OF GRAVITY Cont’d

• Position of center of • Taking moment about the centerline


gravity relative to
center-line
W*CG + w0 ∗ cg 0 = w1 ∗ cg1 +w2 ∗ 𝑐g 2
i.e. 𝑊 ∗ 𝐶𝐺 = 𝑤1 ∗ 𝑐𝑔1 + 𝑤2 ∗ 𝑐𝑔2 − 𝑤0 ∗ 𝑐𝑔0
𝑤1 ∗ 𝑐𝑔1 + 𝑤2 ∗ 𝑐𝑔2 − 𝑤0 ∗ 𝑐𝑔0
𝐶𝐺 =
𝑊
𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒
𝐶𝐺 =
𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡
= 𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒
𝑡𝑜 𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒
EFFECT OF REMOVING OR DISCHARGING MASS ON THE C.G

• The Centre of gravity of a body will move • APPLICATION TO SHIPS


directly away from the Centre of gravity of
any weight removed.
(W-w) x GG1 = w x d
𝑤×𝑑
Or, 𝐺𝐺1 = 𝑊−𝑤 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠
EFFECT OF ADDING OR LOADING MASS ON C.G

• The Centre of gravity of a body


will move directly towards the
Centre of gravity of any weight
• Application to Ships.
added.
𝑤×𝑑
• 𝐺0 𝐺1 = 𝑊+𝑤
EFFECT OF SHIFTING WEIGHTS ON C.G

• The Centre of gravity of a body will


move parallel to the shift of the
Centre of gravity of any weight
moved within the body.

• It can be seen that G-G2 is parallel to


g1g2 and that:
𝑤×𝑑
𝐺𝐺2 = 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠
𝑊
EFFECTS OF SUSPENDED WEIGHTS ON C.G

In fig (9.11), whether the ship is upright


• Note however that:
or inclined in either direction, the point when a derrick lifts a
in the ship through which the force of weight, the C.G of the
gravity is acting vertically downward is ship moves up and
g1, the point of suspension, thus the stability is affected.
Centre of gravity of a suspended When it lowers a weight,
weight is considered to be at the point the C.G of the ship
of suspension. moves down and
stability is improved.
When it moves weight
arthwartship, the C.G of
the ship moves out of
the ship’s centerline and
the ship is listed.
STABILITY

A floating body reaches an equilibrium state, if


1) its weight = the buoyancy
2) the line of action of these two forces become collinear.

The equilibrium: stable, or unstable or neutrally stable.


• Stable equilibrium: if it is slightly displaced from its equilibrium position and
will return to that position. A body in stable equilibrium possesses minimum
potential energy and height of c.g is low

• Unstable equilibrium: if it is slightly displaced form its equilibrium position


and tends to move farther away from this position. A body in a unstable
equilibrium possesses maximum potential energy and height of c.g is higher.

• Neutral equilibrium: if it is displaced slightly from this position and will remain
in the new position. A body in neutral equilibrium possesses constant
potential energy and height of c.g. is constant.
Motions of Ship
• 6 degrees of freedom
• - Surge
• - Sway
• - Heave
• - Roll
• - Pitch
• - Yaw
Motion Characteristics
Motion Characteristics Cont’d

• Vertical acceleration: critical sea-keeping


problem; leads to bottom slamming, green
sea effect, Tank sloshing, etc.
Ship Listing and Heeling
Listing Heeling.
• Permanent Inclination of • Temporal Inclination of
ship by virtue of ship by virtue of external
transverse movement of dynamic forces.
forces within the ship. • The effect on the ship is
• The effect on the ship is called heeling moment.
called listing moment. Can be produced by:
Can result from: • lateral wind,
• Incorrect loading • Centrifugal force
• Flooding developed in turning
• Temporary transverse
displacement of weights.
Effect of Listing and heeling Moments
• Listing Moment • Heeling Moment

• N/B: for listing moment, GG1 // old For heeling moment, line GZ is
parallel to the New water line and
waterline, WL, and so GG1 = GM so, GZ = GMsin 𝜃.
tan 𝜃.
• C.G moves along Centerline of ship
• C.G moves out of ship’s Center line producing couples with metacenter
and list can be corrected by changing that either rights or capsizes vessel.
loading condition.
Effect of Heeling Moment on Ship Stability

• Distance G-M is called Metacentric • If C.G coincides with M, Vessel has


height. Neutral stability and GM =0; MSS=0
• If C.G is below M, Vessel is Stable and • In this condition, the ship will move
GM is +VE vertically up and down in the water at
• If C.G is above M, Vessel is Unstable the fixed angle of heel until further
and GM is –VE external or internal forces are applied.
• MSS = WGZ=GMSin 𝜃
Correcting Unstable and Neutral Stability

Generally, the effective center of gravity should be lowered by:

• Lowering weights already on the ship.

• Loading weights below the center of gravity of the ship.

• Discharging weights from positions above the center of gravity


or

• Removing Free surface within the ship.


Stiff and tender ships
Roll /Stiffness • Roll/Tenderness.
• Is the time-varying inclination of a • Here, the GM is small, about
ship from one side to the other and 0.16m to 0.2m, GZ as well as
back to the original position due to MSS and will be more easier to
ship motions. incline . When inclined, she will
• For a ship that has comparatively take longer time to return to her
large GM about 2m to 3m, GZ is initial position because of too
large and so, will require larger long roll period, about 30-35sec.
moment to incline. When The ship in this condition is
inclined, she will return more “Tender”
quickly. This is because the ship • P.E of the ship is too high so steps
has short roll period, about 8sec should be taken to lower CG and
and will roll violently from side to increase GM.
side. The ship in this condition is
“Stiff”.
• N/B: A roll period between 20-25
• Here, the P.E of the ship is too sec. is generally acceptable for
low and steps should be taken to those onboard a ship at sea
raise the C.G and reduce GM.
NEGATIVE GM AND ANGLE OF LOLL

• For Very small Negative GM, a condition is reached when the capsizing
moment disappears. The angle of heel at which this happens is called the
angle of loll. Although, this is also not a desirable condition as the ship
oscillates about the loll angle rather than about it’s centerline, posing
capsize threats and so, should be corrected.
HOW TO CORRECT ANGLE OF LOLL

In Summary,
• Check that the list is due to a very small negative GM; for
example, -0.05 to -0.10m.
• Top any slack tanks and lower weights within the ship, if
possible.
• If the ship is still listed and it is decided to fill double-
bottom tanks, start by filling the low side of a tank which is
adequately subdivided.
• The list is bound to be increased in the initial stages but will
decrease later.
• Never start by filling tanks on the high side first.
• Always calculate the effects first before authorizing actions
to be taken to ballast any tanks.
EFFECT OF FREE SURFACE OF LIQUID ON STABILITY

• Moment of statical stability (MSS) =


W × G1 Z 1
= W × Gv Z v
= W × Gv Msinθ
Rather than W × G𝑀sinθ

Gv M = Vitual GM

G Gv = Virtual loss in Initial GM=


𝑖 1
𝐺𝐺𝑉 = × 𝜌1 × 2 for n no. of longitudinal
W 𝑛
tanks.
𝑖
𝐺𝐺𝑉 = × 𝜌1 for undivided tank,
W

The Metacentric height is reduced and a


virtual GM is created due to a loss in the initial
GM.
STABILITY TYPES
• Initial Stability: For an undamaged (intact) ship, we only study the
initial stability for longitudinal equilibrium, i.e. determining the ship’s draft and
trim.
• Static stability: Measures the righting moment arm, GZ, given the angle of
inclination of the ship. It assumes that the ship is not affected by external dynamic
effects. It is measured in meters and its value at two different angles of heel may
be the same as opposed to dynamic stability whose value cannot be the same at
two different angles of heel.
• Note that:
• Vessel static stability is decided on its value of GM (Meta-centric Height) up to 100
heel and GZ (Righting Lever) above 100 heel.
• GM gives accurate measure of stability only for small disturbances, i.e. angle not
beyond 100.
• For larger angles of heel, the righting lever (GZ) is used to measure stability.
• In any stability analysis, the value of GZ is plotted over the entire range of heel
angles.
Stability Cont’d
• Stability at large angle of inclination • stability at small angle of inclination
(more than 150): Computes the (up to 150 ) (initial Stability):
righting moment (or righting arm) as • Here, all verticals through the center
functions of the inclination angle up of buoyancy passes through the
to a limit angle at which the ship initial metacenter. MSS = WGZ=
may lose its stability. Here, all Gmsinθ,
verticals through the center of • GZ= righting lever.
buoyancy no longer passes through the
initial metacenter.
𝟏
• MSS= (𝑮𝑴 + 𝟐 𝑩𝑴𝒕𝒂𝒏𝟐 𝜽)𝒔𝒊𝒏𝜽
(Wall-sided Formula)
DYNAMICAL STABILITY
• Dynamical stability = work done = weight x
• This is the work done on a ship to (vertical separation of line B1Z - vertical
separation of line BG). From fig. 10.24below;
heel it to some specified angle. • Dynamical stability = 𝑊 × 𝐵1 𝑍 − 𝐵𝐺 =
• Gives stability information of a vessel 𝑊 × 𝐵1 𝑅 + 𝑅𝑍 − 𝐵𝐺
𝑣(𝑔ℎ+𝑔1 ℎ1 )
considering dynamic behavior of the • =𝑊× + 𝑃𝐺 − 𝐵𝐺
𝛻
sea. 𝑣(𝑔ℎ+𝑔1 ℎ1 )
• =𝑊× + 𝐵𝐺𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 − 𝐵𝐺
• It’s expressed in terms of area under 𝛻
𝑣(𝑔ℎ+𝑔1 ℎ1 )
the righting moment curve or GZ • =𝑊× − 𝐵𝐺 (1 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃) . This
𝛻
is known as the Moseley’s formula for
curve multiplied by displacement. dynamical stability. Note:
𝐵𝐺𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑃𝐺 𝑖𝑛 𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝐵𝑃𝐺.
• Dynamical stability = W x Area under
the stability curves
𝜃
= ‫׬‬0 𝑊 × 𝐺𝑍 × 𝑑𝜃
𝜃
= 𝑊 න 𝐺𝑍𝑑𝜃
0
Note that the dynamic stability at two
different angles of heel cannot be the
same.
Transverse (BM) BMT (Meta-centric Radius)
• This is the height of the transverse KM (metacenter measured from keel) or height of
meta-center above the center of metacenter above the baseline (Hm)
buoyancy and is found by using the 𝐼
𝐼 Hm = KM = BM +ZB = 𝑥 + 𝑍𝐵 , where 𝑍𝐵 is the vertical
formula: 𝐵𝑀 = 𝛻
𝛻 coordinate of the center of buoyancy.
Where I = 2nd moment of the water The vertical distance between the metacenter and
plane area about the centerline; center of gravity
𝛻= the ship’s volume of displacement. 𝐼
• GM = KM - ZG = 𝑥 + 𝑍𝐵 − 𝑍𝐺 , where ZG is the
𝛻
vertical position of the center of gravity.
• If we know the vertical position of the center of
gravity, ZG and the center of buoyancy ZB, then the
righting arm at small angle of inclination θ, will
be:
𝐼𝑥
• GZ = GM.θ = + 𝑍𝐵 − 𝑍𝐺 . θ
𝛻
And the righting moment is
𝐼
• 𝑀𝑆𝑆 = 𝑊. 𝐺𝑀θ = 𝜌𝑆𝑊 . 𝛻 𝑥 + 𝑍𝐵 − 𝑍𝐺 . 𝜃
𝛻
= 𝜌𝑆𝑊 . 𝛻 . GZ
Computing BM & KM for other Shapes

• Rectangular X-Section • Triangular section


𝑑 𝐿𝐵3 𝑍𝐵 =
𝐼𝑓, 𝑍𝐵 = ; 𝐼𝑋 = ; 𝛻 = 𝐿𝐵𝑑 𝐶𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑖𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝐴𝐷𝐶 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑝𝑒𝑥
2 12 2
𝐼𝑋 𝐿𝐵3 1 𝐵2 , 𝐴 = 3𝑑
⇒ 𝐵𝑀 = 𝛻 = 12 . 𝐿𝐵𝑑 = 12𝑑 𝐿𝐵 3 𝐿𝐵𝑑
𝐵2 𝑑 If, 𝐼𝑋 = , 𝛻 =
And, 𝐾𝑀 = 𝐵𝑀 + 𝑍𝐵 = 12𝑑 + 2 12 2
𝐼𝑋 𝐿𝐵 3 2 𝐵2
⇒ 𝐵𝑀 = 𝛻 = 12 . 𝐿𝐵𝑑 = 6𝑑
𝐵2 2
And, 𝐾𝑀 = 𝐵𝑀 + 𝑍𝐵 = + 3𝑑
6𝑑
TRIM ( Longitudinal Stability)

• If weight ‘w’ already on board be GG1 = w x d/W or W x GG1 = w x d.


shifted aft through a distance ‘d’ as A trimming moment of W x GG1 is
shown in fig.11.1. This causes the thereby produced.
center of gravity of the ship to shift But, W x GG1 = w x d .
from G to G1, parallel to the shift of
the center of gravity of the weight :. The trimming moment = w x d
shifted, such that: • The ship will now trim until the
center of gravity and buoyancy are
again in the same vertical line, as
shown in fig.11.2 below.
Trim Cont’d (BML)
• In trim problems, unless otherwise stated, • For a box-shape vessel:
it is to be assumed that the center of
floatation is situated amidships.
• Trimming moments are taken about the
center of floatation since this is the point
• For a triangular prism,
about which rotation takes place .
• BML is the height of the longitudinal
metacenter above the center of
buoyancy and is found for any shape
of vessel by the formula,

• BML = 𝜵L
I • For a vessel having a rectangular
water plane.
• Where, IL = longitudinal second
moment of the water plane about
the center of floatation.
• And, 𝜵 = the vessel’s volume of
displacement .
Trim Cont’d (MCTC)

GG1 
w d GG1  GM L tan 
W
w d GG1
 tan    tan   t
W  GM L GM L L
To find the change of draft forward and aft due to change of trim

When a ship changes trim, it will obviously


effect a change in the drafts forward and aft.
One of these will be increased and the other
decreased.

In the triangles WW1F and W1L1C as shown in


fig. 11.5 (c), using the property of similar
triangles.

• Change of draft aft (x) in cm = l/L * change


of trim

• It will also be noticed that x + y = t


• :. Change of draft forward in cm = change
of trim – change of draft aft
• I.e. y = t – x = (L-l)* change of trim
To find the change of draft forward and aft due
to change of trim Cont’d
• The effect of Shifting Weights • Change of draft forward = change of
already on Board trim* (L-l)/L
• New Drafts fore and aft = original
draft+/-draft change to trim fore and
• Weight shift will create a trimming
aft.
moment = w*d
• Hence, Change of trim = w*d/MCTC
• Change of draft afterward = change
of trim *l/L
To find the change of draft forward and aft due to
change of trim Cont’d
• The Effect of Loading and/or
• When weight is discharged; It is
Discharging Weights
assumed to be discharged at the
When weight is added; It is assumed to be center of floatation. It means that it
added at the center of floatation first will first be moved to the C.F before
before moving it to the desired position being discharged hence, there will be
hence, there will be bodily sinkage; equal
draft rise on both fore and aft drafts =
bodily Rise; equal draft rise on both
w/TPC and a trimming moment =w*d fore and aft drafts = w/TPC and a
created due to movement of the weight trimming moment =w*d created due
away from the C.F to movement of the weight to the C.F
• Change in trim=w*d/MCTC • Change in trim=w*d/MCTC
• Change of draft afterward = change of • Change of draft afterward = change
trim *l/L of trim *l/L
• Change of draft forward = change of trim • Change of draft forward = change of
* (L-l) /L trim * (L-l) /L
• New drafts fore and aft becomes • New drafts fore and aft becomes
• Original draft + draft rise+/-draft changes
due to change in trim. • Original draft - draft rise+/-draft
changes due to change in trim.
To find the change of draft forward and aft due to
change of trim Cont’d

• THE EFFECT ON MULTIPLE LOADING OPERATION

In the event of more than one weight being loaded or discharged, the net
weight loaded or discharged is used to find the net bodily increase or
decrease in draft, and the resultant trimming moment is used to find the
change in trim.
Using trim to find the position of the Centre of
floatation
• Assume a position for the C.F relative to amidships

• Change of trim must be zero hence, moment to change trim by the stern = the
moment to change trim by the head and the position of C.F can be found.

• Remember: levers, moments and trim by the stern(Aft) all have a +ve sign; levers,
moments and trim by the head (fore) all have a –ve sign.

• N/B: In this type of question it is usual to assume that the Centre of floatation is
aft amidships, this may not be the case. If it was assumed that the Centre of
floatation was aft of amidships when in actual fact it was forward, then the answer
obtained should be minus.
Loading a wt. to keep the after draft constant

• When a ship is being loaded it is usually • Now let the weight be shifted through a
the aim of those in charge of the distance‘d’ meters forward. The ship will
operation to complete loading with the change trim by the head, causing a
ship trimmed by the stern. Should the reduction in the draft aft by a number of
ship’s draft on sailing be restricted by the centimeters equal to (l/L *change of trim).
depth of water over a dock-sill or by the • Therefore, if the same draft is to be
depth of water in a channel, then the ship maintained aft, the above two quantities
will be loaded in such a manner as to must be equal.
produce this draft aft and be trimmed by
the stern.
• Assume now that a ship loaded in this way
is ready to sail and it is then found that I.e. (change of trim * l/L) = W/TPC
the ship has to load an extra weight. The so, Change of trim =
weight must be loaded in such a position WL/l.TPC = w.d/MCTC
that the draft aft is not increased and also
that the maximum trim is maintained.
• If the weight is loaded at the Centre of • and d = distance forward of the Centre
floatation, the ship’s drafts will increase of floatation to load a weight to keep
uniformly and the draft aft will increase by the draft aft, constant becomes:
a number of centimeters equal to W/TPC.
The draft aft must now be decreased by
this amount.
Trim Cont’d
• Using change of trim to find the longitudinal metacentric height (GML).
In fig.11.6(c), GG1ML and CW1L1 are similar triangles so,
Trim (Summary)
• Summary of solution steps in Trim problems

• Make a sketch from the given information


• Estimate the mean bodily sinkage, if necessary.
• Calculate the change of trim using levers measured from LCF
• Evaluate the trim ratio forward and aft at FP and AP from the LCF position
• Collect the above calculated values to estimate the final end drafts
• In the solutions shown, these final end drafts have been calculated to
three decimal figures. In practice, naval architects and ship officers round
off the drafts to two decimal places only. This gives acceptable accuracy.
• Note how the formulae were written in letters first and then figures
inserted. In the event of a mathematical error, marks will be given for a
correct formula and for a correct sketch.
BONJEAN CURVES

• BONJEAN curves are drawn to give • Using BONJEAN Curves


the immersed area of transverse
sections to any draft and may be to Calculate
used to determine the longitudinal Displacement.
distribution of buoyancy at any
• First, the drafts on forward perpendicular,
waterline. mid-ship and aft perpendicular should be
obtained using hydrostatic relationships or
as calculated and tabulated in hydrostatic
tables. Then, the drafts at each station
should determined with the following
formula.
• For the stations aft of amid-ships

• For the stations forward of


amid-ships
Using BONJEAN Curves to Calculate Displacement Cont’d
• ∆ 𝑇 = 𝑘𝜌𝛻T
• d1 is the draft for a station, da, dm and df • 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒, 𝑘 = ℎ𝑢𝑙𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜌 =
are drafts on aft perpendicular, mid-ship 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟
and forward perpendicular respectively. D, • Normally, K value is gradually
is the distance from the said station to aft smaller while draft increases. Note that K
perpendicular and LBP means the Length value is not listed directly inside ship’s
between perpendiculars. cargo manual but, should be obtained
• Next, the area of cross-section under from hydrostatic tables.
water for each station or sub-station • 𝐾=

should be collected respectively in the 1.025∗𝛻
BONJEAN tables based on the various • Where displacement (∆ ) and volume of
draft on each station. displacement (𝛻) could be obtained from
• Then, all volumes of sections should be Hydrostatic tables based on the mean
accumulated to obtain the total volume of draft.; 1.025 is the standard density of sea
displacement submerged choosing water.
relevant approximate numerical • Also, K value can also be obtained by
integration Rule for the determination of ε
• 𝐾 = 1 + 𝑊𝑆𝐴
Volume from area, 𝛻
• Where, ε is the average thickness of shell
• Finally, the displacement would be
plates which can be collected from
obtained by:
shipboard documents, WSA is the wetted
surface area of the hull which can be
collected from hydrostatic tables based on
mean draft.
HOW TO USE BONJEAN CURVES TO DETERMINE DISPLACEMENT
AND CENTER OF BUOYANCY

• First, draw the given waterline across the length


of the vessel on the profile view. Remember
that the waterline is dictated by the forward and
aft drafts.
• Determine the intersection of the waterline at
each station. This gives the immersed draft at
each station.
• Determine the immerse area of each station.
This is the length of the axial distance from
respective stations to the respective BONJEAN
curve on each station along the waterline
• These axial distances are then converted into
area values using the scale provided on the
abscissa of the BONJEAN CURVE as shown on
the axes below the forward part of the keel in
fig. 12.2.
• Using the converted area values as ordinates,
appropriate numerical integration method is
applied to determine displacement and Center
of buoyancy.
THE INCLINING EXPERIEMENT

• Determines the GM of the light


ship so the Light ship KG can be
determined:
• KG = KM-GMExperiment 𝐺0 𝐺1 𝑊×𝑑
𝐺𝑀 = =
𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 0 ∆𝑇 ∗ 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 0

𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 ×𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑚𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑑 𝐴𝐵


𝐾𝐺𝐸𝑥𝑝 =𝐾𝑀− ×
𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔 ℎ𝑡 𝐵𝐶
Inclining Experiment Cont’d

Precautions for acceptable experimental result


• Mooring lines must slack and the vessel clear of the deck so that it
heels freely. Angle of heel should be within about 40 to allow the
small angle stability to be used (i.e. the meta-center is assumed to
return stationery over the range of heel angle).
• The water must be smooth and there should be little or no wind.
• There should be no free surface of water in the vessel, the bilges
should be dry and tanks dry.
• All moveable weights must be properly secured.
• All persons should be ashore except those actually engaged in the
experiment.
• The vessel must be upright at the beginning of the inclining
experiment.
STABILITY AND HYDROSTATIC CURVES

• GZ cross curves of
stability:
• These are a set of curves from which the
righting lever about an assumed center of
gravity for any angle of heel at any
particular displacement may be found by
inspection. The curves are plotted for an
assumed KG and, if the actual KG of the
ship differs from this, a correction must be
applied to the righting levers taken from
the curves.
Correction to Tabulated GZ
• If Ship’s KG is more than KG assumed to In fig.14.3, KG2 is the ship’s KG and is less
construct GZ Cross curves then,
than the assumed so, correction must be
Correction should be subtracted from the
Tabulated GZ. added.
• If Ship’s KG is less than KG assumed to • G2 Z2 = YZ2 + G2 Y
construct GZ Cross curves then,
• But, YZ2 = GZ
Correction should be added to the Tabulated
GZ • Therefore, G2 Z2 = GZ + G2Y
• In either case, Correction = GG1 Sinθ0 • Or Corrected GZ = Tabulated GZ + Correction
where θ0 is the angle of heel. In fig 14.2, • Also, in triangle GG2Y:
KG is assumed and KG1 is the ship’s KG • G2 Y = GG2 Sinθ0 Or Correction = GG2 Sin heel


KN Cross Curves of Stability
• Are stability cross curves constructed for
an assumed KG of zero, KN being the
righting lever measured from the keel.

• Here, Corrections to Tabulated GZ are


always subtracted.
STATICAL STABILITY CURVES

• The curve of statical stability for a ship in • Figure 14.7 below shows the stability
any particular condition of loading is curve for a ship having a negative initial
obtained by plotting the righting levers meta-centric height. At angles of heel of
against angle of heel as shown in Figures less than 18 degrees the righting levers
14.6 and 14.7. are negative, whilst at angles of heel
between 18 degrees and 90 degrees the
levers are positive. The angle of loll in this
case is 18 degrees, the range of stability is
18 degrees to 90 degrees, and the angle
of vanishing stability is 90 degrees.
• Note how the –ve GM is plotted at 57.3°.
Stability Information Derivable from Statical curve of stability

• The range of stability is the range over which the ship has positive righting
levers. In Figure 14.6 above, the range is from 0 degrees to 86 degrees.
• The angle of vanishing stability is the angle of heel at which the righting
lever returns to zero, or is the angle of heel at which the sign of the
righting levers changes from positive to negative. The angle of vanishing
stability in Figure 14.6 is 86 degrees.
• The maximum GZ is obtained by drawing a tangent to the highest point in
the curve. In Figure 14.6, AB is the tangent and this indicates a maximum
GZ of 0.63 meters. If a perpendicular is dropped from the point of
tangency, it cuts the heel scale at the angle of heel at which the maximum
GZ occurs. In the present case the maximum GZ occurs at 42 degrees heel.
• The initial meta-centric height (GM) is found by drawing a tangent to the
curve through the origin (OX in Figure 14.6), and then erecting a
perpendicular through an angle of heel of 57.3 degrees. Let the two lines
intersect at Y. Then the height of the intersection above the base (YZ),
when measured on the GZ scale, will give the initial meta-centric height. In
the present example the GM is 0.54 meters.
HYDROSTATIC CURVES

• Curves showing different hydrostatic particulars of a vessel at different drafts.


• Hydrostatic information is usually supplied to the ship’s officer in the form of a table or a
graph.
HYDROSTATIC CURVES
REGULATORY BODIES
• IMO AND HER AGENCIES (MARINE STRUCTURAL COMMITTEE); INTERNATIONAL
CONVENTIONS, ETC.
• GOVERNMENT REPRESENTATIVES
• INDUSTRY STAKE-HOLDERS
• CLASS SOCIETIES (IACS-13MEMBER SOCIETY)
Almost all merchant ships are built under the rules of a classification society. All must comply
with statutory regulations of any Government’s representative in-charge of standards of safety
for merchant ships, related to damage, collision, sub-division, life-saving equipment, loading,
stability, fire protection, navigation, carriage of dangerous cargoes, load lines and other allied
subjects. Thus the primary object of statutory regulations is to promote safety of life at sea. The
rules issued by the Government’s representative are compulsory and are enforced by the various
Merchant shipping Acts. It is the purpose of the Government to ensure that standards
appropriate to safety are adopted. The international scope of the operations of ships has
considerable bearing on the interrelation between the regulations of different governments.
Comparable uniformity on an international scale has been made by means of Conferences, at
which conventions were formulated. This is clearly indicated by the International Load Line
Convention, the International Convention for the safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the
International Conference on Tonnage Measurement of Ships. All the rules emanating from these
Conventions are intended to ensure the safety of Ships and of those who travel in them.
Classification Society and IACS
• A non-governmental organization in the shipping industry, a classification society establishes and
maintains technical standards for construction and operation of marine vessels and offshore
structures. The primary role of the society is to classify ships and validate that their design and
calculations are in accordance with the published standards. It also carries out periodical survey of
ships to ensure that they continue to meet the parameters of set standards. The society is also
responsible for classification of all offshore structures including platforms and submarines.
• Flag states maintain a ship register in which all ships that sail under their flag need to be registered.
Classification societies are licensed by flag states to survey and classify ships and issue certificates
on their behalf. They classify and certify marine vessels and structures on the basis of their
structure, design and safety standards.
• A classification society’s workforce comprises of ship surveyors, mechanical engineers, material
engineers, piping engineers, and electrical engineers. Surveyors employed by a classification
society inspect ships at all stages of their development and operations to make sure that their
design, components, and machinery are developed and maintained in accordance with the
standards set for their class. The process covers inspection of engines, shipboard pumps and other
vital ship's machines. They also inspect offshore structures such as oil rigs, submarines and other
marine structures.
• Today there are more than fifty classification societies in the world.