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ARCHITECTURE, PART 1)

BY

ENGR. I. DICK

GENERAL COURSE OBJECTIVES

aims at introducing Naval Architecture to

students who are new entrants into a degree

level marine/offshore engineering program.

• It is therefore designed to present the basic

principles of Naval Architecture that provides

foundational knowledge essential for the

understanding of all other fields of marine and

offshore engineering.

LECTURE EXPECTATION

expected to show appreciable understanding

of some basic knowledge of the concepts and

principles that are rudimentary to advanced

courses on the subject or other marine

engineering courses.

LECTURE OUTLINE

In this lecture, we shall take a cursory look at the following topics in no particular order.

1. Functions of a ship

2. Ship types

3. Principal terms and profile of ship

4. Hydrostatic curves

5. Ship Calculation; Areas, Volumes, Moments, Displacements, TPC, Form coefficients,

BONJEAN Curves, Centre of gravity, Buoyancy,

6. Stability; Transverse and Dynamic

7. Inclining Experiment,

8. Calculations; GZ, GM and BM

9. Curves of stability; Free Surface effect

10. Trim; Change in trim and draughts

11. Statutory regulations

12. Classification Societies requirements

13. IMO REGULATIONS

14. Ship motion

15. Practical Drawing and Laboratory

1.1 The Origin of Naval Architecture

• Believed to be born in the • In 1600s aesthetics were given

mountains of Peru in 1735 by a more importance than the actual

French astronomer named construction of, and function of a

Pierre Bouguer (who never built ship, neglecting vital

a ship in his life) in an expedition characteristics such as stability

sent by the French Navy and the and hull proportion. Even the

science community that lasted drawings were made without the

for 10years to affirm the true application of geometry.

shape of the Earth which at the

time was unsure to be spherical.

On that journey, He wrote Traite

du navire, which is supposed to

be known as the first book and

the cornerstone of naval

architecture and which set down

the scientific aspects of ship

building. Meta-center is still used

to measure ship stability today as

it was then used.

1.2 WHAT THEN IS NAVAL ARCHITECTURE?

• An engineering discipline that deals with design,

construction, operations and maintenance of water-

borne crafts.

control rules and certification of vessel designs.

repair of old vessels.

1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF MARINE

CRAFTS

• From hydrodynamic point of view, marine

crafts can be classified according to their

maximum operating speed.

purpose for a marine craft sailing at constant

speed.

Classification of marine crafts cont’d

• For a Displacement vessel where buoyancy

force (restoring forces) dominates relative to

hydrodynamic force, fn < 0.4

buoyancy force is not dormant at maximum

operating speed for a high speed submerged

hull type of craft, 0.4 – 0.5 < fn < 1.0 – 1.2

hydrodynamic force mainly carries the weight;

flow separation is strong and aerodynamic lift

and drag forces start playing a role.

1.4 MYTH ABOUT VESSEL, BOAT OR

SHIP

Vessel, Boat or Ship are generally used interchangeably. Distinguishing

factors in specific terms are:

• Vessel: Hollow structure that is larger than a row boat.

• Ship: A large floating vessel capable of crossing open water. Any

vessel of > 500 tons of displacement is a ship.

• Submersibles are generally called boats regardless of their sizes.

• Submarine: Any naval vessel that is capable of propelling itself

beneath the water surface as well as on the water surface.

• Underwater vehicle: small vehicle that is capable of propelling itself

beneath the water surface as well as on the water surface e.g. Un-

manned underwater vehicles (UUV), remotely operated vehicles

(ROV), Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and underwater

robotic vehicles (URV). They are used commercially and by the

Navy.

1.5 SHIP TYPES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

Ore Carriers, General cargo ships, Passenger ships

etc.

cruisers, etc.

SHIP TYPES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS CONT’D

ships, e.g. ULCC, VLCC, Ore carriers, destroyers,

Carriers, General cargo

cruisers, etc

ships, Passenger ships,

Container ships, etc

SHIP TYPES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS CONT’D

• Exploration ships

1.6 Characteristics of a ship

Type of ship or name Typical DWT (tones or m3) LBP (m) Typical Cb Service speed

fully knots

loaded

ULCC, VLCC and 565,000 – 100,000 440 – 250 0.85 – 0.82 13 –15 3Τ4

super-tankers • ULCC has deadweight > 320,000 tons ; VLCC has

deadweight between 160,000 and 320,000tonnes

tankers

− 15 1ൗ2

General cargo ships 3,000 – 15,000 100 – 150 0.70 14 – 16

Roll on / roll off car 2,000 – 5,000 100 – 180 0.55 – 0.57 18 – 24

and passenger ferries

1.7 CATEGORIES OF OCEAN VEHICLES

namely:

• Categorization by means of support system

(purpose)

• Categorization by configuration

Categorization by means of support

system

Under support,

(restoring forces)

we have:

• Support by buoyancy

force: e.g.

conventional

displacement ships

(Tanker)

Categorization by means of support

system

• Support by

hydrodynamic force:

e.g. Hydrofoil ships and

planing hull ships at full

speed. These crafts rise

above the surface of the

water (due to

hydrodynamic lifting

force) when travelling

fast.

Categorization by means of support

system

• Support by Aerostatic

force (pressure):

Examples are Air-

cushion vehicles at full

speed. Hovercraft is an

example and it’s

designed to ride on a

cushion of air formed

by down-thrusting fans.

GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR SHIP

CATEGORIES

These are design expectations for the vessel categories.

For ocean transportation vehicles

Design must optimize speed (mobility), ability to carry

pay load (weight/total displacement), cost and

performance

For work platform

Design must optimize in terms of Performance: motion,

station keeping and strength of structure. In terms of

logistics: mobility, efficient delivery system, support

systems should be achieved. In terms of Economics the

initial, operating and maintenance cost has to be

optimized.

Categorization by means of support

system

• Ground supported:

Ocean drilling platform

(medium and shallow

waters) fall into this

category. Example is a

jack up drill ships, jacket

structures (drilling

platform), gravity-based

structure., etc.

Categorization by means of the

mission (purpose)

• Military Purposes

Categorization by means of the

mission (purpose)

• Non –military purpose

Transportation, e.g.

Passenger ships

Work platform, e.g.

FLNG,

Offshore commerce,

e.g. Break waters,

artificial reefs, etc.

Categorization by configuration

• Near surface, e.g.

• Surface displacement, Hovercraft, Hydrofoil,

e.g. Catamaran etc.

(SWATH) craft.

Excellent stability

Categorization by configuration

• Semi-submersible, e.g.

Sea star,

• Bottom supported, e.g.

jacket structures,

gravity-based

structures, e.t.c

Categorization by configuration

• Submerged, e.g. ROVs,

underwater Habitat, etc

2.0 THE EVOLUTION OF THE SHAPE

OF A SHIP’S HULL FORM

• Evolved from the shape a Viking See the classical hull shape of a

long ship or even a Nineteenth traditional building technique that

Century tea clipper. of a “Clinker built Boat”.

even with earlier failures (The

“Wasa”, 16th century warship

capsizing on launching due to

excessive top weight)

ended or the stern may be

“chopped short” by a flat

transverse bulkhead, called the

“transom”

•

REQUIREMENTS OF A SHIP’S HULL

• A good carrying capacity for the overall size of the

vessel

• Good sea – keeping qualities

• The ability to be easily driven through the water

• The possession of the ability to remain basically

upright in a seaway

• The strength to withstand the stresses and strains

due to the motions of the sea.

Note: Meeting these requirements are often in

conflicts with each other.

2.1 COMMON FEATURES AND TERMINOLOGY OF A SHIP’S HULL

HULL MEASUREMENTS (PRINCIPAL

DIMENSIONS)

• Length overall (LOA): maximum length of ship

• Lwl = Load water line (calculation length)

and fore perpendiculars

Aft/after perpendicular-vertical line through the rudder pintle;

Fore/forward Perpendicular-vertical distance through the point of

between the stem and the waterline.

uppermost continuous decks measured at mid-ships. When plate

thickness is included, it is extreme depth. Without plate thickness , it is

moulded depth.

distance from portside to starboard side of ship, measured at mid-hips.

Inside of plate on one side to another side is moulded breadth.

HULL MEASUREMENTS CONT’D

usually minimum at mid-ships. Minimum f.b is required by

International Law.

• Draft/Draught: vertical distance between waterline and keel of ship. If

W.L. is parallel to the baseline (keel line), the ship is floating evenly/even

keel.

• Not parallel, the ship has a trim.

Trim = da – df

Trim (in radius) = (da – df )/ L

Average draft = (da + df )/ 2

• Sheer: height of the hull above the freeboard line; zero amidships. Sheer

fore = (Sheer aft)*2

• Air draft: This is the vertical distance from the waterline to the highest

point on the ship.

• DISPLACEMENT (Volume, Mass, Load displacement, Light displacement)

2.2 INTERNAL DIVISION WITHIN THE

SHIP’S HULL

• Why divide the Ship’s hull internally?

1. To provide essential stiffness and

strength to the hull structure.

2. To create suitably sized segregated

spaces for fuel, water, ballast, cargo

and machinery rooms

3. To restrict the possible movement

of individual cargo stows,

particularly liquids that will flow

back and forth with the ship’s

motion

4. To limit the extent of flooding that

can occur if a ship is accidentally

“holed” under the waterline and to

provide it with some chance of

remaining afloat.

2.3 INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR A NEW-BUILD SHIP

• Type of vessel

• Deadweight of the new ship

• Required service speed

• Route in which the new vessel will operate due to length

and breadth restrictions on the different routes.

(E.g. For Panama Canal: lengthmax289.56m, Beam 32.26m,

Draft restriction is 12.04m up to the tropical fresh mark, Air

draft, not greater than 57.91m; For St. Lawrence seaway:

Length 225.5m, Beam 23.8m, maximum air draft is to be

35.5m, Draft must not be more than 8.0m)

3.0 INTRODUCTION TO SHIP DRAWING

be divided into the following categories:

ii) General Arrangement Drawing

iii) Shell Expansion Drawing

iv) Schematic Systems Drawing

v) Detail / Production Drawing

vi) 3-D Product Drawing

Ship lines plans/Drawing

• Sectional drawings of the hull form (drawn

to suitable scale, usually 1:50 0r 1:200

• Generally called “Sheer drawing” using the method of prescriptive

“Lines Drawing,” or simply the “lines” geometry) obtained by the intersection of

or “lines plan. See figure below: three sets of mutually orthogonal planes

(longitudinal vertical (buttock) plane,

horizontal water plane and transverse

plane) with the outside surface. The plans

so generated by connecting points of

intersection between these planes and

the ship’s form are the sheer, half-

breadth and the body plans respectively.

Lines Plans Cont’d (Sheer plan)

• The Sheer plan is revealed when • Sheer plan is finally generated

Vertical Buttock planes that are by the lines connecting the

parallel to, and of distances 2m, points of intersection of Vertical

4m, etc from the longitudinal buttock planes and vessel’s

central plane cut the vessel’s form.

form longitudinally and the

section viewed from the side.

Lines Plans Cont’d (1/2 breadth plan)

• This is revealed when Horizontal • Half-breadth Plan is generated by

waterlines planes that are connecting the points of

parallel to, and of distances 2m, intersections of horizontal

4m, etc. from the base plane; cut waterline planes and vessel’s

the vessel’s form and the section form.

viewed from the top.

Lines Plans Cont’d (Body Plan)

• It is almost a standard practice to

• This plan is revealed when

show the stations of the rear

Transverse planes that are

region of the ship at the left side

placed parallel to the mid-section

of body plan while the right hand

and at equal station interval cut

side of the body plan represents

the vessel’s form and the section

the stations at the forward

viewed from the rear or front.

region due to symmetry.

• Number of stations can be 11 or

21. (AP)0-10 being UK notation,

and (AP)10-0 being US notation.

Table of Offsets

Offsets data Cont’d

• Offsets data is the data that is extracted (measured) from the lines plan

drawing and considered the most important data for the design,

calculation, analysis and construction of the ship.

• Offset Data is the distance measured from the center line of the ship to

the specific point on the curves (station or waterline curves, etc).

• Offset data could also be called half breadth data because it represents

the half breadth of the ship at every station and waterlines.

Drawing Lines Plans from Table of

Offsets

• Drawing lines plan normally begins with the reading of the data from the

offset tables. This is followed by drawing the grid lines that form the

body plan, sheer plan and half-breadth plan.

• Lines that represent the shape of the vessel must be smooth and fair.

Beside smoothness and fairness, accuracy is also very important, that is

measurements at every line must match in all the three different views.

Choosing the right scale is also essential task in the drawing of lines plan.

Scale that is too small will lead to larger error and inaccuracy on the lines

that were drawn. On the other hand scale that is too large requires large

drawing paper and may be beyond the size of the drawing equipment.

Drawing Lines Plans from Table of

Offsets Cont’d

• This exercise is purely PRACTICAL and so, the

following should be noted in the practical session.

• Although, all the Three (3) Plans are linked together

in drawing;

• “The height above base” section of the Table of

Offsets is specifically needed to Draw the Sheer Plan.

while;

• “The half-breadth” section of the Table of Offsets is

needed to Draw both the Body and the Half-breadth

plans.

General Arrangement Drawing

for all the required functions and

equipment to enable a properly

coordinated location , access

and performance.

Scantling Drawing

• This drawing is meant for the

construction of the structures

and plating of a ship during

construction. The structure’s

dimensions and the plate

thicknesses are determined to

withstand the load that is going

to apply to the vessel during

operation.

• Three locations of the structures

that are generally shown in the

scantling drawing are mid-ship,

location of 25% from forward of

perpendicular and location of

25% from aft-ward of

perpendicular.

Detail / Production Drawing

• Production drawing shows the details of the

system onboard in their functional positions,

the method of fabrication and assembly

process.

the depth of finishing required, etc.

IMPORTANCE OF SHIP DRAWINGS

• They help to represent the unique hull shape of any ship since drawings of a

particular hull cannot be interchanged or shared with another hull.

• Ease the modification, repair and maintenance of ship which ordinarily would

have been difficult.

• Used in all the design calculations and analyses, particularly at the initial stages

when power and performance of a vessel are predicted.

• They are considered as the basic data and essential tools for the production

process. Previous old shipyard builds vessel based on experience, but when a new

design of hull is being introduced, ship drawings are essential to make sure that

the accuracy and requirement are fulfilled for a vessel.

• They form part of the contractual matters. Without ship drawing, a vessel cannot

be classed as no classification society will approve and class a ship without the

proper ship drawing.

NOTE that amongst the various drawings in ship drawing, the most important and

basic ship data is Lines Plan Drawing and from it, other drawings are made.

SHIP FORM/HULL COEFFICIENTS

form/shape of ships.

• Related to the resistance and stability of the ship and can be

used to estimate them empirically.

• They include:

b. Mid-ship section coefficient (𝑪𝒎 )

c. Prismatic/Longitudinal coefficient (𝑪𝑷 )

d. Water plane coefficient (𝑪𝒘 )

SHIP FORM/HULL COEFFICIENTS Cont’d

• Block coefficient (𝑪𝒃 )

𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 • Prismatic/longitudinal

=

𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑏𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘 coefficient (𝑪′𝑷 ) =

𝛻 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑝 𝑠 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡

= ; =

𝐿×𝐵×𝐷𝑅𝐴𝐹𝑇 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑠𝑚

𝛻

𝐿×𝐴𝑚

Where 𝛻 = Volume displacement, L=lbp,

B=max. breadth. Ranges btw 0.38~0.80 Where Am = Ship’s mid-ship area

and even bigger. Ranges btw 0.55~0.80

SHIP FORM/HULL COEFFICIENTS Cont’d

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 (𝑪𝒎 ). It ranges between

= 0.67 ⋍ 0.98

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝐴𝐵𝐶𝐷

𝑊𝑃𝐴 𝑀𝑖𝑑𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑝 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝐴𝑚

= = =

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝐵 ×𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑡

𝐿×𝐵

• Ranges btw 0.67-0.87

SHIP FORM/HULL COEFFICIENTS Cont’d

𝐴𝑚 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑠ℎ𝑖𝑝′ 𝑠 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡

Cm × Cp = =

𝐵 × 𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑡 𝐿 × 𝐴𝑚

𝛻

= = Cb

𝐿 × 𝐵 × 𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑡

i.e. Cm × Cp = Cb

Cb

Hence, Cp =

Cm

• Also note that Cp is always slightly higher than Cb at each

waterline.

BODY RATIOS

• Ratios of principal ship particulars of basic ships normally used to

estimate those of new- build for preliminary analysis.

Examples are:-

𝜵 𝑪𝒃 𝑳𝑩𝑻

• Displacement / length ratio: =

𝑳𝟑 𝑳𝟑

𝑩

• Breadth / length ratio:

𝑳

𝑫

• Draft / length ratio:

𝑳

𝑫

• Draft / breadth ratio:

𝑩

Flotation and Buoyancy

• A ship floats by pushing its own weight of water

up and out of the way. The displaced water then,

exerts a supporting force on the ship’s hull as

gravity tries to restore the original undisturbed

level. The resulting upward force is called the

Upthrust or Buoyancy.

• The buoyancy force acts at the Center of

Buoyancy situated at the geometrical center of

the underwater volume.

Flotation and Buoyancy Cont’d

• To remains afloat, this weight of water displaced must

equal weight of ship. This occurs as average density,

including enclosed void spaces, becomes less than that

of the water in which it floats.

displaced to support increasing hull depth below the

water.

immersed due to increased loading, further increase in

cargo weight will not produce any further increase in

displaced water because there is no hull to displace

again. The vessel will then sink since the Upthrust is now

less than the increased weight of the vessel.

•

• Alternatively, a ship may sink if some of its enclosed hull

spaces are “holed or flooded”. Here, the ship’s weight

remains the same but the flooded compartment no

longer contributes to the displacement of water hence

the buoyancy is now reduced.

sufficient remaining enclosed space to compensate for

the flooding, the vessel will remain afloat at a new

deeper draft. If, however, the enclosed spaces become

fully submerged without fully compensating the lost

buoyancy, the ship will sink.

Flotation and Buoyancy Cont’d

We can say therefore that:

• When the weight of the immersed body (𝑨𝒅𝝆𝑩 𝒈) is equal to

the weight of the liquid(𝑨𝒅𝝆𝟏 𝒈) displaced by the body, then

the body will not move up or down but will be stationary.

This occurs when 𝝆𝟏 (𝒍𝒊𝒒𝒖𝒊𝒅 𝒅𝒆𝒏𝒔𝒊𝒕𝒚) = 𝝆𝑩 (Body density)

• When 𝝆𝟏 < 𝝆𝑩 then, 𝑨𝒅𝝆𝟏 𝒈 < 𝑨𝒅𝝆𝑩 𝒈 and the body will

sink because the body is heavier or denser than the liquid

weight displaced.

• When 𝝆𝟏 > 𝝆𝑩 , i.e. 𝑨𝒅𝝆𝟏 𝒈 > 𝑨𝒅𝝆𝑩 𝒈, 𝐭𝐡𝐞 body will rise

because it is lighter than the weight of the liquid which it

displaces. As the upthrust (vertical force = buoyant force)

acting on the fully immersed body is greater than the weight

of the body, it will rise until the weight of the body = weight of

the liquid displaced by the body.

EFFECT OF DENSITY ON DRAFT AND DISPLACEMENT

constant

• Mathematically, Displacement = L × B × d × ρ

• This means that if draft increases, displacement will

also increase and vice versa. The same holds true for

density also.

• If a vessel moves from high density(sea water) to low

density water (fresh water), draft will increase and vice

versa, for the same mass of vessel (constant

displacement).

• It is therefore the draft change that is maintaining the

constant displacements in the two water bodies of

different densities.

Effect of change of density when the displacement is

constant Cont’d

• New mass of water displaced = old mass of water displaced

i.e. L × B × dnew × ρ(new) = L × B × dold × ρ(old)

⇒New volume × new density = old volume ×old density

𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦

i.e., = or

𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦

𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑡 𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦

= , for the same length and breadth of

𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑓𝑡 𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦

vessel

Effect of density on displacement when the draft is

constant

When the density is changing, and the draft is not changing,

then the displacement in the two water bodies are no longer

the same.

Two things are possible for this scenario: Either;

1. Cargo is discharged from the vessel when movement is from

a high to a lower density water in order to maintain draft or,

2. Cargo is loaded onto the vessel when movement is from a

low to a higher density water in order to maintain draft.

Note: Either of the above operations is needed to keep draft

constant at changing displacement and densities.

𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡

In all cases, =

𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦

Tonnes Per Centimeter Immersion (TPC)

• The TPC for any draft is the mass of cargo which

must be loaded or discharged to change a ship’s

mean draft in salt water by one centimeter.

• Generally, 𝑇𝑃𝐶 = • 𝑇𝑃𝐶(𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟) = 𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑜 = 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 ∗

𝑊𝑃𝐴 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

×𝜌 =𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 ∗ 1 𝑐𝑚 ∗ 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

100

1 (𝑚) 1025𝑘𝑔 1 (𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑛𝑒)

= 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 ∗ 100 ∗* 1000

𝑐𝑚 𝑚3 𝑘𝑔

1 (𝑚)

= 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 (𝑚2 ) ∗

100 𝑐𝑚

1025𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑠

∗

1000𝑚3

𝑊𝑃𝐴

= 𝑡/𝑐𝑚

97.5

𝑊𝑃𝐴

• 𝑇𝑃𝐶(𝐹𝑟𝑒𝑠ℎ 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟) = 𝑡/𝑐𝑚

100

𝑅𝐷𝑑𝑤

• 𝑇𝑃𝐶𝑑𝑤 = × 𝑇𝑃𝐶𝑆𝑊

1.025

RESERVE BUOYANCY

volume of the enclosed space above the

waterline. It may be expressed as a volume or as

a percentage of the total volume of the vessel.

• This volume is not providing buoyancy but is

being held in reserve. If extra weights are loaded

to increase the displacement, these spaces above

the waterline are there to provide the extra

buoyancy required.

The Effect of Density on Ship-shaped vessels

(FRESH WATER ALLOWANCE)

water in which a vessel floats is changed the draft will

change, but the mass of water in kg or tonnes displaced will

be unchanged; i.e.

𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡

or,

𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 ∗ 𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 ∗ 𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦

𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦

⇒ =

𝑂𝑙𝑑 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑁𝑒𝑤 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦

• With ship shapes this formula should not be simplified further

as it was in the case of box-shape because the underwater

volume is not rectangular. To find the change in draft of a ship

shape due to density change, a quantity known as the “Fresh

Water Allowance” must be known.

Fresh Water Allowance (FWA)

is the number in millimeters

by which the mean draft

changes when a ship passes

from salt water to fresh

water, or vice versa, whilst

floating at the loaded draft.

It is found by the

expression:

⇒ 𝐹𝑊𝐴 𝑚𝑚 =

𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 (𝑡𝑜𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑠)

4∗𝑇𝑃𝐶

Dock Water Allowance (DWA)

• When the ship is loading in dock water which is of density between

these two limits, ‘S’ may be submerged such a distance that she will

automatically rise to ‘S’ when the open sea and salt water is

reached. The distance by which ‘S’ can be submerged, called the

Dock Water Allowance, is found in practice by simple proportion as

follows:

Let X = Dock Water Allowance

Let 𝜌𝐷𝑊 = Density of dock water

Then,

𝑋𝑚𝑚 1025 − 𝜌𝐷𝑊

=

𝐹𝑊𝐴 1025 − 1000

Or

𝐹𝑊𝐴 (1025 − 𝜌𝐷𝑊 )

𝐷𝑜𝑐𝑘 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝐴𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 =

25

7.0 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION FOR SHIP FORMS

so, determining their areas and volumes take the form of

numerical integration and the methods in common use

includes the following:

• The trapezoidal rule (linear)

• Simpson’s 1st (1/3rd) rule (Quadratic)

• Simpson’s 2nd (3/8th) rule (cubic)

• Simpson’s 3rd (5+8-1)/(5/8-1) rule

METHODS OF NUMERICAL INTEGRATION FOR SHIP FORMS

Any quantity which can be represented by the area under a

curve can be determined by measuring the area under the

curve between limits.

• If the equation of the curve is known, then the techniques

of integral calculus can be used. If, as is generally the case

with ship data, there is no equation which describes the

bounding curve, one of the techniques of numerical

integration must be used. All these techniques rely upon

dividing the area to be measured into segments and then

applying various formulae to the ordinates bounding the

segments. However, the accuracy depends upon the

spacing of the ordinates and the nearness of the curve that

follows the law.

METHODS OF NUMERICAL INTEGRATION FOR SHIP FORMS

Cont’d

(Linear)

This rule assumes that the

bounding curve between

two ordinates Y1 and Y2 is

linear (straight line) i.e.

𝑦 = 𝑎𝑥 + 𝑐.

The trapezoidal rule Cont’d

• 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 =

𝑏

= 𝑥𝑑 𝑥 𝑓 𝑎σ1𝑖=0 𝑐𝑖 𝑓 𝑥𝑖 = 𝑐0 𝑓 𝑥0 +

𝑐1 𝑓 𝑥1

ℎ

= 𝑓 𝑥0 + 𝑓(𝑥1 )

2

ℎ

Which in our case = 𝑦1 + 𝑦2 =

2

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑝𝑒𝑧𝑖𝑢𝑚

ordinates and when done is then known as

the compound trapezoidal rule .

The trapezoidal rule Cont’d

ℎ

• Here, 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝑦0 + 2𝑦1 + 2𝑦2 + 2𝑦3 + 𝑦4 how?

2

Consider the figure 7.2 to be made up of 4 areas

• A1 bounded by y0 and y1

• A2 bounded by y1 and y2

• A3 bounded by y2 and y3

• A4 bounded by y3 and y4

• Applying the rule, we have;

ℎ

• For 𝐴1 = 𝑦0 + 𝑦1

2

ℎ

• 𝐴2 = 𝑦1 + 𝑦2

2

ℎ

• 𝐴3 = 𝑦2 + 𝑦3

2

ℎ

• 𝐴4 = 𝑦3 + 𝑦4

2

• ⇒ 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝐴1 + 𝐴2 + 𝐴3 + 𝐴4 =

ℎ

• 𝑦0 + 𝑦1 + (𝑦1 +𝑦2 ) + 𝑦2 + 𝑦3 + (𝑦3 + 𝑦4 ) =

2

ℎ

• (𝑦0 + 2𝑦1 + 2𝑦2 + 2𝑦3 + 𝑦4 )

2

• Here, Trapezoidal Multipliers are: 1,2,2,2,1

Simpson’s 1st (1/3) rule

bounding curve defined

by three ordinates y0, y1

and y2 is a second order

polynomial (parabola) i.e.

y = ax2 + bx + c.

• See figure 7.3 below

Simpson’s 1st (1/3) rule Cont’d

• From which,

𝐴

𝑏 1

= න 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑐𝑖 𝑓 𝑥𝑖 = 𝑐0 𝑓 𝑥0

𝑎 𝑖=0

+ 𝑐1 𝑓 𝑥1 + 𝑐2 𝑓 𝑥2

ℎ

= 𝑓 𝑥0 + 4𝑓 𝑥1 + 𝑓(𝑥2 )

3

ℎ

𝐴 = 𝑦0 + 4𝑦1 + 𝑦2

3

Simpson’s 1st (1/3) rule Cont’d

to any area which is divided

by odd number of ordinates

in which case the number of

segments is even. The

compound first rule obtains

the total area under the

curve by adding together

the areas defined by groups

of three ordinates as follows

as in Fig. 7.4 below

Simpson’s 1st (1/3) rule Cont’d

ℎ

• 𝐴1 = 𝑦0 + 4𝑦1 + 𝑦2

3

ℎ

• 𝐴1 = 𝑦2 + 4𝑦3 + 𝑦4

3

ℎ

• Hence, AT = A1 + A2 = 𝑦0 + 4𝑦1 + 𝑦2 + 𝑦2 + 4𝑦3 + 𝑦4

3

ℎ

= 𝑦0 + 4𝑦1 + 2𝑦2 + 4𝑦3 + 𝑦4

3

First rule multipliers can easily be determined in fig. 7.5 below

Simpson’s 1st (1/3) rule Cont’d

are called Simpson’s multipliers applicable only if the number of

segments is even or ordinate is odd.

For example:

Area Divisions

No. of 3 5 7 9 11 13 15,

Ordinates etc.

No. of 2 4 6 8 10 12 14,

Segments etc.

(Spaces)

APPLICATION OF FIRST RULE TO INTERMEDIATE ORDINATES (ORDINATE

BETWEEN TWO MAIN ORDINATES)

• The first rule can further be extended to reduce computation when some

segments of an area are bounded by a curve which is changing rapidly

while other parts of the curve are changing very slowly or not at all. For

example, the bow and stern portions of a ship’s shape are parts of the ship

where shape changes rapidly, while over the parallel middle body, the

shape remains constant.

• The 1st rule is modified by the insertion of intermediate ordinates which

are measured at points half way between two of the main ordinates as

follows.

APPLICATION OF FIRST RULE TO INTERMEDIATE ORDINATES (ORDINATE BETWEEN

TWO MAIN ORDINATES) Cont’d

•

1ℎ 1 𝑦0 𝑦1

• 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 1 = 𝑦0 + 4𝑦1 + 𝑦1 = ℎ + 2𝑦1 +

32 2 3 2 2 2

ℎ

• 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 2 = 𝑦1 + 4𝑦2 + 𝑦3

3

1ℎ 1 𝑦3 𝑦4

• 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 3 = 𝑦3 + 4𝑦31 + 𝑦4 = ℎ + 2𝑦31 +

32 2 3 2 2 2

ℎ 𝑦0 𝑦1 𝑦3 𝑦4

• ⇒𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = + 2𝑦1 + + 𝑦1 + 4𝑦2 + 𝑦3 + + 2𝑦31 +

3 2 2 2 2 2 2

ℎ 𝑦0 3𝑦1 3𝑦3 𝑦4

• = + 2𝑦1 + + 4𝑦2 + + 2𝑦31 +

3 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

• 𝑆𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑠𝑜𝑛′ 𝑠𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑝𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑟𝑠 (𝑠. 𝑚) = , 2, 1 , 4, 1 , 2,

2 2 2 2

• N/B: The Simpson’s expressions for Areas A1 and A3 are divided by 2 because of the intermediate

ordinates between ordinates y0 and y1 for area A1 and ordinates y3 and y4 for A3

Simpson’s 2nd (3/8) Rule

• This rule assumes that the bounding curve defined by

four ordinates y0, y1, y2 and y3 is a third order polynomial,

i.e. 𝑦 = 𝑎𝑥 3 + 𝑏𝑥 2 + 𝑐𝑥 + 𝑑,

3

• 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = ℎ (𝑦0 + 3𝑦1 +3𝑦2 + 𝑦3 ) =

8

𝑏 3

න 𝑓 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑐𝑖 𝑓 𝑥𝑖 = 𝑐0 𝑓 𝑥0 + 𝑐1 𝑓 𝑥1 + 𝑐2 𝑓 𝑥2

𝑎 𝑖=0

+ 𝑐3 𝑓 𝑥3

ℎ

= 3 𝑓 𝑥0 + 3𝑓 𝑥1 + 3𝑓 𝑥2 + 𝑓 𝑥3

8

Simpson’s 2nd (3/8) Rule Cont’d

ordinates such that the number of spaces or segments between the

ordinates is divisible by three. For example:

Area Divisions

THE COMPOUND SECOND RULE

The compound second rule obtains the total area under the curve by adding the areas

defined by groups of four ordinates as follows;

From fig. 7.9, total area = Area 1 + Area 2

3ℎ

But, 𝐴1 = 8 (𝑦0 + 3𝑦1 +3𝑦2 + 𝑦3 ) and;

3ℎ

𝐴2 = (𝑦 + 3𝑦4 +3𝑦5 + 𝑦6 )

8 3

3ℎ

⇒ 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝐴 𝑇 = 8 𝑦0 + 3𝑦1 +3𝑦2 + 2𝑦3 + 3𝑦4 +3𝑦5 + 𝑦6

Where the multipliers inside the brackets for the 2nd rule become;

1, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3, 1.

THE COMPOUND SECOND RULE, Cont’d

• Graphically, we can show in short hand • COROLLARY: The second rule is applicable

form how the Simpson’s Second rule only if the number of segments is

multipliers can easily be determined in fig. divisible by three (3).

7.10 below • N/B: Derivation of Simpson’s second rule

• Here, 1, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3, is a Trial question for any curious student!

2, 3, 3, 1 are the multipliers for the • Corollary about the application of

second rule. Simpson’s rules;

• Rule 2 is used to obtain area when the

first rule will not fit

• Where both rules will fit, it is conventional

to use the first rule in preference to the

second.

• Where neither of these rules fit, then the

area must be divided into subsections,

and each area found separately and the

sum of the areas found.

•

APPENDAGES

• It is often the case that there are small areas which it is inconvenient to

include within the main area to be measured using the rules. These

appendages such as the bulbous bow must be measured separately and

added to the main area. In many cases these appendages will be

approximately triangular in shape. The darker shaded appendage areas

are assumed to be triangular with base lengths “a” and “b” and

perpendicular heights “w2” and “w8” respectively. Thus:

𝑎∗𝑤2 𝐿 𝑤2 𝑤8 𝑏∗𝑤8

Total WPA = 2 + + 𝑤3 + 𝑤4 + 𝑤5 + 𝑤6 + 𝑤7 + +

2 10 2 2 2

VOLUMES OF SHIP SHAPES AND SIMILAR FIGURES

• If the areas of these ordinates are known at equidistant intervals then, the

volume can be found using suitable application of Simpson’s rule. For Fig.

7.12 below, we can apply Simpson’s 1st rule, hence; Volume = h/3* ∑f

(volume), where h = common interval. Thus the volume of displacement

of a ship to any particular draft can be found first by calculating the areas

of water plane or transverse areas. And then using these areas as

ordinates to find the volume by Simpson’s rules.

𝟓 𝟓

Simpson’s third rule 𝒐𝒓 − 𝟏 𝒓𝒖𝒍𝒆

𝟖 𝟖

• i.e. 𝑨 = ሾ𝟓𝒄 + 𝟖𝒃 −

area between two 𝟏𝟐

consecutive ordinates when

three consecutive ordinates

are known. It states that the

area between two consecutive

ordinates is equal to five times

the first ordinate plus eight

times the middle ordinate

minus the external ordinate,

all multiplied by 1/12 of the

common interval.

MOMENTS OF AREAS & VOLUME & CENTROID

need them?

• Needed to calculate the position of the centroid of the area. The

position of the centroid represents the position of the center of

floatation (C.F) of a water plane and the position of the center of

buoyancy (C.B) of the underwater volume of a vessel. Ideally, these

positions are always situated very close to middle of the water-

plane/underwater volume and so, it is natural to determine them

relative to amidships although, they can be found relative to either

Aft or Fore Perpendiculars. However, from the aft or fore

perpendiculars, the mid-ships position can be worked out easily:

LCB (aft/fore of amid-ships) = 0.5*LBP - LCBAP/FP

Second moments of areas and volumes/moment of

inertia.

arises from the moment of inertia of a rotating mass.

• Ships and other floating bodies also rotate about some

axes when they are exposed to Rolling and pitching

motions of the sea and so, moment of inertia plays vital

role in the analysis of transverse and longitudinal

stability of ships and other floating bodies.

THE PARALLEL AXES THEOREM

• 𝐼𝑦𝑦 = 𝐼𝑁𝐴 + ℎ2 𝐴 𝑜𝑟 • Used in cases where we

• 𝐼𝑁𝐴 = 𝐼𝑦𝑦 − ℎ2 𝐴 wish to determine the

2nd moment of an area

about an axis (YY) when

we already know or can

find the value of the

2nd moment of the

area about another axis

(NA) which is parallel to

axis (YY).

APPLICATION OF SIMPSON’S RULES

volumes of ships and other structures, we need

to apply Simpson’s rules to finding;

• 1st moments of these areas and volumes

• 2nd moments of curved areas

To find moment about Transverse axis, YY/Longitudinal

moment

• Area of strip = y*dl

𝑙

Area of ½ water-plane = 0 𝑦 ∗ 𝑑𝑙

𝑙

Transverse axis YY= 0 𝑦𝑙𝑑𝑙

𝑙

Transverse axis yy = 0 𝑦𝑙 2 𝑑𝑙

• N/B: The integral part can be evaluated by

Simpson’s rules using the values of l2y as ordinates, and

the second moment about YY is found by multiplying

the result by two.

Standard Proforma for Calculating Area of 1/2WP using

Simpson’s 1st rule

s

0 y0 1 0

1 y1 4 4y1

2 y2 2 2y2

3 y3 4 4y3

4 y4 2 2y4

5 y5 4 4y5

6 y6 1 y6

Σ f(Area)

ℎ

𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝛴𝑓(𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎)

3

Standard Proforma for Calculating 1st moment of 1/2WP using

Simpson’s 1st rule

s

0 0y0 1 0

1 hy1 4 4hy1

2 2hy2 2 4hy2

3 3hy3 4 12hy3

4 4hy4 2 8hy4

5 5hy5 4 20hy5

6 6hy6 1 6hy6

Σ f(1st moment)

ℎ

1st moment about station 0 = 𝛴𝑓(1𝑠𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡)

3

Standard Proforma for Calculating 2nd moment of Area

of 1/2WP using Simpson’s 1st rule

Table 8.3 (2nd moment)

0 0y0 1 0

1 h2y1 4 4h2y2

2 4h2y2 2 8h2y2

3 9h2y3 4 36h2y2

4 16h2hy4 2 32h2y2

5 25h2y5 4 100h2y2

6 36h2y6 1 36h2y6

Σ f (2nd moment)

ℎ

2nd moment about station 0 = 𝛴𝑓 2𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡

3

General Solution Table using Simpson’s 1st rule.

Table 8.4: GENERAL SOLUTION TABLE USING SIMPSON’S 1ST RULE

1st moment F(1st moment) 2nd moment F(2nd moment)

0 y0 1 y0 0 0 0 0

1 y1 4 4y1 1 4y1 1 4y2

2 y2 2 2y2 2 4y2 2 8y2

3 y3 4 4y3 3 12y3 3 36y2

4 y4 2 2y4 4 8y4 4 32y2

5 y5 4 4y5 5 20y5 5 100y2

6 y6 1 y6 6 6y6 6 36y6

Σ f(Area) Σ f(1st moment) Σ f(2nd moment)

ℎ ℎ 1st moment of area about station 0 (AP) 2nd moment of area about station

Area = 𝛴𝑓(𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎) = 2∗ 𝛴𝑓(𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎) for the full water-plane

3 3

ℎ 0 (𝐴𝑃) =

= ℎ𝛴𝑓 1𝑠𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 =

3

𝐿𝑜𝑛𝑔𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑎 =

ℎ2

𝛴𝑓 1𝑠𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = ℎ2

3

ℎ 𝛴𝑓 2𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 =

3

ℎ2

2* 𝛴𝑓 1𝑠𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 for the full water ℎ3

3

𝛴𝑓 2𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 2*

3

plane

ℎ3

𝛴𝑓 2𝑛𝑑 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 for the full water-

3

plane

Determining Centroid of Water-Plane

• In general, we need to use the area and 1st moment of the area to

find the position of the centroid of the area (or of the volume

when volume is being considered). Thus, to find the position of the

centroid of the area about axis YY, we use;

ℎ

1𝑠𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 .ℎ𝛴𝑓(1𝑠𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡) ℎ𝛴𝑓(1𝑠𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡)

• 𝑥ҧ = = 3

ℎ =

𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝛴𝑓(𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎) 𝛴𝑓(𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎)

3

responses to pitching motion, we require the 2nd moment

about the transverse axis which passes through the centroid

of the area by making use of the theorem of parallel axes:

TRANSVERSE MOMENT/ MOMENT ABOUT A LONGITUDINAL AXIS

X.X/CENTRELINE

plane about its centerline are important

values in the calculation of its Transverse

stability data as the ship responds to the

Rolling motions of the sea.

TRANSVERSE MOMENT/ MOMENT ABOUT A LONGITUDINAL AXIS

X.X/CENTRELINE

𝑙 𝑦2

• 1st moment of the area= 0 ൗ2 𝑑𝑙

• second moment of the 3

area along

𝑙𝑦

the ship length = 0 𝑑𝑙 =

3

𝑙𝑦3

2 0 3 𝑑𝑙 for the full area.

expression can then be evaluated by

relevant Simpson’s Rule using the

value of y3 (i.e., the cube of the half-

breadth) as ordinates and the second

moment of area about center-line, ICL,

is found by multiplying the result by

2/3.

Standard Proforma for determining the 1st moment of the

water-plane about its centerline using Simpson’s 1st rule

Table 8.5

0 y0 y02 1 y02

1 y1 y12 4 4y12

2 y2 y22 2 2y22

3 y3 y32 4 4y32

4 y4 y42 2 2y42

5 y5 y52 4 4y52

6 y6 y62 1 y62

Σ f(1st moment)

And 1st moment of the water plane about centerline or longitudinal axis =

ℎ 1 ℎ 1

. Σ f(1st moment) = 2* . Σ f(1st moment) for the full water-plane.

3 2 3 2

Standard Proforma for determining the 2nd moment of the

water-plane about its centerline using Simpson’s 1st rule

Table 8.6

0 y0 y03 1 y03

1 y1 y13 4 4y13

2 y2 y23 2 2y23

3 y3 y33 4 4y33

4 y4 y43 2 2y43

5 y5 y53 4 4y53

6 y6 y63 1 y63

Σ f(2nd moment)

And 2nd moment of the water plane about centerline or longitudinal axis =

ℎ 1 ℎ 1

. Σ f(1st moment) = 2 . . Σ F (2nd moment) for the full water-plane.

3 3 3 3

General solution Table using Simpson’s 1st rule

9.0 CENTROIDS AND THE CENTRE OF GRAVITY

• Position of center of

• If W = displacement acting at the Centre of

gravity G.

gravity relative to keel

cargo etc., acting at g0, g1, g2 respectively,

⇒ W x KG = w0 Kg 0 + w1 Kg1 + w2 Kg 2

And 𝐾𝐺 =

w0 Kg 0 + w1 Kg 1 + w2 Kg 2

𝑊

𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑘𝑒𝑒𝑙

• i.e. 𝐾𝐺 = =

𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡

𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑘𝑒𝑒𝑙

CENTROIDS AND THE CENTRE OF GRAVITY Cont’d

gravity relative to

center-line

W*CG + w0 ∗ cg 0 = w1 ∗ cg1 +w2 ∗ 𝑐g 2

i.e. 𝑊 ∗ 𝐶𝐺 = 𝑤1 ∗ 𝑐𝑔1 + 𝑤2 ∗ 𝑐𝑔2 − 𝑤0 ∗ 𝑐𝑔0

𝑤1 ∗ 𝑐𝑔1 + 𝑤2 ∗ 𝑐𝑔2 − 𝑤0 ∗ 𝑐𝑔0

𝐶𝐺 =

𝑊

𝑚𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒

𝐶𝐺 =

𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡

= 𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒

𝑡𝑜 𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒

EFFECT OF REMOVING OR DISCHARGING MASS ON THE C.G

directly away from the Centre of gravity of

any weight removed.

(W-w) x GG1 = w x d

𝑤×𝑑

Or, 𝐺𝐺1 = 𝑊−𝑤 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠

EFFECT OF ADDING OR LOADING MASS ON C.G

will move directly towards the

Centre of gravity of any weight

• Application to Ships.

added.

𝑤×𝑑

• 𝐺0 𝐺1 = 𝑊+𝑤

EFFECT OF SHIFTING WEIGHTS ON C.G

move parallel to the shift of the

Centre of gravity of any weight

moved within the body.

g1g2 and that:

𝑤×𝑑

𝐺𝐺2 = 𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠

𝑊

EFFECTS OF SUSPENDED WEIGHTS ON C.G

• Note however that:

or inclined in either direction, the point when a derrick lifts a

in the ship through which the force of weight, the C.G of the

gravity is acting vertically downward is ship moves up and

g1, the point of suspension, thus the stability is affected.

Centre of gravity of a suspended When it lowers a weight,

weight is considered to be at the point the C.G of the ship

of suspension. moves down and

stability is improved.

When it moves weight

arthwartship, the C.G of

the ship moves out of

the ship’s centerline and

the ship is listed.

STABILITY

1) its weight = the buoyancy

2) the line of action of these two forces become collinear.

• Stable equilibrium: if it is slightly displaced from its equilibrium position and

will return to that position. A body in stable equilibrium possesses minimum

potential energy and height of c.g is low

and tends to move farther away from this position. A body in a unstable

equilibrium possesses maximum potential energy and height of c.g is higher.

• Neutral equilibrium: if it is displaced slightly from this position and will remain

in the new position. A body in neutral equilibrium possesses constant

potential energy and height of c.g. is constant.

Motions of Ship

• 6 degrees of freedom

• - Surge

• - Sway

• - Heave

• - Roll

• - Pitch

• - Yaw

Motion Characteristics

Motion Characteristics Cont’d

problem; leads to bottom slamming, green

sea effect, Tank sloshing, etc.

Ship Listing and Heeling

Listing Heeling.

• Permanent Inclination of • Temporal Inclination of

ship by virtue of ship by virtue of external

transverse movement of dynamic forces.

forces within the ship. • The effect on the ship is

• The effect on the ship is called heeling moment.

called listing moment. Can be produced by:

Can result from: • lateral wind,

• Incorrect loading • Centrifugal force

• Flooding developed in turning

• Temporary transverse

displacement of weights.

Effect of Listing and heeling Moments

• Listing Moment • Heeling Moment

•

• N/B: for listing moment, GG1 // old For heeling moment, line GZ is

parallel to the New water line and

waterline, WL, and so GG1 = GM so, GZ = GMsin 𝜃.

tan 𝜃.

• C.G moves along Centerline of ship

• C.G moves out of ship’s Center line producing couples with metacenter

and list can be corrected by changing that either rights or capsizes vessel.

loading condition.

Effect of Heeling Moment on Ship Stability

height. Neutral stability and GM =0; MSS=0

• If C.G is below M, Vessel is Stable and • In this condition, the ship will move

GM is +VE vertically up and down in the water at

• If C.G is above M, Vessel is Unstable the fixed angle of heel until further

and GM is –VE external or internal forces are applied.

• MSS = WGZ=GMSin 𝜃

Correcting Unstable and Neutral Stability

or

Stiff and tender ships

Roll /Stiffness • Roll/Tenderness.

• Is the time-varying inclination of a • Here, the GM is small, about

ship from one side to the other and 0.16m to 0.2m, GZ as well as

back to the original position due to MSS and will be more easier to

ship motions. incline . When inclined, she will

• For a ship that has comparatively take longer time to return to her

large GM about 2m to 3m, GZ is initial position because of too

large and so, will require larger long roll period, about 30-35sec.

moment to incline. When The ship in this condition is

inclined, she will return more “Tender”

quickly. This is because the ship • P.E of the ship is too high so steps

has short roll period, about 8sec should be taken to lower CG and

and will roll violently from side to increase GM.

side. The ship in this condition is

“Stiff”.

• N/B: A roll period between 20-25

• Here, the P.E of the ship is too sec. is generally acceptable for

low and steps should be taken to those onboard a ship at sea

raise the C.G and reduce GM.

NEGATIVE GM AND ANGLE OF LOLL

• For Very small Negative GM, a condition is reached when the capsizing

moment disappears. The angle of heel at which this happens is called the

angle of loll. Although, this is also not a desirable condition as the ship

oscillates about the loll angle rather than about it’s centerline, posing

capsize threats and so, should be corrected.

HOW TO CORRECT ANGLE OF LOLL

In Summary,

• Check that the list is due to a very small negative GM; for

example, -0.05 to -0.10m.

• Top any slack tanks and lower weights within the ship, if

possible.

• If the ship is still listed and it is decided to fill double-

bottom tanks, start by filling the low side of a tank which is

adequately subdivided.

• The list is bound to be increased in the initial stages but will

decrease later.

• Never start by filling tanks on the high side first.

• Always calculate the effects first before authorizing actions

to be taken to ballast any tanks.

EFFECT OF FREE SURFACE OF LIQUID ON STABILITY

W × G1 Z 1

= W × Gv Z v

= W × Gv Msinθ

Rather than W × G𝑀sinθ

Gv M = Vitual GM

𝑖 1

𝐺𝐺𝑉 = × 𝜌1 × 2 for n no. of longitudinal

W 𝑛

tanks.

𝑖

𝐺𝐺𝑉 = × 𝜌1 for undivided tank,

W

virtual GM is created due to a loss in the initial

GM.

STABILITY TYPES

• Initial Stability: For an undamaged (intact) ship, we only study the

initial stability for longitudinal equilibrium, i.e. determining the ship’s draft and

trim.

• Static stability: Measures the righting moment arm, GZ, given the angle of

inclination of the ship. It assumes that the ship is not affected by external dynamic

effects. It is measured in meters and its value at two different angles of heel may

be the same as opposed to dynamic stability whose value cannot be the same at

two different angles of heel.

• Note that:

• Vessel static stability is decided on its value of GM (Meta-centric Height) up to 100

heel and GZ (Righting Lever) above 100 heel.

• GM gives accurate measure of stability only for small disturbances, i.e. angle not

beyond 100.

• For larger angles of heel, the righting lever (GZ) is used to measure stability.

• In any stability analysis, the value of GZ is plotted over the entire range of heel

angles.

Stability Cont’d

• Stability at large angle of inclination • stability at small angle of inclination

(more than 150): Computes the (up to 150 ) (initial Stability):

righting moment (or righting arm) as • Here, all verticals through the center

functions of the inclination angle up of buoyancy passes through the

to a limit angle at which the ship initial metacenter. MSS = WGZ=

may lose its stability. Here, all Gmsinθ,

verticals through the center of • GZ= righting lever.

buoyancy no longer passes through the

initial metacenter.

𝟏

• MSS= (𝑮𝑴 + 𝟐 𝑩𝑴𝒕𝒂𝒏𝟐 𝜽)𝒔𝒊𝒏𝜽

(Wall-sided Formula)

DYNAMICAL STABILITY

• Dynamical stability = work done = weight x

• This is the work done on a ship to (vertical separation of line B1Z - vertical

separation of line BG). From fig. 10.24below;

heel it to some specified angle. • Dynamical stability = 𝑊 × 𝐵1 𝑍 − 𝐵𝐺 =

• Gives stability information of a vessel 𝑊 × 𝐵1 𝑅 + 𝑅𝑍 − 𝐵𝐺

𝑣(𝑔ℎ+𝑔1 ℎ1 )

considering dynamic behavior of the • =𝑊× + 𝑃𝐺 − 𝐵𝐺

𝛻

sea. 𝑣(𝑔ℎ+𝑔1 ℎ1 )

• =𝑊× + 𝐵𝐺𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 − 𝐵𝐺

• It’s expressed in terms of area under 𝛻

𝑣(𝑔ℎ+𝑔1 ℎ1 )

the righting moment curve or GZ • =𝑊× − 𝐵𝐺 (1 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃) . This

𝛻

is known as the Moseley’s formula for

curve multiplied by displacement. dynamical stability. Note:

𝐵𝐺𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑃𝐺 𝑖𝑛 𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝐵𝑃𝐺.

• Dynamical stability = W x Area under

the stability curves

𝜃

= 0 𝑊 × 𝐺𝑍 × 𝑑𝜃

𝜃

= 𝑊 න 𝐺𝑍𝑑𝜃

0

Note that the dynamic stability at two

different angles of heel cannot be the

same.

Transverse (BM) BMT (Meta-centric Radius)

• This is the height of the transverse KM (metacenter measured from keel) or height of

meta-center above the center of metacenter above the baseline (Hm)

buoyancy and is found by using the 𝐼

𝐼 Hm = KM = BM +ZB = 𝑥 + 𝑍𝐵 , where 𝑍𝐵 is the vertical

formula: 𝐵𝑀 = 𝛻

𝛻 coordinate of the center of buoyancy.

Where I = 2nd moment of the water The vertical distance between the metacenter and

plane area about the centerline; center of gravity

𝛻= the ship’s volume of displacement. 𝐼

• GM = KM - ZG = 𝑥 + 𝑍𝐵 − 𝑍𝐺 , where ZG is the

𝛻

vertical position of the center of gravity.

• If we know the vertical position of the center of

gravity, ZG and the center of buoyancy ZB, then the

righting arm at small angle of inclination θ, will

be:

𝐼𝑥

• GZ = GM.θ = + 𝑍𝐵 − 𝑍𝐺 . θ

𝛻

And the righting moment is

𝐼

• 𝑀𝑆𝑆 = 𝑊. 𝐺𝑀θ = 𝜌𝑆𝑊 . 𝛻 𝑥 + 𝑍𝐵 − 𝑍𝐺 . 𝜃

𝛻

= 𝜌𝑆𝑊 . 𝛻 . GZ

Computing BM & KM for other Shapes

𝑑 𝐿𝐵3 𝑍𝐵 =

𝐼𝑓, 𝑍𝐵 = ; 𝐼𝑋 = ; 𝛻 = 𝐿𝐵𝑑 𝐶𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑜𝑖𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝐴𝐷𝐶 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑝𝑒𝑥

2 12 2

𝐼𝑋 𝐿𝐵3 1 𝐵2 , 𝐴 = 3𝑑

⇒ 𝐵𝑀 = 𝛻 = 12 . 𝐿𝐵𝑑 = 12𝑑 𝐿𝐵 3 𝐿𝐵𝑑

𝐵2 𝑑 If, 𝐼𝑋 = , 𝛻 =

And, 𝐾𝑀 = 𝐵𝑀 + 𝑍𝐵 = 12𝑑 + 2 12 2

𝐼𝑋 𝐿𝐵 3 2 𝐵2

⇒ 𝐵𝑀 = 𝛻 = 12 . 𝐿𝐵𝑑 = 6𝑑

𝐵2 2

And, 𝐾𝑀 = 𝐵𝑀 + 𝑍𝐵 = + 3𝑑

6𝑑

TRIM ( Longitudinal Stability)

shifted aft through a distance ‘d’ as A trimming moment of W x GG1 is

shown in fig.11.1. This causes the thereby produced.

center of gravity of the ship to shift But, W x GG1 = w x d .

from G to G1, parallel to the shift of

the center of gravity of the weight :. The trimming moment = w x d

shifted, such that: • The ship will now trim until the

center of gravity and buoyancy are

again in the same vertical line, as

shown in fig.11.2 below.

Trim Cont’d (BML)

• In trim problems, unless otherwise stated, • For a box-shape vessel:

it is to be assumed that the center of

floatation is situated amidships.

• Trimming moments are taken about the

center of floatation since this is the point

• For a triangular prism,

about which rotation takes place .

• BML is the height of the longitudinal

metacenter above the center of

buoyancy and is found for any shape

of vessel by the formula,

• BML = 𝜵L

I • For a vessel having a rectangular

water plane.

• Where, IL = longitudinal second

moment of the water plane about

the center of floatation.

• And, 𝜵 = the vessel’s volume of

displacement .

Trim Cont’d (MCTC)

GG1

w d GG1 GM L tan

W

w d GG1

tan tan t

W GM L GM L L

To find the change of draft forward and aft due to change of trim

effect a change in the drafts forward and aft.

One of these will be increased and the other

decreased.

fig. 11.5 (c), using the property of similar

triangles.

of trim

• :. Change of draft forward in cm = change

of trim – change of draft aft

• I.e. y = t – x = (L-l)* change of trim

To find the change of draft forward and aft due

to change of trim Cont’d

• The effect of Shifting Weights • Change of draft forward = change of

already on Board trim* (L-l)/L

• New Drafts fore and aft = original

draft+/-draft change to trim fore and

• Weight shift will create a trimming

aft.

moment = w*d

• Hence, Change of trim = w*d/MCTC

• Change of draft afterward = change

of trim *l/L

To find the change of draft forward and aft due to

change of trim Cont’d

• The Effect of Loading and/or

• When weight is discharged; It is

Discharging Weights

assumed to be discharged at the

When weight is added; It is assumed to be center of floatation. It means that it

added at the center of floatation first will first be moved to the C.F before

before moving it to the desired position being discharged hence, there will be

hence, there will be bodily sinkage; equal

draft rise on both fore and aft drafts =

bodily Rise; equal draft rise on both

w/TPC and a trimming moment =w*d fore and aft drafts = w/TPC and a

created due to movement of the weight trimming moment =w*d created due

away from the C.F to movement of the weight to the C.F

• Change in trim=w*d/MCTC • Change in trim=w*d/MCTC

• Change of draft afterward = change of • Change of draft afterward = change

trim *l/L of trim *l/L

• Change of draft forward = change of trim • Change of draft forward = change of

* (L-l) /L trim * (L-l) /L

• New drafts fore and aft becomes • New drafts fore and aft becomes

• Original draft + draft rise+/-draft changes

due to change in trim. • Original draft - draft rise+/-draft

changes due to change in trim.

To find the change of draft forward and aft due to

change of trim Cont’d

In the event of more than one weight being loaded or discharged, the net

weight loaded or discharged is used to find the net bodily increase or

decrease in draft, and the resultant trimming moment is used to find the

change in trim.

Using trim to find the position of the Centre of

floatation

• Assume a position for the C.F relative to amidships

• Change of trim must be zero hence, moment to change trim by the stern = the

moment to change trim by the head and the position of C.F can be found.

• Remember: levers, moments and trim by the stern(Aft) all have a +ve sign; levers,

moments and trim by the head (fore) all have a –ve sign.

• N/B: In this type of question it is usual to assume that the Centre of floatation is

aft amidships, this may not be the case. If it was assumed that the Centre of

floatation was aft of amidships when in actual fact it was forward, then the answer

obtained should be minus.

Loading a wt. to keep the after draft constant

• When a ship is being loaded it is usually • Now let the weight be shifted through a

the aim of those in charge of the distance‘d’ meters forward. The ship will

operation to complete loading with the change trim by the head, causing a

ship trimmed by the stern. Should the reduction in the draft aft by a number of

ship’s draft on sailing be restricted by the centimeters equal to (l/L *change of trim).

depth of water over a dock-sill or by the • Therefore, if the same draft is to be

depth of water in a channel, then the ship maintained aft, the above two quantities

will be loaded in such a manner as to must be equal.

produce this draft aft and be trimmed by

the stern.

• Assume now that a ship loaded in this way

is ready to sail and it is then found that I.e. (change of trim * l/L) = W/TPC

the ship has to load an extra weight. The so, Change of trim =

weight must be loaded in such a position WL/l.TPC = w.d/MCTC

that the draft aft is not increased and also

that the maximum trim is maintained.

• If the weight is loaded at the Centre of • and d = distance forward of the Centre

floatation, the ship’s drafts will increase of floatation to load a weight to keep

uniformly and the draft aft will increase by the draft aft, constant becomes:

a number of centimeters equal to W/TPC.

The draft aft must now be decreased by

this amount.

Trim Cont’d

• Using change of trim to find the longitudinal metacentric height (GML).

In fig.11.6(c), GG1ML and CW1L1 are similar triangles so,

Trim (Summary)

• Summary of solution steps in Trim problems

• Estimate the mean bodily sinkage, if necessary.

• Calculate the change of trim using levers measured from LCF

• Evaluate the trim ratio forward and aft at FP and AP from the LCF position

• Collect the above calculated values to estimate the final end drafts

• In the solutions shown, these final end drafts have been calculated to

three decimal figures. In practice, naval architects and ship officers round

off the drafts to two decimal places only. This gives acceptable accuracy.

• Note how the formulae were written in letters first and then figures

inserted. In the event of a mathematical error, marks will be given for a

correct formula and for a correct sketch.

BONJEAN CURVES

the immersed area of transverse

sections to any draft and may be to Calculate

used to determine the longitudinal Displacement.

distribution of buoyancy at any

• First, the drafts on forward perpendicular,

waterline. mid-ship and aft perpendicular should be

obtained using hydrostatic relationships or

as calculated and tabulated in hydrostatic

tables. Then, the drafts at each station

should determined with the following

formula.

• For the stations aft of amid-ships

amid-ships

Using BONJEAN Curves to Calculate Displacement Cont’d

• ∆ 𝑇 = 𝑘𝜌𝛻T

• d1 is the draft for a station, da, dm and df • 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒, 𝑘 = ℎ𝑢𝑙𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝜌 =

are drafts on aft perpendicular, mid-ship 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑒𝑎 𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟

and forward perpendicular respectively. D, • Normally, K value is gradually

is the distance from the said station to aft smaller while draft increases. Note that K

perpendicular and LBP means the Length value is not listed directly inside ship’s

between perpendiculars. cargo manual but, should be obtained

• Next, the area of cross-section under from hydrostatic tables.

water for each station or sub-station • 𝐾=

∆

should be collected respectively in the 1.025∗𝛻

BONJEAN tables based on the various • Where displacement (∆ ) and volume of

draft on each station. displacement (𝛻) could be obtained from

• Then, all volumes of sections should be Hydrostatic tables based on the mean

accumulated to obtain the total volume of draft.; 1.025 is the standard density of sea

displacement submerged choosing water.

relevant approximate numerical • Also, K value can also be obtained by

integration Rule for the determination of ε

• 𝐾 = 1 + 𝑊𝑆𝐴

Volume from area, 𝛻

• Where, ε is the average thickness of shell

• Finally, the displacement would be

plates which can be collected from

obtained by:

shipboard documents, WSA is the wetted

surface area of the hull which can be

collected from hydrostatic tables based on

mean draft.

HOW TO USE BONJEAN CURVES TO DETERMINE DISPLACEMENT

AND CENTER OF BUOYANCY

of the vessel on the profile view. Remember

that the waterline is dictated by the forward and

aft drafts.

• Determine the intersection of the waterline at

each station. This gives the immersed draft at

each station.

• Determine the immerse area of each station.

This is the length of the axial distance from

respective stations to the respective BONJEAN

curve on each station along the waterline

• These axial distances are then converted into

area values using the scale provided on the

abscissa of the BONJEAN CURVE as shown on

the axes below the forward part of the keel in

fig. 12.2.

• Using the converted area values as ordinates,

appropriate numerical integration method is

applied to determine displacement and Center

of buoyancy.

THE INCLINING EXPERIEMENT

ship so the Light ship KG can be

determined:

• KG = KM-GMExperiment 𝐺0 𝐺1 𝑊×𝑑

𝐺𝑀 = =

𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 0 ∆𝑇 ∗ 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃 0

𝐾𝐺𝐸𝑥𝑝 =𝐾𝑀− ×

𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔 ℎ𝑡 𝐵𝐶

Inclining Experiment Cont’d

• Mooring lines must slack and the vessel clear of the deck so that it

heels freely. Angle of heel should be within about 40 to allow the

small angle stability to be used (i.e. the meta-center is assumed to

return stationery over the range of heel angle).

• The water must be smooth and there should be little or no wind.

• There should be no free surface of water in the vessel, the bilges

should be dry and tanks dry.

• All moveable weights must be properly secured.

• All persons should be ashore except those actually engaged in the

experiment.

• The vessel must be upright at the beginning of the inclining

experiment.

STABILITY AND HYDROSTATIC CURVES

• GZ cross curves of

stability:

• These are a set of curves from which the

righting lever about an assumed center of

gravity for any angle of heel at any

particular displacement may be found by

inspection. The curves are plotted for an

assumed KG and, if the actual KG of the

ship differs from this, a correction must be

applied to the righting levers taken from

the curves.

Correction to Tabulated GZ

• If Ship’s KG is more than KG assumed to In fig.14.3, KG2 is the ship’s KG and is less

construct GZ Cross curves then,

than the assumed so, correction must be

Correction should be subtracted from the

Tabulated GZ. added.

• If Ship’s KG is less than KG assumed to • G2 Z2 = YZ2 + G2 Y

construct GZ Cross curves then,

• But, YZ2 = GZ

Correction should be added to the Tabulated

GZ • Therefore, G2 Z2 = GZ + G2Y

• In either case, Correction = GG1 Sinθ0 • Or Corrected GZ = Tabulated GZ + Correction

where θ0 is the angle of heel. In fig 14.2, • Also, in triangle GG2Y:

KG is assumed and KG1 is the ship’s KG • G2 Y = GG2 Sinθ0 Or Correction = GG2 Sin heel

•

KN Cross Curves of Stability

• Are stability cross curves constructed for

an assumed KG of zero, KN being the

righting lever measured from the keel.

always subtracted.

STATICAL STABILITY CURVES

• The curve of statical stability for a ship in • Figure 14.7 below shows the stability

any particular condition of loading is curve for a ship having a negative initial

obtained by plotting the righting levers meta-centric height. At angles of heel of

against angle of heel as shown in Figures less than 18 degrees the righting levers

14.6 and 14.7. are negative, whilst at angles of heel

between 18 degrees and 90 degrees the

levers are positive. The angle of loll in this

case is 18 degrees, the range of stability is

18 degrees to 90 degrees, and the angle

of vanishing stability is 90 degrees.

• Note how the –ve GM is plotted at 57.3°.

Stability Information Derivable from Statical curve of stability

• The range of stability is the range over which the ship has positive righting

levers. In Figure 14.6 above, the range is from 0 degrees to 86 degrees.

• The angle of vanishing stability is the angle of heel at which the righting

lever returns to zero, or is the angle of heel at which the sign of the

righting levers changes from positive to negative. The angle of vanishing

stability in Figure 14.6 is 86 degrees.

• The maximum GZ is obtained by drawing a tangent to the highest point in

the curve. In Figure 14.6, AB is the tangent and this indicates a maximum

GZ of 0.63 meters. If a perpendicular is dropped from the point of

tangency, it cuts the heel scale at the angle of heel at which the maximum

GZ occurs. In the present case the maximum GZ occurs at 42 degrees heel.

• The initial meta-centric height (GM) is found by drawing a tangent to the

curve through the origin (OX in Figure 14.6), and then erecting a

perpendicular through an angle of heel of 57.3 degrees. Let the two lines

intersect at Y. Then the height of the intersection above the base (YZ),

when measured on the GZ scale, will give the initial meta-centric height. In

the present example the GM is 0.54 meters.

HYDROSTATIC CURVES

• Hydrostatic information is usually supplied to the ship’s officer in the form of a table or a

graph.

HYDROSTATIC CURVES

REGULATORY BODIES

• IMO AND HER AGENCIES (MARINE STRUCTURAL COMMITTEE); INTERNATIONAL

CONVENTIONS, ETC.

• GOVERNMENT REPRESENTATIVES

• INDUSTRY STAKE-HOLDERS

• CLASS SOCIETIES (IACS-13MEMBER SOCIETY)

Almost all merchant ships are built under the rules of a classification society. All must comply

with statutory regulations of any Government’s representative in-charge of standards of safety

for merchant ships, related to damage, collision, sub-division, life-saving equipment, loading,

stability, fire protection, navigation, carriage of dangerous cargoes, load lines and other allied

subjects. Thus the primary object of statutory regulations is to promote safety of life at sea. The

rules issued by the Government’s representative are compulsory and are enforced by the various

Merchant shipping Acts. It is the purpose of the Government to ensure that standards

appropriate to safety are adopted. The international scope of the operations of ships has

considerable bearing on the interrelation between the regulations of different governments.

Comparable uniformity on an international scale has been made by means of Conferences, at

which conventions were formulated. This is clearly indicated by the International Load Line

Convention, the International Convention for the safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the

International Conference on Tonnage Measurement of Ships. All the rules emanating from these

Conventions are intended to ensure the safety of Ships and of those who travel in them.

Classification Society and IACS

• A non-governmental organization in the shipping industry, a classification society establishes and

maintains technical standards for construction and operation of marine vessels and offshore

structures. The primary role of the society is to classify ships and validate that their design and

calculations are in accordance with the published standards. It also carries out periodical survey of

ships to ensure that they continue to meet the parameters of set standards. The society is also

responsible for classification of all offshore structures including platforms and submarines.

• Flag states maintain a ship register in which all ships that sail under their flag need to be registered.

Classification societies are licensed by flag states to survey and classify ships and issue certificates

on their behalf. They classify and certify marine vessels and structures on the basis of their

structure, design and safety standards.

• A classification society’s workforce comprises of ship surveyors, mechanical engineers, material

engineers, piping engineers, and electrical engineers. Surveyors employed by a classification

society inspect ships at all stages of their development and operations to make sure that their

design, components, and machinery are developed and maintained in accordance with the

standards set for their class. The process covers inspection of engines, shipboard pumps and other

vital ship's machines. They also inspect offshore structures such as oil rigs, submarines and other

marine structures.

• Today there are more than fifty classification societies in the world.

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