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 A display is a computer output surface and projecting mechanism that shows text and often graphic
images to the computer user, using a cathode ray tube liquid crystal display ( LCD ), light-emitting
diode, gas plasma, or other image projection technology.

 The display is usually considered to include the screen or projection surface and the device that
produces the information on the screen.

 In some computers, the display is packaged in a separate unit called a monitor. In other computers,
the display is integrated into a unit with the processor and other parts of the computer. (Some
sources make the distinction that the monitor includes other signal-handling devices that feed and
control the display or projection device.

 However, this distinction disappears when all these parts become integrated into a total unit, as in the
case of notebook computers.
 Displays (and monitors) are also sometimes called video display terminals
(VDTs). The terms display and monitor are often used interchangeably.

 Most computer displays use analog signals as input to the display image
creation mechanism. This requirement and the need to continually refresh the
display image mean that the computer also needs a display or video adapter.
The video adapter takes the digital data sent by application programs, stores
it in video random access memory ( video RAM), and converts it to analog
data for the display scanning mechanism using an digital-to-analog converter
( DAC ).
Displays can be
characterized according



The size of

the screen
Today, most desktop displays provide colour. Notebook and smaller computers sometimes have a less expensive

monochrome display. Displays can usually operate in one of several display modes that determine how many bits are

used to describe colour and how many colours can be displayed. A display that can operate in SuperVGA mode can

display up to 16,777,216 colours because it can process a 24-bit long description of a pixel . The number of bits used

to describe a pixel is known as its bit-depth . The 24-bit bit-depth is also known as true colour . It allows eight bits for

each of the three additive primary colours - red, green, and blue. Although human beings can't really distinguish that

many colours, the 24-bit system is convenient for graphic designers since it allocates one byte for each colour. The

Visual Graphics Array (VGA ) mode is the lowest common denominator of display modes. Depending on the resolution

setting, it can provide up to 256 colours.

2 3

On desktop computers, the display screen width relative to height, known as the aspect ratio , is
generally standardized at 4 to 3 (usually indicated as "4:3"). Screen sizes are measured in either
millimetres or inches diagonally from one corner to the opposite corner. Popular desktop screen
sizes are 12-, 13-, 15-, and 17-inch. Notebook screen sizes are somewhat smaller.
Most displays in current use employ cathode ray tube (CRT) technology
similar to that used in most television sets. The CRT technology requires
a certain distance from the beam projection device to the screen in
order to function. Using other technologies, displays can be much
thinner and are known as flat-panel displays . Flat panel display
technologies include light-emitting diode (LED), liquid crystal display
(LCD), and gas plasma. LED and gas plasma work by lighting up
display screen positions based on the voltages at different grid
intersections. LCDs work by blocking light rather than creating it. LCDs
require far less energy than LED and gas plasma technologies and are
currently the primary technology for notebook and other mobile
CRT is Born It is the late 19th century when a Nobel prize winning physicist and
inventor builds the first CRT. Karl Ferdinand Braun is the name of the man who
stands at the beginning of the history of displays. His CRT invention consists of a
vacuum tube that produces images. Images form by letting electron beams hit a
phosphorescent surface. This display technology would later be the foundation for
early televisions and computer monitors.
Discovery of Electroluminescence is a natural phenomenon discovered by British
radio researcher Henry Joseph Round. Electroluminescence is an important
discovery in the history of displays. Later on this display technology would be the
foundation of LED technology. Next to that, 1907 is also the year where Boris Rising,
a Russian scientist, is the first to transmit raw geometrical patterns onto a TV screen
using CRT. This year turned out to be an even better year for display technology.
Technologies were discovered that would later play a major part in developing other
display technologies.
3D Movie Experiments In 1947 the first ever feature length motion
picture in 3 dimension is released. It was the Soviet Union who
released the film Bwana Devil and claimed it as the first 3D
movie in the history of displays. The 1950s would produce many
more 3D movies. Between 1952 and 1955 a total of 46 3D film
productions are released. This includes the famous 'House of
Wax'. Even though 3D display technology was revolutionary, it
did require some more development. Poor visual quality was
putting off viewers and this display technology would not catch
on properly until many years later.

First Colour TV Around the same time as the invention of

the curved display, color television came to live. It was in
the early 50s of the previous century when television
begins to incorporate colour. For TV to be in color both
luminance and chrominance are incorporated. During the
early years of colour television the colors change
depending on the viewers equipment. TVs vary from model
to model, also varying the quality of the colour image.
Invention of LED In 1961 one of the most important display technologies in the history
of displays in born. Robert Biard and Gary Pittman patent an infra LED (light emitting
diode). This is the first LED, developed for Texas Instruments. This first LED however
is not visible for the human eye. One year later though Nick Holonyack invents the
first LED that is actually visible to the human eye. It is he that becomes known as the
'father of LEDs'.
Invention of LCD and Plasma only a couple of years after
the invention of LED, two other display technologies see
the light. In 1964 both the first working LCD (liquid crystal
display) and the first plasma display are founded. LCD
display technology is what makes flat screen television
possible. American inventor James Fergason researches
LCD further and comes up with the first modern LCD
watch in 1972. Plasma TVs however are not accepted as
easily as LCD displays. Plasma's success has to wait until
the arrival of digital technologies years later. The early
60s go down as a life changing time in the history of
displays with the invention of LED, LCD and plasma.
Three technologies that would prove to be crucial for
future display technologies.
Touch Screen Technology is Invented
Touch screens and display technology
have always been close. This
1965 technological relationship dates back to
the invention of touch screen technology.
Back to 1965 when E.A. Johnson develops
the world's first touch screen. It was first
used for air traffic control, but from 1995
innovations in ATMs and ticketing kiosks
based on touch technology develop. It
would all be the beginning of a great bond
between displays and touch screens.

Beginnings of IMAX. IMAX is founded

in Canada when filmmakers in
Montreal team up to produce a
multiscreen film installation. This
would be the first truly large screen
film experience. This IMAX experience
is realized by syncing together nine
film projectors at the same time.

Birth of HDTV After the 1964 Olympic
games in Tokyo, the Japan Broadcasting
Corporation (NHK) begins to experiment
with high definition television. A decade
later - in 1974 - Panasonic designs a TV
prototype that can display 1125 lines of
pixels. A revolutionary innovation as it is
2,5 times that of standard definition at the
time. This was one of the first steps in the
history of displays to HD television and
high quality images.
Large Scale TVs In the last two decades of the previous century consumer televisions became larger. At this
time rear projection televisions are the standard. Making these televisions bigger means they take up a whole
lot of space in the consumers living room. It wasn't until 2005 when display technologies like Digital Light
Processing (DLP), Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) and improved versions of the plasma and LCD display
technology allowed for higher resolutions. This part of the history of display technology is already starting to
look more like the display technologies we use today.

The Invasion of Touch Screens Another great advancement in

the 1980's and 90's is the adoption of touch screen technology
in consumer products. IBM, Microsoft, Apple, HP and Atari
are among the biggest tech companies to bring touch screen
technology into the mainstream. In 1992 it is IBM that presents
the first phone with a touch screen. A company later acquired
by Apple produces a line of multi touch screen technology
products in 1998.
First MacIntosh Computer In 1984 the first Mac becomes available to the consumer market. It
features a 9 inch monochrome 512 x 342 pixel display. At that time it was a great advancement in
display technology but if you compare it to today's Mac with Retina 5K and a 5120 x 2880 pixel
display you can see the developments it went through over the years. The display a Mac uses
today is about 8400% better than the first display.

The Rise of OLED. OLED (sees the first daylight in 1987. Two chemists and researchers
from Eastman Kodak - Ching W. Tang and Steven Van Slyke - are the primary inventors
of OLED display technology. The invention of OLED in 1987 marks an important time in
the history of displays.

The World’s Largest LED Experimentation with LED display technology continues. Leading
to a larger than life LED display in the streets of Las Vegas. The Fremont Street Experience
features a 1,500 feet long and 90 feet high LED display that offer visitors a new experience.
LCD Passes by Plasma For a long time plasma display screens were more popular than LCD
displays. But it was around 2007 that the roles switched. The large size and lower cost of an LCD
display compared to a plasma screen gave it great advantages. At the same time LED
technologies also continue to improve every day. LED backlit LCD televisions are even becoming
common. Same goes for OLED technologies. OLED now allows displays to function without back
2014 Debut of Retina Displays The Retina display is a display term used
exclusively with iPads, iPods, Macs and MacBooks made by Apple.
Retina means that the human eye is incapable of seeing any pixels
on the screen. The quality and resolution of the screen is that good.


Touch Screens are Standard Back in 2007 the first iPhone gets
fitted with a touch screen. Although there still is some debate on
which tech company made a first touch screen phone. Either way,
touch screens have become the industry standard for mobile
devices. Today we don't even question if a phone has a touch
screen. They just do.
AMOLED stands for active matrix organic light
emitting diode. It is a display technology that
increases the screen resolution and quality of
OLED screens. Today there are Super AMOLED,
HD Super AMOLED, Super AMOLED Advanced
and more versions of AMOLED. These labels
generally vary based on the marketing terms tech
companies use for this display technology.


3D is more normal now than it ever was before. It is a very popular
feature in movie theatres and we can even watch 3D movies at home. Its
popularity is all thanks to improved technologies such as battery
powered home 3D glasses and 3D technology that doesn't require
Display is a device used to present visual information. The main aim of any display technology is to simplify the
information sharing. Today, there are different types of displays used for different applications. These displays
can be categorized as Video Displays, Non- Video Displays and 3D displays. Since, the demand for high quality
displays are increasing, there is a great need to know about the displays that are available today.

Video Displays are two-dimensional displays that cover a full area, basically a
rectangle. The different types of video displays are discussed below.
Electroluminescent display is a flat panel display that works on the principle of
electroluminescence. Electroluminescence is a phenomenon where materials can emit light in response to the electric
current. To make use of this phenomenon, electroluminescent display uses gallium arsenide (GaAs) as an
electroluminescent material. The basic structure of electroluminescent display consists of electrode layers at the top and
bottom. Active Matrix, Thin Film and Thick Dielectric are the three types of electroluminescent displays.
Electric paper also known as e-paper is a term for display technologies resembling a paper. The popularity of the display is
due to its contrast, thickness, readability and flexibility.
E Ink is now one of the popular e-paper display technologies. It was developed by E Ink Corporation and today they are
used by different companies in their products and e-readers. E Ink displays are made of some tiny capsules which consist
of black and white particles. With the help of electricity either the black or white particles rise up towards the capsule and
thereby change the colour of the pixel. In order to make an e-ink display, first the ink is printed to a sheet made of plastic
which acts as the front plane of the e-ink display. The plastic sheets are thereafter laminated onto the active matrix
backplanes forming the e-ink display. To control the pattern of the pixels in the display, controllers and integrated circuits
are added.
 Less power.
 Easy to read at outdoors.

Gyricon is a type of e-paper display. It was developed by Xerox PARC. The main features of the display are its flexibility,
wide angle of view etc. Gyricon sheet is a transparent plastic which consists of many beads that are distributed randomly.
When the voltage is applied, beads will rotate to present the coloured side to the viewer.
It is a type of display that uses light emitting diodes.
This flat panel display is today used in many
applications like to display traffic signs, displays of
railway stations, television display etc. One of the
largest display in the world is located in China, which
is 500m long. Also the largest LED television is the
Centre Hung Video Display at Cowboys Stadium. This
television has dimensions of 49m x 22m.

This display generally depends upon the light modulating

properties of liquid crystals. The low power consumption makes
it good to use in all types of electronic equipments that are
battery powered. LCDs are electronically modulated and are
made of liquid crystals which are arrayed in front of the light
source to produce images in colour.
Plasma Displays is one of the display technologies that provides large screen sizes and better flat screen
presentation. Good image qualities are one of its characteristic. Basically, plasma screens compose of
large number of cells sandwiched between the panels made of glass. Between the glass panels there are
display and address electrodes which form the grid. Electrodes intersect at a particular cell will get
charged and excites neon and xenon gas within each cell. When the gas gets excited, it creates plasma and
releases the UV light and thereafter releases the phosphor electrodes which are located on the sides of
the cell. When these electrodes come back to the original state, light is emitted
DLP technology basically uses an optical semiconductor device known
as Digital Micromirror Device. This device is a small light switch that
can modulate the light through many microscopic mirrors arranged in
a rectangular array. By using a DMD, digital video, light source,
projection lens and mirrors this DLP system can reflect a digital image
to the surface. When the mirrors tilt towards the light source, they are
in the ON state otherwise they are OFF. Depending upon the state of
the micromirrors, they project light or dark pixels to the screen. A
digital signal is used to instruct the micromirror to switch on or off.
With the help of this method, the DMD can produce grayscale images.
In order to produce colour images, a colour wheel is placed between
the mirror and the light source. When the wheel spins, white light
generated will filter into red, green and blue light which then fall onto
the mirrors. The coordination of the coloured light and switching of
the DMD, the DLP system helps to produce coloured images. For
example, a purple pixel will be produced when the mirror is switched
ON when red or blue coloured light is produced.
Laser TV also known as Laser colour video display uses laser
rays of different colours in order to produce a spot. The spot
is scanned and projected across the image plane. This process
is done by using a polygon mirror set up.

Quantum dot display is a type of display

technology similar to the OLEDs. Here the light is
supplied earlier, so that more efficient displays
are obtained. Quantum dots are considered to be
electro-active and photo-active which makes them
to be a better display technology.

IMOD displays are a particular type of electronic visual displays that helps to
create different colours by the interference property of the reflected light.
One of the smart watches named Qualcomm To uses this type of display.
IMOD displays consist of mirrors that can be made into ON or OFF states.
Each of these mirrors will reflect only one wavelength of light when turned
ON. When the mirrors are in the OFF state, they absorb the light. Generally
the mirrors here are arranged in a rectangular array to make up a display
A flexible display is referred to the display of the screen which is actually quite flexible by nature. With the increase in the
popularity of these types of screens, many manufactures have intended to include this style of display in mobile phones, e-
readers and many more electronical devices that have flat screen. A flexible electronic paper is a paper that is often termed as
the e-paper and this paper has the ability to bend and is even structured as the prototype of the current technology. Though,
there were several companies who tried formulating this concept with the help of smart skills and competence, but only in
the year 2013 the world could discover the first and the most beautiful screen which is flexible and easy to use. This concept
was first identified by the Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Company) in the year 1947. Scientists like Nicholas K. Sheldon
had made major contribution in the development of this screen.
Advantages of Flexible and Rollable Display
 The first advantage of these display is that they are durable than glass.
 Secondly, these screens are quite light in weight, which makes them easy carry.
 It can be curved and used on a plethora of devices.
 The display of these types of screens can be bigger than the device too.
Disadvantages of Flexible and Rollable Display
 The development in these screens has somehow been static these years.
 Companies have not yet decided the launching dates of these phones worldwide.
There are different types of Non- video displays like Vacuum Fluorescent
Displays(VFDs), Seven Segment Displays, Dot matrix display etc.

VFDs are commonly used as a display Seven-segment display is used for the display of
device in video cassettes, ovens, car radios decimal numerals. It’s used in clocks, meters,
etc. High contrast and better display are calculators, to display information in numerical
its features. They consist of cathodes, form.
anodes and grids enclosed together in a
glass envelope under high vacuum.
Holographic displays, retina displays, fog display are some of
the 3d displays famous now.

Fog Display
It is a type of display that makes use of the haze machines
to create a semi-transparent wall. The wall consists of
suspended particles trapped in a sheet of air which are
then illuminated by the projector. The images of this
display seem to be floating in air.
Display technology is commonly associated with an output device that presents information in visual form. Most displays are used
in television sets (TVs), computer monitors and mobile phones/smartphones. In 2015, an estimated number of 1.57 billion
households owned a television set worldwide. Other types of displays include: military displays, head-mounted displays, broadcast
reference displays, public area displays and medical monitors.

The development in the design and manufacture of display systems first began with the invention of the Cathode-Ray-Tube (CRT)
technology by Ferdinand Braun in 1897. The CRT technology was the dominant industry standard for display systems up until the
late 20th century. New trends such as the growing demand for mobile electronics increased demand for displays that rival and
surpass CRTs in picture quality, size, and power consumption. One of the most prominent technological developments in recent
years was the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). In 2015 alone, more than 220 million LCD TVs were sold worldwide. Apart from the
CRT and LCD, new technologies such as Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED), Plasma Display Panels (PDP), Field Emission
Displays (FED) as well as Electronic Papers, are gaining market ground.

Globally, over 200 million units of LCD TVs are sold annually and the ever increasing demand for flat panel displays—and
continued evolution of digital technology due to a general desire for higher picture resolution has led to the widespread use of
digital (DTV) and high definition television (HDTV). Computer display monitors and mobile phone displays have also undergone
similar changes over time.
The graph shows global sales of TV units from This statistic shows the global revenue from smartphone sales between
2012 to 2017. The number of TV units sold in 2013 and 2017. According to the source, the global revenue from
2017 is expected to reach 229 million. smartphone sales in 2017 amounted to 478.7 billion U.S. dollars.
1. The world’s thinnest bezels
Ideal for linking several displays to make a video wall. The total thickness of
the edge between the two projections can be brought down to as little as
3.8mm. The total surface of a video wall can be built up to as many as 15 x 15

2. Screen sizes up to 266 cm diagonally

A complete line-up ranging from 81 cm (32”) up to as much as 266 cm
(105”) measured diagonally. There is a suitable display for every

Touch display
Touch displays can be operated by finger or pen. In this way, direct
interaction is created between for instance presenter and audience or
teacher and students. make the screen into a multi-functional tool and
create interaction with every target group.
4.Various aspect ratios
Displays are available in all common aspect ratios. From square
(1:1) and video (4:3) to widescreen (16:9/16:10) and ultra-
widescreen (21:9). Widescreen is currently the most used aspect
ratio for displays. Ultra-widescreen is rising in popularity

5.Razor sharp contrasts

With the arrival of the new OLED technology, contrast possibilities
have become endless. For black image displays, the pixels of an
OLED TV are switched off. This way, An OLED TV can reproduce
perfect black alongside clear white and sparkling colour. This
makes for a fantastic contrast range. But even LED TVs are getting
better and have increased contrast images and values.

6.Ultra-high resolutions
The arrival of full HD (1920 x 1080 pixels) brought with it a
gigantic improvement in definition. The new generation displays
have resolutions up to 4k ultra HD (3840 x 2160 pixels) and 8k
ultra HD (7640 x 4320 pixels). The picture definition at these
resolutions is unsurpassed.
7.OLED technology
OLED, an innovation by LG, is most probably the successor to LED
technology. OLED pixels light up by themselves, which means that
they switch on and off independently from one another. Because no
use is made of background lighting, an OLED TV is very slim, even
thinner than a smartphone. Because of this, an OLED TV weighs a lot
less than a LED TV. OLED has a perfect viewing angle, picture quality,
colour experience and contrast ratio.

8.Dual display
Double the screen surface, double concentration, double the
possibilities. The dual side displays provide content in magnificent
picture quality, even in an environment with a lot of ambient light.
The double-sided displays are particularly suited to digital signage
applications and offer a beautiful and high-quality alternative to
traditional light box advertising.

9.Stretched display
Enlarge business opportunities with a stretched display. Present
information, adverts and brand awareness in a new way and in a
new format. Ideal for public transport and at stations among
10.Mirror display
A mirror display provides special application possibilities thanks to
an built-in mirror. A mirror display ensures special promotional
effects and maximum information transfer to the customer. These
displays are particularly suitable for instance in changing rooms,
in lifts and in public toilets.

Outdoor display
Extra high brightness displays offer clear and vivid pictures for
outdoor presentations. The application options are endless. In
shopping streets, at bus stops and at stations, for instance, these
displays offer unique added value in comparison with the
traditional paper method of communication.

Transparent display
High transparency displays are see-through and have dual
functions. The can for instance show products that are standing
behind the screen and at the same time play a video or advert
relating to this on the screen. In this way, the attention value of
both the product and the communication about it are maximised.
Today’s display market offers an abundance of choices, each with their own advantages and
disadvantages. The choice of technology greatly depends on the intended application, whether it
is home entertainment, portable electronics, or industrial. Where CRTs had initially monopolized
the display industry, they are now being replaced by newer technologies. Currently, LCDs using
passive or active matrices have captured portable devices and are expanding into larger screen
applications such as computer monitors and televisions. Alternate displays such as OLEDs will
compete with and have the potential to replace LCDs. Proposed OLEDs designs are thinner,
more power efficient, and produce higher quality images. In other display applications,
technology such as DLPs, PDPs, FEDs, and Electronic Paper are also competing for market
share. Display technology is the most effective way to communicate information. As researchers
continuously create innovative ideas, display technologies are becoming more sophisticated.
Next generation displays will be lighter, thinner, flexible, more adaptable, power efficient, and
conform to the changing needs of society.

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