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Mineral / elemen

Major minerals :
mineral nutrients found in the human body in
amounts larger than 5 g. Sometimes called
Trace mineral :
mineral nutrients found in the human body in
amounts less than 5g. Sometimes called

• Inorganic,
• Optimal intake (essential, but can also be
• Bioavailibility
• Specivity
• Amplification of action
• Homeostatis
• Interaction
• Found in every living cell
• Cofactors in numerous enzymatic reactions
• Serve in the :
- maintenance of pH, osmotic pressure, nerve
conductance, muscle contraction,blood
clotting, energy production, and in almost of
every aspect of life.
Food sources

The trace mineral contents of food depend on

soil and water composition.
Furthermore, many factors in the diet and
within the body affect the mineral’s
Bioavailability refers to the rate at and the
extent to which a nutrient is absorbed and used
• Defined as the percent of the consumed mineral that
enters via the intestinal absorptive cells and is used
for its intended purpose

• Refers to the rate at and the extent to which a nutrient

is absorbed and used

• Includes not only how much of a consumed minerals

enters the body, but also how much is retained and
available for use.

Severe deficiencies of the better-known minerals are

easy to recognize. Deficiencies of the others may be
harder to diagnose.
Mild deficiencies are easy to overlook
In general, the most common result of a deficiency is
failure of children to grow and thrive.
Some of the trace minerals are toxic at intakes not
far above the estimated requirements.
Thus it is important not to habitually exceed the
upper level of recommended intakes
Determination of Dietary Reference Values
Determination of Dietary Reference
Values -2
average requirement
proportion of population

mean ± 2 sd = 95% range

threshold reference
intake intake

intake to meet requirement

Micronutrients-1-Hertanto 
Interactions among the trace minerals are common
and often lead to nutrient imbalances.
An excess of one may cause a deficiency of another.
A deficiency of one may open the way for another to
cause a toxic reaction.
A deficiency of one may exacerbate the problems
associated with the deficiency of another.
Interlocking gear system
Mineral antagonisms
Vitamin & Mineral interactions