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with Tomes’ process
 Ameloblast: Secretion of enamel matrix + Partial mineralization (30%)

 Starts after a layer of dentin is deposited

 Ameloblast cell:
1. More mitochondria, secretory granules
2. Well developed Golgi complex
3. Extensive cisterns of REE
4. Vacuoles, ribosomes, vescicles, microtubules

 Synthesis of enamel protein:

mRNA carry message (nucleus  cytoplasm)

ribosomes translate message

protein synthesized in REE

post-translation modification of protein

in Golgi complex

packing of protein into secretory granules

 Transport of enamel protein:

secretory granules  basal plasma membrane  release into extracellular space (against newly
formed dentin) by exocytosis
 Secretory ameloblast: Proximal & distal end are connected together by intercellular junctions
 Formation of Tomes’ process before secretion of enamel
Maturative stage
Maturative stage
 Ameloblast: mineralization + maturation of enamel
 Morphological alterations:
 Ameloblast Ruffle ended: Brush border with foldings, introduce inorganic compounds
Smooth ended: smooth border, reabsorb protein & water
 Slight reduction in height
 Decreased volume & organelle content
 Undergo Apoptosis: Programmed cell death
Necrosis: Accidental/Induced cell death
Protective stage
Protective stage
 After completion of enamel formation
 Brush border of basal membrane  becomes smooth
 Ameloblast: columnar  cuboidal
2-3 layers of stratified epithelium
 REE:
a. Covers newly formed enamel
b. Until tooth erupts
Desmolytic stage
Desmolytic stage
 REE:
1. Secrete collagenase enzyme  destroy connective tissue b/w oral mucosa & erupting tooth
2. Facilitate tooth eruption
3. Central cells degenerate  form a canal (for tooth eruption)
Enamel matrix deposition
Amelogenesis : Formation of enamel
Mineralization of enamel matrix
Enamel matrix deposition
 Occurs during secretory stage
 Secretion of enamel matrix: 20-30% of protein (gradually decrease)
 Enamel matrix (composition):
1. Enamel proteins Amelogenin (90%): proline
Non-amelogenin (10%): Enamelin, Ameloblastin
a) Promotes nucleation
b) Regulates crystal growth
2. Sulfated glycol-conjugates
3. Proteinases: Cause degeneration of amelogenins
Facilitate reabsorption during maturative stage (post-secretory stage)
4. NO collagen & keratin present
 Ameloblast: Flat basal region  conical process at base (Tomes’ process)
Tomes’ process
 The only site to interact with growing enamel surface
 Disappears before last phase of secretory stage (before surface layer of enamel is deposited)
 Matrix deposition + Mineral transport  only go through TP
 Contains numerous secretion granules, microtubules, microfilaments, mitochondria
 Enamel secretion (2 sites):
a. Proximal part: contacts adjacent ameloblasts, produce inter-rod enamel
b. Distal part: surrounded by enamel matrix, produce enamel rod
 Responsible for rod structure of enamel

 Sheath-like zone (Prism sheath):

1. Border b/w rod & inter-rod enamel
2. Distinguish both regions
Enamel matrix deposition
Amelogenesis : Formation of enamel
Mineralization of enamel matrix