Sunteți pe pagina 1din 45

The Digestive System

 Nutrition in the Human


◦ Heterotrophic organisms – “omnivore” (human),
“herbivore” and “carnivore” – definition of terms.
◦ Explanation of the term “digestion”. Outline the
need for digestion and a digestive system.
◦ Explanation of the terms “ingestion”, “digestion”,
“absorption” and “egestion” as related to the
sequence in the human digestive tract.
 Human Digestive System
◦ Macrostructure and basic function of the alimentary
canal and associated glands in the digestion and
transport of nutrients.
◦ Explanation of the mechanical breakdown and
transport of food, to include the role of teeth,
peristalsis and the stomach.
◦ Explanation of the chemical breakdown of food, to
include:
 Bile salts.
 The role, production site, pH at a named location of
action and products of an amylase, a protease and a
lipase enzyme.
◦ Two functions of symbiotic bacteria in the
digestive tract.
◦ Benefits of fibre.
◦ Basic structure of the small intestine and large
intestine in relation to their functions.
 Blood Transport of Nutrients
◦ Description of the composition of blood fluid as a
transport system of nutrients, the absorption of
nutrients from the villi, transport through the
hepatic portal vein to the liver. The function of
the liver (without biochemical pathways). The
transport of nutrients to all nutrient-requiring
cells of the body, and the transport of waste
products to the kidney.
 Balanced Human Diet
◦ Explain the concept of a balanced diet, variety
and moderation. Relate its importance to age, sex
and activity (detailed breakdown not required),
and to variety from a selection of food groups –
milk and milk products; meat, fish and poultry;
breads and cereals; fruit and vegetable; others
e.g. fats, oils , alcohol.
 Nutrition  Mechanical Digestion
 Autotrophic  Chemical Digestion
 Heterotrophic  Absorption
 Herbivore  Egestion
 Carnivore  Peristalsis
 Omnivore  Symbiotic Bacteria
 Ingestion  Balanced Diet
 Digestion  Food Pyramid
 Nutrition is the process by which an organism
obtains and uses its food.

 Autotrophic means an organism can make its


own food e.g. green plants.

 Heterotrophic means that an organism cannot


make its own food i.e. they must obtain their
food from the environment.
 There are three types of heterotrophs:
◦ Herbivores are animals that feed only on plants e.g.
cattle, sheep, deer.

◦ Carnivores are animals that feed on other animals


e.g. dogs, cats, seals.

◦ Omnivores are animals that feed on plants and


animals e.g. humans, bears, badgers.
 Digestion is the physical and chemical
breakdown of food into soluble particles
small enough to pass into body cells.

 Mechanical digestion is the physical


breakdown of food.
◦ This can be done using the teeth or by churning
the food in the stomach.

 Chemical digestion is the breakdown of


food using enzymes or acids.
 Need for a digestive system:
◦ Food is only processed once.
◦ The materials needed to process the food are in a
single place e.g. teeth in the mouth, acid in the
stomach.
◦ Individual cells do not have to contain a full
range of digestive enzymes.
 In humans the digestive system
consists of the alimentary canal
or gut.

 This is a long tube starting at


the mouth and ending at the
anus.
 Ingestion – food is taken into the alimentary
canal.

 Digestion – the physical or chemical


breakdown of food.

 Absorption – the movement of digested


food into the blood.

 Egestion – the removal of unabsorbed and


undigested material in the form of faeces.
 Mechanical digestion of food in the mouth is
carried out by the teeth.
◦ This is called mastication.

 The smaller particles:


◦ Are easier to swallow.
◦ Have a greater surface area for enzymes to act on.

Teeth Function
Incisor Cutting
Canine Tearing
Premolar Crushing and Chewing
Molar Crushing and Chewing
Incisors

Canines

Premolars

Molars
 Chemical digestion in the mouth takes place
due to the action of the enzyme amylase
(found in saliva).

 Saliva is secreted by three pairs of salivary


glands and consists of:
◦ Water
◦ Salts
◦ Mucous
◦ Amylase (enzyme)
 The oesophagus is a thick
walled muscular tube.

 It connects the pharynx to the


stomach.

 The bolus (ball of food) travels


down the oesophagus by
peristalsis.
 Peristalsis is the rhythmic contraction
and relaxation of the wall of the
alimentary canal causing the food to
move along it.

 Dietary fibre (roughage) consists of


cellulose from plant cell walls.
◦ Humans cannot digest cellulose.
◦ Fibre stimulates peristalsis in the colon.
 The stomach is a J-shaped
muscular bag.

 It stores food for about 4


hours.

 It churns and mixes food with


gastric juice forming chyme (a
semi-solid liquid).
 Food enters the stomach
through the cardiac
sphincter muscle.

 Chyme leaves the


stomach in small amounts
through the pyloric
sphincter muscle.
Mechanical Digestion
 The contraction of the stomach walls helps to
break down the food.

Chemical Digestion
 The lining of the stomach (the mucosa) is
heavily folded, forming millions of gastric
glands.
◦ These glands secrete gastric juice into the stomach.
 Gastric juice consists of:
◦ Mucous which coats the stomach and prevents self-
digestion in the stomach.

◦ Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) which:


 Gives the stomach a pH of 1 to 2.
 Activates pepsinogen.
 Denatures salivary amylase

◦ Pepsinogen which is an inactive enzyme that is


converted to the active enzyme pepsin by HCl.
 Pepsin digests proteins to peptides.
 This is a 5-6 m long
muscular tube.

 The small intestine


consists of the:
◦ Duodenum
◦ Ileum
 The main function of the duodenum is
digestion.

 The cells lining the duodenum produce a


range of digestive enzymes.

 The products of the pancreas and liver also


enter the duodenum.
 The food entering the ileum
is almost fully digested.

 The function of the ileum is


to absorb nutrients.

 Adaptations for absorption:


◦ Long tube – gives time for
absorption.
◦ Villi – increase surface area.
 Villi are infoldings in
the small intestine.

 Each villus is also


covered in microvilli.

 This greatly increases surface area.

 The walls of the villi are one cell thick which


increases absorption.
 Inside each villus is a lacteal.

 This is filled with


lymph.

 Fats are absorbed


into the lacteal and
are transported to
the bloodstream in
the lymph.
Colon
Caecum

Rectum
Appendix

Anus
 In many animals the caecum and appendix
contain bacteria capable of digesting
cellulose.

 Humans do not need to do this and the


caecum and appendix have lost their former
use.
 The functions of the colon are to:
◦ Reabsorb water.
◦ Absorb vitamins.

 Symbiotic bacteria in the large intestine:


◦ Digest cellulose.
◦ Produce B group vitamins.

 Symbiotic bacteria are bacteria that live on or


in another organism where at least one of
them benefits.
 The rectum stores the faeces before it is
egested.

 The anus is where the faeces is egested.


 Fibre stimulates peristalsis
in the colon.

 This helps prevent constipation.

 Constipation results when undigested


material passes through the colon too slowly
which results in too much water being
reabsorbed.
 The liver takes part in:
◦ Storage
 Excess glucose stored as glycogen.
 Fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A and D.
 Minerals e.g. Iron.
◦ Production
 Bile.
 Urea from the metabolism of proteins.
 Heat from chemical reactions.
◦ Breakdown
 Red blood cells are broken down in the liver.
 Toxic chemicals such as alcohol are also broken down.
 The liver produces a
yellow-green liquid called
bile.

 Bile is stored in the gall


bladder.

 Bile enters the duodenum


through the bile duct.
 Bile consists of:
◦ Water.
◦ Bile Salts.
◦ Bile Pigment.

 Function of bile:
◦ Emulsifies fat – this increases the surface area of fat
droplets.
◦ Neutralises the acidic chyme from the stomach.
 The pancreas secretes
the hormone insulin
and digestive materials
which form pancreatic
juice.

 Pancreatic juice consists of:


◦ Sodium bicarbonate – neutralises chyme from the
stomach.
◦ Pancreatic amylase – converts starch to maltose.
◦ Pancreatic lipase – converts lipids to fatty acids and
glycerol.
 Enzymes are biological catalysts.

 Three enzymes involved in digestion are:


◦ Amylase.
◦ Pepsin.
◦ Lipase.
Site of Site of Substrate
Enzyme pH Product
Production Action (acts on)

Salivary Salivary
7 Mouth Starch Maltose
Amylase Glands

Gastric
Pepsin 1 Gland Stomach Protein Polypeptides
(Stomach Wall)

Fatty acids &


Lipase 8 Pancreas Duodenum Lipid
Glycerol
 A balanced diet is one which contains all the
essential nutrients in the correct amount.

 The essential nutrients are:


◦ Carbohydrates
◦ Lipids
◦ Proteins
◦ Vitamins
◦ Minerals
◦ Water
◦ Fibre
 The amount of food required depends on:
◦ Age – Young adults need more food than other
individuals.

◦ Gender – Males need more than females.

◦ Activity – More active people need more than less


active people.
 The Food Pyramid indicates the recommended
servings of each food group.

 The food groups are:


◦ Fruit and vegetables.
◦ Breads and cereals.
◦ Milk and milk products.
◦ Meat, fish and poultry.
◦ Fats and oils.