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Simulation of an Optical Fiber Point

to Point Communication link using


Simulink

By
Nihal Shastry
Uday Madireddy
Nitin Ravi
Overview of Project
 Current scenario
 Where our project fits in
 Comparison of modulation techniques
QAM
MPSK
EXTERNAL MODULATION
 Applications
 Future scope
What is QAM?
 QAM can be the expanded as Quadrature
Amplitude Modulation
 A popular digital modulation technique in which
both phase and amplitude are varied
 It was basically developed to overcome constraints
of complex AM or PM
 It can transmit more bits per second
 It also makes use of minimum Bandwidth
Block Diagram of QAM Transmitter
Block Diagram of optical fiber Link
using QAM
Eye Diagram
Output Waveform
 Phase Shift Keying
 Principle - Changes the phase of the carrier in step with the digital
message.
 Use of a different phase for a “0” and a “1”.
 A “1” signal is denoted by φ1.
 A “0” signal is denoted by φ1 + 180°.

 Quaternary Phase shift keying


 Binary inputs – 00, 01, 10, 11
 QPSK output phase -- 0°, 90°, 180°, 270°.

 Differential Phase Shift Keying


 Information obtained as the difference in phase between two
successive signals.
 Modulating signal is not the binary code but the code that records the
changes in the binary code.
Optical communication link – QPSK
modulation

 QPSK- Quadrature / Quaternary Phase Shift Keying


 Digital modulation technique
 M-ary Encoding technique where M = 4
 4 different input conditions, 4 output phases possible
for a single carrier frequency.
QPSK

 Four phases:- 0°, 90°, 180°, 270°.


 Two symbols per bit can be transmitted (00, 01,
10, 11).
 Each symbol’s phase compared with respect to
the previous symbol.
Optical link using QPSK
Signal magnitude with QPSK
The EYE Diagram
External Modulation
 Currently preferred over any other form
of modulation

 Done using an MZIM

 Phase difference produced in the beam


DIAGRAM FOR SIMULATION
DATA GENERATION WITH
MZIM
Magnitude of signal prior to
entry
Magnitude of signal after
linear filter
Magnitude of signal after
parabolic filter
Eye diagram before fiber entry
HEAD TO HEAD

 QAM:
 Digital information contained in both amplitude and phase of the
transmitted carrier
 Susceptible to interfering signals
 Greater bandwidth efficiency. More bits transferred(4bits/cycle)

 QPSK:
 Digital information - phase of the transmitted signal.
 Easy to implement and has good resistance to noise.
 In the receiver end local oscillator to be tuned to the I/P signal.
 Oscillator experiences drift in freq and phase and hence tuning is tough
 Overcome by sending a pilot wave for synchronization
 Bandwidth Efficiency is around 2 bits per cycle.

 DPSK:
 Simple to implement
 Larger data transmission capability (40 Gbits/Sec)
 Has maximum transmission distance when compared to other schemes.
ADAPTIVE MODULATION
Applications
 Can be used for simulating theoretical
systems inexpensively
 Any distance, bit rate and data pulse
can be simulated
 All parameters are completely user
defined
 Completely customizable
TIME LINE
WEEK I WEEK II WEEK III WEEK IV WEEK V WEEK VI WEEK WEEK
VII VIII

X X
Research on
Project

X X X
Initial
Project
Design and
QAM
coding

X X X X
Learning
Simulink
and Initial
Block
diagram

X X X
Final Block
Diagram
and
Simulation
References
 www.intel.com
 Electronic Communications systems – Wayne Tomasi
 www.ee.buffalo.edu/faculty/paololiu/413/
 binary.engin.brown.edu/lecture/Denmark/
 Noise analysis for optical fiber communication
systems -Alper Demir- Istanbul
 Transmission Line laser modeling of semi conductor
laser amplified optical communication systems -A.J
lowery-IEE proceedings V 139 #3 June 1992
 Design of analog and digital data transmission filters-
Hussein, Baher -IEEE trans on circuits and systems Vol# 40 #7 1993
 Frequency chirping in external modulators- Fumio
Koyama IEEE J of light wave technology Vol #6 #1 Jan 1998
 Design of optical communication data links- P.K.
Pepeljugoski et all- IBM J of Res. and Dev. Vol #47 No.2/3 2003
 A time domain optical transmission system simulation
package accounting for non linear and polarization-
related effects in a fiber- Andrea Carena et all- IEEE J on
selected areas in comm. V #15 #4 May 1997