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Potentiometric

Determination of
Hydrogen Ion in Feminine
Wash

An Oral Report By:


Group # 2:
Estiva, Khrisna Ayssa R.
Parungao, Nico Angelo C.
pH
• Measure of the acidity and
basicity of a solution
• Also important in biological
systems
• Feminine wash
Feminine Wash
• The female sex organ
produces lactic acid
maintains the normal pH level
and limits the growth of the bad
bacteria
any alteration to the pH level
will lead to the development of
bad bacteria and infection
Determination of H+
concentrations
1. Colorimetric method
 for relatively crude work
 certain natural and synthetic
dyes have colors that depend
on the hydrogen ion
concentration
2. Potentiometric method
 more accurate
 Based on measuring the potential
of electrochemical cells without
drawing appreciable current.
 depends on an electrode whose
potential is sensitive to hydrogen
ion concentration
DIRECT POTENTIOMETRY
• provide a rapid and convenient method
to determine the activity of a variety of
cations and anions

• Comparison of the potential developed


in a cell containing the indicator
electrode in the analyte solution with its
potential when immersed in one or more
standard solutions of known analyte
concentration
Why do we need an empirical
calibration curve?
• Electrode response is related to analyte
activity rather than analyte concentration.

• Activity coefficients are seldom available.


 ionic strength of the solution either is
unknown
 Ionic strength is so large that the Debye-
Hückel equation is not applicable
STANDARD ADDITION
METHOD
• involves determining the potential of the
electrode system before and after a
measured volume of a standard has been
added to a known volume of the analyte
solution
E2−E1
1
(Vo+Vstd )1
0 S
=Vo+ CtdV
s s
td
Cu
nk
METHODOLOGY
Standard Hydrogen Ion Solution

Prepare SHIS:
10-1 , 10-2 , 10-3 , 10-4 , 10-5 , 10-6 M
using HCl and 0.5 M KCl

Sample Preparation

5.00 mL feminine wash


+
0.5 M KCl to the mark

25-mL
vol. flask
Standard Calibration Method
Measurement of Standard Solution

Immerse H+ ion electrode into standard solution (10-7 M)

Take millivolt reading while stirring

Repeat same procedure using other standards

Prepare a calibration curve from data obtained


Determination of Analyte

Measure potential of feminine wash solution

Determine level of hydrogen ion in the sample


Standard Addition Method
25-mL beaker:
beaker 10 mL of the sample solution

Read initial potential while stirring at


constant rate

Add 0.10 mL 10-3 M hydrogen ion


standard solution

Repeat addition of 0.10 mL


and potential reading
Results
Direct Calibration

[H+] (M) Log [H+] E (mV)

1x10-7 -7 -9
1x10-6 -6 -1
1x10-5 -5 8
1x10-4 -4 48
1x10-3 -3 240
1x10-2 -2 304
1x10-1 -1 342
Direct Calibration
Direct Calibration

At E=99mV
Standard Addition
E2 − E1
1
(Vstd + Vo )10 S
= Vo + CstdVstd
Cunk

Volume E (mV) x y
[H+] (mL)

0 99 0 10
0.1 111 1x10-4 15.1933

0.2 118 2x10-4 19.4704

0.3 120 3x10-4 21.0459

0.4 117 4x10-4 19.188

0.5 119 5x10-4 20.7368


Standard Addition
Standard Addition
At
Vs=0.1mL
• High percent errors in both
method
– Direct calibration – 24%
– Standard addition – 16%
• Although high, standard
addition is more reliable
• Matrix effect
Error

• Instrumental
• Human
• Alkaline Error
– The pH glass electrode responds very selectively to hydrogen ions (H+).
However, there is a small interference caused by alkaline ions,
particularly sodium ions (Na+) but also to some extent lithium ions (Li+).
This effect, called the alkaline error, increases with increasing pH values
(pH > 9), higher alkaline concentrations and increasing temperatures.

At high pH value the hydrogen ion activity is low and the sodium ions
replace the hydrogen ions in the outer gel layer of the glass membrane.
As a result, a pH value that is lower than the actual value of the sample
solution will be measured. Under extreme conditions the glass membrane
responds only to sodium ions.

In order to minimize the contribution of alkaline errors, pH electrode


manufacturers use special glass membranes for electrodes that are used
to measure high alkaline values (high pH). The composition of the glass
membrane will, to a large extent, determine the electrode's response time
and its sensitivity to ions other than H+. However, there is no types of
glass membrane currently available that has zero alkaline error. Some
error will always exist.
• Acid Error
– At very low pH values acid molecules are absorbed by the
gel layer leading to a decrease in the hydrogen ion (H+)
activity in the gel layer. The pH measurement, therefore,
shows a higher pH value than the actual value of the
measured solution. This is according to the definition of
pH, if the hydrogen activity decrease the pH value
increase.

The acid error changes very little with temperature and is


only relevant for very low pH values. Usually below 1.00
pH. Fairly uncommon applications. However, for these
situations, you can get measuring electrodes with
membrane glasses having specifically low acid errors.
Conclusion
• Potentiometry can be used to
determine pH of feminine
wash
• Both methods can be used to
determine pH of feminine
wash
– Standard calibration is better