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Education &
Presented by:
Sandeep Guha Niyogi - 61
Sangam Saurabh – 62
Sarath Chandra - 63
What is Computer Based

Computer-based Education is an approach to

teaching and learning in which computer
technology is used as an aid to the
presentation, reinforcement and assessment
of material to be learned, usually including a
substantial interactive element.
Traditional Teaching vs. CBE

 The traditional teaching

environment is a classroom:
a single teacher giving
lectures to a group of
students who are expected
to use their notes and
textbook to prepare for
periodic examinations and
demonstrate their mastery
of the subject.
 The use of computers in
education shifts the focus
away from the teacher to
the students themselves
who learn through Difference between traditional
experimentation on the classroom learning
computer with the teacher and Computer Assisted Learning
acting only as a guide.
Traditional Teaching vs. CBE

Differences between traditional classroom learning

and Computer Based Education
Advantages of CBE

 It involves any student actively in the

learning process.
 It allows the learner to proceed at his own
 Reinforcement of learning in such
situations is immediate and systematized.
 The use of computers in this manner frees
faculty members or training coordinators
to devote more time to the personal,
human considerations of their students.
 CAL is very useful in the realm of remedial
Disadvantages of CBE

 The need for teachers and training

directors to move from accepted
methods that work to a new and
relatively untried method.
 The diversity of computing hardware
and CBE languages compete with little
apparent coordination from
professionals in the educational world.
 The cost of hardware, CBE course
materials (courseware), and individuals
to help implement the process.
Mandatory Features in
Educational Games & Simulations

 Create (or recreate) a phenomena,

environment or experience.
 Provide an opportunity for understanding.
 Be interactive (i.e. the user’s inputs must
have some effect on the course of the
 Follow consistent models of a theory.
 Be unpredictable in their behavior, either
because of in-built randomness or due to
extreme sensitivity to user inputs.
Computer Based Training:

 training program (not connected to a network):

computer takes the teacher's role
 type of education
students learn by executing
special training programs on

 product containing the pre-build learning material

CD-Rom or online packet
Computers take over:

 instruction
 management of learning/teaching
 monitoring learners´ progress
 providing feedback
 assessing final results
In this sense CBT is close in meaning
to some other concepts:

 CAI Computer-Assisted Instruction

 CMI Computer-Managed Instruction
 CBI Computer-Based Instruction
 CAL Computer-Assisted Learning
 CAT Computer-Assisted Testing

 CBT equals or includes CAI C



 CBT denominates the product

as far as Forms of Learning are
concerned, CBT can be used

 Formal learning

 Non-formal learning

 Informal learning
CBT and Learning Theories:

 Behaviorism – gave the concept of individualized

instruction, the idea of a continuous control of
 Cognitivism - led to provide hints instead of giving
an immediate feedback.
 Constructivism - led to include open problem
solving situations (How people learn)
Types of CBT
depending on the teaching method –
pedagogic strategy

 Demonstration

 Tutorial

 Simulation
 is best used to support the introduction of new

 applied widely for creation of instruction books

 is similar to E-book concerning the learning m


 main feature: a sequential manner of introducing

new information

 useful for teaching factual information, simple dis

crimination, rules, and simple application of rules
Tutorial - type variations

 Drill and Skill practice - used after initial instruction

when mastery of a new skill or information is desired

 Problem solving - used to augment higher order

thinking skills

 IST = Intelligent Tutorial Systems - provide direct

feedback to students, without the intervention of
human beings, whilst performing a task.

 used when practicing a skill in its real context is too c

ostly or dangerous (such as military or pilot training)
 used to model real-world situations

 type variation: Training games

competition elements provide motivating and engaging

opportunities for practicing skills
some historical notes

 Beginnings: military purposes

 testing, management
 Development for the professional education:
 dependent on the economical factors and suitability
for non-formal learning
 Stages of the development for the school educat
 infrastructural
 evaluation problems
CBT – Mind Map
Evaluation of CBT
with respect to following aspects:

 Technology - concerning program


 Contents - meeting audience


 Didactics - adequate pedagogic

Program Operation: issues of consideration

• Compatibility with the system Bugs and breaks

• Treatment of users´ errors
• Users´ control over the program operation Clarity of
• directions
• Usability of graphics, sound, color capabilities
• Usefulness of Help/Instructions
• Editor's permission of preview material (financial
• expenses involved)
• Checklists on technical issues
• Teacher's and students´ degree of computer competence
Content accuracy

 Utility of CBT for specific education sectors -

e.g., computer operating instruction

 Inadequacy of CBT for other education fields -

e.g., communicative competence

 Clarity of the material goals - correctness of

Pedagogical evaluation
 Insufficient and inadequate research on this aspect: tech
nological innovations advertised as being effective are ta
ken to be effective
 interest in quantity and spread of technology investments
more than in evaluation of educational adequacy
 inadequacy of evaluation formats, e.g. science research r
 comparing the incomparable - incompatibility of precis
e computer language and vague learning theories
Checklists and Guides


 Selecting training medium

 Selecting type of CBT
 Making CBT choices
 Using CBT
Pedagogical evaluation checklist

 Ruth Clark four instructional architectures

 According to Merril (2002), Ruth Clark (1998) four different instructional
 Receptive instruction is characterized by a lecture or an Internet site
where the student is merely provided with information.
 Directive instruction is characterized by a computer-based tutorial
where information is presented, the student responds, feedback is
provided and this tutorial learning cycle is repeated.
 Guided Discovery is characterized by a computer simulation that allows
the student to manipulate some device or environment.
 Exploratory instruction is characterized by an open learning environment
in which the student is provided a rich, networked database of
information, examples, demonstrations, and exercises from which the
student can select whatever is appropriate to their current needs and
mental models.
Pedagogical evaluation checklist

Dominant Strategy Transfer (teaching I) Tutoring (teaching II) Coaching (teaching III)
Procedural knowledge,
Factual knowledge, "know- Social practice, "knowing in
Knowledge type that"
"know-how", problem solving,
Transfer of propositional Presentation of Action in (complex and
Aims of Teaching knowledge predetermined problems social) situations
Learning goal to know, to remember to do, to practice, to argue to cope, to master
Production of correct Selection of correct methods Realization of adequate
Assessment answers and its use action strategies
Verbal knowledge,
Learning content type Memorization
Skill, Ability Social Responsibility

Teaching and learning to observe, to help, to

to teach, to explain to cooperate, to support
strategies and activities demonstrate

problem-based learning inquiry-based learning

Examples of instructional case-based learning project-based learning
programmed instruction
design models Discovery learning Situated discovery learning
with simulation and exploratory learning

chaining, association,
learning level Stimulus-response discrimination, concept situated problem solving
learning, problem solving
Benefits of CBT (Learning Situation)

 self-paced, flexible, individualized, convenient

 suitable educational method for adults, on-the
job and off-the-job availability
 immediate feedback and scoring possible
 integrated texts, graphics, video and sound
 increased control and self-control possible
 increased learning satisfaction and motivation,
(trendy method)
 reduced resource requirements
Drawbacks of CBT (Learning Situation)

 high costs of supplying software and hardware

 technical limitations:
 technical errors, unclear orders or instructions
 Narrow possibilities of interacting and creating
 Small variation of practicing structures, e.g. multiple-
choice or completion tests - passive practicing
 a good degree of the technical competence of the
user needed
 social isolation
Authoring Tool / Authoring System

AT is a software package which developers use to

create and package content deliverable to end user

AS is a program that allows a non- programmer to

easily create software with programming features

Adobe Captivate, Advanced eLearning Builder, A

SL Animations and many more
Thank you.