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Chapter 1

School of Physical Education


HOMER A. TACUBANZA, MPES, Ed.D.
Professorial Lecturer
Essential Components of Quality
Programs
Organized around content standards.
Student-centered and developmentally
appropriate.
Physical activity and motor skill
development form the core of the program
Teaches management skills and self-
discipline
Promotes inclusion of all students
Focuses on process over product
Promotes lifetime personal health and
wellness
Teaches cooperation and responsibility and
promotes sensitivity to diversity
National Standards for Physical
Education
Demonstrates competency in motor skills
and movement patterns needed to perform a
variety of physical activities.
Demonstrates understanding of movement
concepts, principles and tactics as they
apply to the learning and performance of
physical activities.
Participates regularly in physical activity.
Achieves and maintains a health enhancing
level of physical fitness .
Exhibits responsible personal and social
behavior that respects self and others in
physical activity.
Values physical activity for health ,
enjoyment, challenge, self-expression and
or social interaction.
Outcomes
Justify the need for a quality physical
education program in schools based on the
health benefits it can offer students.
Cite the NASPE national standards for
physical education.
List program objectives and recognize the
distinctive contributions of physical
education.
Describe the educational reasons for
including physical education as part of the
elementary school curriculum.
Define physical education and it’s role in
the school experience.
Explain how various pedagogical
influences have changed the course of the
school physical education programs.
Identify essential components of quality
physical education program.
Describe how various societal influences
and federal mandates have influenced
elementary school physical education.
What is Physical Education?
Physical education means many things to
many people. Physical education
professionals often describe it as essential
subject matter dedicated to learning
physical skills and promoting lifetime
physical activity.
The Evolution of School of
Physical Education
Various concerns, historical events, and
pedagogical influences have significantly
affected school physical education program.
Often programs are created in response to
events publicized by press and other
interested parties. Certainly professionals
and curriculum must change.
The German and Swedish
Influence
The German system favored a gymnastics
approach, which required a lot of
equipment and special teachers.
The Swedish system incorporated an
exercise program into activity
presentations.
The Emphasis of Game and Sports
Training Programs designed for soldiers
during World War I emphasized games and
sports and proved more effective than
calisthenics. School programs using games
and sports for physical development soon
followed. John Dewey, professor of
philosophy at Columbia university,
profoundly influenced educational theory in
the mid 20th century.
Programs stressing sports and games
appeared mostly in secondary schools.
During the WW II, research proved the
efficacy of physical fitness development,
hospital reconditioning program and other
innovative approach.
Higher quality education programs might
have been expected after the war, but little
positive effect trickled down to elementary
school programs.
National Concern About Physical
Fitness
A renewed emphasis on fitness occurred in
the 1950s, after the publication of
comparative studies (based on the Kraus-
Webster tests) of fitness levels of U.S. and
European children. Kraus and Hirschland
(1954) compared the strength and
flexibility of 4000 New York-area school
children with a comparable sample of
central European children.
The study result to the creation of
Presidents Council of Physical Fitness and
Sports that aims to promote physical fitness
among children and citizens of all ages.
The people who participate in regular
physical activity can maintain an ongoing
physical activity regimen.
Pedagogical Influences
Teachers and professionals, who identify a
need for a different instructional methods
and physical education programs, are often
motivated by dissatisfaction with the status
quo and a desire to make physical education
a more necessary part of the school
curriculum .
Movement Education
Originated in England and was incorporated
in U.S. programs in the late 1960’s.
Movement education methodology featured
problem solving exploration, thus shifting
some of the responsibility for learning to
the children
Adopting movement education led to the
rejection of physical-fitness-oriented
activities , especially calisthenics, which
were labeled training not education.
Perceptual-motor programs
The focus of perceptual-motor programs
was to remedy learning difficulties
attributed to a breakdown in perceptual-
motor development.
Theorist held that children progressed in an
orderly way
Through growth and developmental stages
from head to foot (cephalocaudally) and
from the center of the body
(proximodistally).
Conceptual Learning
Conceptual understanding (i.e. applying
abstract ideas drawn from experience) plays
an important part in physical education.
In process of movement, children learn to
distinguish between near and far, strong and
weak, light and heavy, high and low.
Physical education gives children the
opportunity to understand and experiment
with such movement concepts.
Value and Attitude Development
(Affective Domain Learning)
Discipline problems also rank as major
problems. as a result, there’s a growing
pressure in schools to teach values,
responsibility skills, and moral education.
Values, feelings, beliefs and judgments
have received more attention in schools in
the physical education classes in particular.
Federal Mandates
Occasionally , legislation is passed that
affects physical education curriculum and
instruction. The following legislative
mandates in particular continue to influence
physical education educations throughout
the U.S.
Title IX. Equal Opportunity for
the Sexes
The legal ramifications of title IX have
forced schools to provide equal access to
physical education activities for boys and
girls.
Title IX also tries to eliminate sexism and
sex-role typing.
Human needs and opportunities must
prevail over traditional stereotypes of
masculinity and femininity.
PL94-142: Equal Rights for
Students with Disabilities
Mandates that all children have the right to
a free public education and that they must
be educated in the least restrictive
educational environment possible.
Mainstreaming is the term used for the
practice of placing children with disabilities
into classrooms with able children.
Child Nutrition and WIC
Reauthorization act of 2004
Physical education programs must focus o
improving student’s health status ,
particularly their eating habits and physical
activity.
CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL
INFLUENCES
A Nationwide Concern for Health and
Wellness
Eating wisely, controlling weight, dealing
with tensions, getting enough sleep,
improving posture, keeping in shape, and
dealing with future challenges all affect
wellness.
Human wellness is most effectively
presented when classroom teachers and
physical education specialists work
together.
A Demand for “Back to Basics”
Schools
Responding to a perceived decline in
academic performance, basic schools stress
discipline and cognitive learning
PE programs must demonstrate that they are
instructional and of high quality, and that
they can contribute uniquely to school
curriculum.
Healthy People: A National Focus
on Physical Activity
To increase the years of healthy life
To eliminate health disparities
Goals
• Promote heath behaviors
• Protecting Health
• Increasing access to quality health care
• Strengthening community prevention
Essential Components of a Quality
PE Program
Guided by NASPE content standards
Student-centered and developmentally
appropriate
Physical activity and motor skills form the
core of the program
Teaches management skills and promotes
self disciplined.
Promotes inclusion of ALL students
Essential Components of a Quality
PE Program
Emphasizes learning correctly rather than
the outcomes
Promotes lifetime personal wellness.
Teaches responsibility and cooperation
and promotes diversity.
THE CURRENT STATUS OF
PHYSICAL EDUCATION
The Need of Physical Education Program
The Content of PE
NASPE content standards for PE
Reflection and Review
How and Why
Identify how various trends and policies
have impacted physical education
programs.
How does physical education fit into
school’ curriculum?
How can nationwide focus on health,
wellness and physical activity influence
children’s lives?
How do the NASPE national standards help
teachers?
References and Suggestions
Arizona Department of Health services.
(2004) play promoting lifetime activity for
youth. Phoenix, AZ: Author.
Bar-or, O.(1995). Health benefits of
physical activity during childhood and
adolescence. Physical Activity and Fitness
Research Digest,2(4), 1-6.
Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association
. (2000, may/june). Fitness and Newsletter
Websites
American Alliance for health, physical
education, recreation, and dance
www.aapherd.org
American Heart Association
www.americanheart.org
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
www.cdc.org
Public Law 94-142
http//www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/i
dea35/history/index_pg10.html.
THANK
YOU!!!