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HUMAN GENOME PROJECT

BY JETT MCMILLAN
WHAT IS THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT?

• The Human Genome Project was an international scientific research project that had the goal of finding
the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up a persons DNA, and of identifying and mapping all
of the chromosomes in the human body.
• The HGP was started in 1990 and ran until 2003. It was the largest project ever of it’s kind. Researchers
from the USA, UK, Japan, France, Germany, Canada, Australia and China all contributed to the
$3,000,000,000 project.
WHAT IS DNA?

• DNA is the building block of life. It determines who we are. Each person’s DNA is unique and makes up
our body’s individual characteristics and features. DNA is like an instruction manual or blueprint for life.
• DNA molecules are made up of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus. DNA strands are
called polynucleotides and are made up of individual nucleotides that are hooked together in chains.
DNA molecules are usually made of two strands wrapped around each other and form a double helix.
DNA strands look similar to a twisted ladder.
WHAT ARE CHROMOSOMES?

• A chromosome is a single strand of DNA. Chromosomes are usually visible when looking through a
microscope. Chromosomes and DNA are present in every cell of every living organism.
• DNA chains inside chromosomes can contain anywhere between 10,000 to 1,000,000,000 nucleotides.
• Chromosomes are formed in an X shape, and one Y chromosome for boys.
• Chromosomes are what make up our genetic code and are passed down from generation to generation.
This is why each person has unique features that are similar to their family traits. Parents pass on their
chromosomes to their children. For example, chromosomes determine whether we have blue eyes,
brown hair, crooked fingers or toes, earlobes that are attached or detached, etc.
MAPPING CHROMOSOMES

• Chromosome mapping is a technique used when testing DNA and lets the tester figure out which
segments of DNA came from an ancestor. To map DNA segments on specific chromosomes it is
important to test several different family members.
• Scientists read chromosomes by using three key features to find their similarities and differences: size,
banding pattern, and centromere position. A centromere is like a band that squeezes the chromosome.
• Our bodies are made up of 23 pairs of chromosomes. 22 of the pairs determine our unique features and
traits. The 23rd chromosome determines our gender, if we are a girl or a boy. Girls are born with two X
chromosomes for the 23rd pair, and boys are born with an X and a Y chromosome.
• When a chromosome pair has a mutation of some kind, or a person is born with extra or less
chromosomes, it causes genetic abnormalities.
WHY IS THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT IMPORTANT?

• The human genome project is important because it helps doctors to know what could be wrong
genetically with their patients, and be able to diagnose and treat them appropriately. Before the human
genome project took place, doctors often didn’t have enough information to properly diagnose genetic
diseases and abnormalities.
HOW THE HGP HELPED MY FAMILY

• My cousin Tessa had a genetic disease at birth and her parents didn’t know about it.
• When she was about six months old, her body wasn’t developing right, and her parents took her to the
doctor to see what was wrong.
• The doctor sent them to a lab to have Tessa’s chromosomes mapped. The lab was able to determine
that she had a genetic disease that had been passed down through her parents genetics.
• Because of the diagnosis, Tessa is able to receive the correct treatment, surgeries, and development
help that she needs. Tessa now goes to a school that helps children with special needs.
AUNT JENNY, UNCLE CHRIS, AND MY COUSINS
REFERENCES
• Wikipedia:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Genome_Project
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA
• You Tube
Slider base
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ipvf4JNtUSk
• Slideshare
Shital Pal
https://www.slideshare.net/shitalpal3/human-genome-project-41108918
• News Medical Life Sciences
https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-a-Chromosome.aspx
• International Society of Genetic Genealogy Wiki
https://isogg.org/wiki/Chromosome_mapping
• U.S. National Library of Medicine
https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/chromosome/1