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Chapter 8 Rotational Motion

I. Rotational Motion
A. How is rotational motion different from linear motion?

B. Rotational Displacement (theta = q)


1) How far the object rotates, similar to distance in linear motion
2) Measured in degrees or radians or revolutions
3) 1 radian has an arc s = r. s(m)/r(m) =1
a) Revolutions can be converted
to degrees or radians
b) 1 revolution = 360 degrees
c) 1 revolution = 2p Radians
d) 1 Radian = 57.3 degrees
 360 
(5.5 revolution s)   1980
 revolution 
 2 πRadians 
(5.5 revolution s)   11π Radians
 revolution 
C. Rotational Velocity (omega = w)
1) Velocity is a rate of distance/time
2) Rotational Velocity is the rate of rotational displacement/time
3) RPM = revolutions per minute is an w
4) Revolutions/second = Similar to meters/second in linear motion
5) Radians/second is another common unit for w

θ
ω
t

D. Rotational Acceleration (alpha = a)


1) Change in w = rotational acceleration
2) Units = revolutions/s2 or radians/s2

ω
α
t
Linear motion Rotational motion
D. Uniform Rotational Acceleration
1) Rotational Acceleration at a constant rate is like Uniform Linear
Acceleration
Linear Motion Rotational Motion
v  vo  at ω  ωo  αt
1 2 1 2
d  vot  at θ  ω o t  αt
2 2

2) Example calculation: a = 0.005 rev/s2, t = 60 s, r = 1 m

ω  ωo  αt  0  (0.005 rev/s 2 )(60s)  0.3 rev/s


1 2
θ  ωot  αt  0  (0.5)(0.005 rev/s 2 )(60 s) 2  9 rev
2
E. Relationship between Linear and Rotational Motions
1) Who is going faster?

2) Linear velocity depends on how


far from the center an object is (r)

3) v = rw (for w in rad/s only)

4) Example: r = 1 m, w = 0.6p radians


v = rw = (1 m)(0.6p rad/s) = 1.88 m/s
If r = 2 m v = rw = (2 m)(0.6p rad/s) = 3.76 m/s

II. Torque and Balance l1 l2


A. How is something balanced?
1) F1 = F2 and d1 = d2 (l1 = l2)
2) Law of the lever: F1d1 = F2d2
3) Torque = tau = t = F x l
4) Torque is the ability to cause rotation about a pivot point
5) l must be measured perpendicular to the force vector
6) Increase the length to increase torque

l1 l2

C. Adding Torques
1) If F causes counter-clockwise rotation we call t = (+) + t1
2) If F causes clockwise rotation we call t = (-) -t2
3) Total torque is found by vector addition - tT

4) System is balanced if Total Torque = 0 (F1 = -F2)


5) Example Calculation: F1 = 5 N, l1 = 0.2 m, F2 = 3 N, l2 = ? to balance

t1 = (F1)(l1) = (5 N)(0.2 m) = 1 Nm

t2 = -t1 = -1 Nm = (F2)(l2)  τ1  1Nm


l2    0.33m
F2 3N
D. Center of Gravity
1) How far can the child “walk the plank”?

2) Center of Gravity = point at which an object’s


weight causes no net torque (balanced)

3) All of the plank’s weight is “centered” at its C.O.G.

4) Child won’t tip the plank until torque he causes is larger than that of the
plank. The pivot point is the edge of the dock.

plank child
5) Finding C.O.G. for a complex shape
a) Suspend the object from 2 different points
b) Draw lines extending from the suspending line
c) Intersection of the points gives center of gravity

6) Center of Gravity can be below pivot point


a) The torque will always try to bring C.O.G. back into position
b) The object is automatically balanced by gravity, t = 0 at that point

7) Try touching your toes with your


heels and back against a wall. Where
is your center of gravity?