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RESEARCH psyres330
What is Research?
What is the difference between
Search and Research?
• Search is merely looking for something whereas
research is much more than that.
• Research involves systematic gathering of
information to analyze it to establish facts and to
reach conclusions.
What is the difference between
Search and Research?
• Review and evaluation are integral parts of
research whereas search only involves looking for
• Search can be as simple as a kid looking for his
toy, or it can be complex like NASA sending a
space mission to Mars to search for life on this
What is the difference between
Search and Research?
• Surfing or “googling” to look for something on the
internet is merely search while comparing and
evaluating this information later on can be
termed as research.
What is Research?

• Research is the systematic process of collecting

and analyzing information (data) in order to
increase our understanding of the phenomenon
with which we are concerned or interested.
• Research involves three main stages:
 planning
 data collection
 analysis
Consider the following questions:

• Are children of divorced parents less likely to

commit to romantic relationships?
• Are girls more likely to cyberbully than boys are?
• Can parents’ preoccupation with their own weight
influence their children’s dieting behavior?
Consider the following questions:

• Are adolescents who play violent video games

more aggressive than adolescents who do not play
violent video games?
• What are the remarkable attributes of UNO-R
Consider the following questions:

• Do children who grow up with brothers and sisters

develop better social skills than children who
grow up without brothers and sisters?
• Do metrosexuals have more favorable self-
concept than their counterparts?
The Research Process

• Originates with a question or problem.

• Requires a clear articulation of a goal.
• Follows a specific plan of procedure.
• Usually divides the principal problems into more
manageable sub-problems (hypotheses), which
guide the research.
The Research Process

• Accepts certain critical assumptions.
• Requires collection and interpretation of data to
answer original research question
What is Social Research?

• It is research involving social scientific methods,

theories and concepts, which can enhance our
understanding of the social processes and
problems encountered by individuals and groups
in society.
What is Social Research?


• It is conducted by sociologists, psychologists,

economists, political scientists and
• It is NOT just common sense, nor based on facts
without theory. It is NOT using personal life
experience nor perpetuating media myths.
Social research is a scientific process

• It involves the systematic collection of methods

to produce knowledge.
• It is objective.
• It can tell you things you do not expect.
• It consists of theory and observation.
Social research is a scientific process


• Sometimes called ‘soft sciences’ because their

subject matter (humans) are fluid and hard to
measure precisely.
• It is an empirical research – i.e. facts are assumed
to exist prior to the theories that explain them.
The Roles and Outcomes of Research

1. Exploratory. Discover new phenomena and

relationships among phenomena that are missed
by others. Qualitative research plays important
role here.
e.g. A counseling psychologist wants to know
what things make an effective counselor.
The Roles and Outcomes of Research


2. Explanatory. Develop new theories or use

existing theories to account for the observations.
For example:
Dollard and Dobb (1939) theorized that frustration
leads to aggression from the observation that a
child strikes out when deprived of a toy.
According to social learning theory, a good role
model is important for school achievement.
The Roles and Outcomes of Research


3. Validation. Validating and replicating existing

research and theory is an important part of
science. Using different samples, populations,
research methods.
Two Forms of Social Research

• Basic or Pure Research:

-aim is to develop a body of general knowledge
for the understanding of human social
behavior by means of a combination of
empirical inquiry and application of theory.
• Applied or Policy-Oriented Research:
- aim is to provide knowledge and information
that can be used to influence social policy.
Two Forms of Social Research

• Basic Research is done by academics (professors,
• Applied Research is conducted by applied social
researchers employed by sponsors.
Two Forms of Social Research

• Success for basic social researchers is when
results are published in a peer reviewed journal
and have an impact on the scientific community.
• Success for applied social researchers is that their
results are used by their sponsors in decision