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CHE 414N

MOMENTUM TRANSPORT
PROCESS
MWF 9:00AM – 10:30
HABON | MATA | PAPAS | PASQUIL | TEJANO | TRIPOLI
NOZZLES
For Gas Flows
Nozzles
Are tubes of varying cross-sectional
area (usually axisymmetric) aiming
at increasing the speed of an outflow,
and controlling its direction and
shape
Nozzles
as the fluid flows through the
nozzle, the kinetic energy of the fluid
is increased at the expense of pressure
energy.
RELATIONSHIPS AMONG
T, A ,P , 𝒗, 𝝆, Ma
For One Dimensional Isentropic Flows In Nozzles
MASS BALANCE:
𝑚ሶ 1 = 𝑚ሶ 2
𝜌1 𝐴1 𝑣1 = 𝜌2 𝐴2 𝑣2 = 𝑚
𝑑𝜌 𝑑𝐴 𝑑𝑣
𝐴𝑣 + 𝜌𝑣 + 𝐴𝜌 =0
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑦
𝐴𝑣 𝑑𝜌 + 𝜌𝑣 𝑑𝐴 + 𝐴𝜌 𝑑𝑣 = 0
𝑑𝜌 𝑑𝐴 𝑑𝑣
+ + =0 Equation 1
𝜌 𝐴 𝑣
ENERGY BALANCE:
RECALL:
𝑑𝐸 𝑑𝐻 = 𝑇 𝑑𝑆 + 𝑉 𝑑𝑃
= ෍ 𝐸ሶ 𝑖𝑛 − ෍ 𝐸ሶ 𝑜𝑢𝑡 + 𝑄ሶ + 𝑊ሶ
𝑑𝑡
Since isentropic:
Steady-state, adiabatic system, 1
neglecting now work: 𝑑𝐻 = 𝑉 𝑑𝑃 = 𝑑𝑃
𝜌
0 = −∆𝐻ሶ − ∆𝐾𝐸 ሶ
∆𝐻෡ = −∆𝐾𝐸෢ Combining:
∆𝑣 2
∆𝐻෡+ =0 𝑑𝑃
2 + 𝑣 𝑑𝑣 = 0
𝑣2 𝜌
𝐻+ = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
2 Equation 2
Differentiating: 𝑑𝐻 + 𝑣 𝑑𝑣 = 0
Combining equations 1 and 2: Since : c2 =
dP
and 𝑀𝑎 =
𝑣
dρ 𝑐
𝑑𝐴 𝑑𝑃 1 𝑑𝜌
= 2
+
𝐴 𝜌 𝑣 𝑑𝑃 𝑑𝐴 𝑑𝑃
= 2 (1 − 𝑀𝑎2 )
𝑑𝐴 𝑑𝑃 1 𝑑𝜌 𝐴 𝜌𝑣
= 2 1+ 2
𝐴 𝑣 𝜌 𝑣 𝑑𝑃 Equation 3
Equation 3 describes the variation of pressure with the
flow area. We note that A, 𝜌, and 𝑣 are positive quantities,
therefore we conclude the following:
Converging Diverging
Flow Ma (𝟏 − 𝑴𝒂𝟐 )
↓𝑨 ↑𝑨

For Subsonic Flow Ma < 1 + ↓𝑷 ↑𝑷


For Supersonic ↑𝑷 ↓𝑷
Ma > 1 -
Flow
Since from equation 2:
𝑑𝑃
+ 𝑣 𝑑𝑣 = 0
𝜌
𝑑𝑃
𝜌𝑣 = −
𝑑𝑣

𝑑𝐴 𝑑𝑣
= (1 − 𝑀𝑎2 )
𝐴 𝑣
Equation 4
The equation governs the shape of a nozzle or a diffuser
in subsonic or supersonic isentropic flow. Noting that A
and 𝑣 are positive quantities, we conclude the following:
𝒅𝑨
For Subsonic Flow Ma < 1 <𝟎
𝒅𝒗
𝒅𝑨
For Sonic Flow Ma = 1 =𝟎
𝒅𝒗
𝒅𝑨
For Supersonic Flow Ma > 1 >𝟎
𝒅𝒗

Thus the proper shape of a nozzle depends on the


highest velocity desired relative to the sonic velocity
velocities a disappointment
encountered in most
familiar applications

CONVERGING DUCT EXTENDED CONVERGING


DUCT
velocities Added to accelerate
encountered in most a fluid to
familiar applications supersonic
velocities

CONVERGING DUCT DIVERGING DUCT


Converging-
Diverging Nozzle
◆ Also known as CD nozzles
or de Laval or Laval nozzles
◆ First used in 1893 by Carl
G. B. de Laval
◆ used to accelerate gases
to supersonic speeds
Converging-
Diverging Nozzle
◆ The fluid first passes
through a converging
duct where the Mach
number increases as the
flow area of the nozzle
decreases
Converging-
Diverging Nozzle
◆ The Mach number is 1 at
the location of smallest
flow area, called the
throat
Converging-
Diverging Nozzle
◆ the velocity of the fluid
keeps increasing after
passing the throat and
into the diverging duct
Converging-
Diverging Nozzle
◆ Since 𝑚ሶ = 𝜌𝐴𝑣 for steady
flow, the decrease in
density makes
acceleration in the
diverging section
possible
Converging-
Diverging Nozzle
◆ not be confused with
Venturi nozzles, which are
used strictly for
incompressible flow.
Parts of the Converging-Diverging Nozzle

CONVERGING DUCT / NOZZLE DIVERGING DUCT / DIFFUSER

subsonic to sonic sonic to supersonic


Variation of normalized fluid properties and cross-sectional
area along a duct as the pressure drops
PROPERTY RELATIONS
FOR ISENTROPIC FLOW
OF IDEAL GAS
𝑣2 𝑣2
=
2𝐶𝑝 𝑇 2 𝑘𝑅
𝑇
Isentropic and constant heat 𝑘−1
𝑣2 𝑘 − 1 𝑣2
capacities: =
𝑣2 2𝐶𝑝 𝑇 2 𝑐2
𝑇0 = 𝑇 + 𝑣2 𝑘−1
2𝐶𝑝 = 𝑀𝑎2
𝑇0 𝑣2 2𝐶𝑝 𝑇 2
=
𝑇 2𝐶𝑝 𝑇 Substituting:
𝑘𝑅
where : 𝑐𝑝 = 𝑇0 𝑘−1
𝑘−1
𝑐 2 = 𝑘𝑅𝑇 =1+ 𝑀𝑎2
𝑣 𝑇 2
𝑀𝑎 = Equation 5
𝑐
𝑘
𝑃0 𝜌0 𝑘 𝜌0 𝑘 𝑇0 𝑘−1
Since: = Since: =
𝑃 𝜌 𝜌 𝑇

k 1
𝑃0 𝑘−1 k−1 𝜌0 𝑘−1 k−1
= 1+ 𝑀𝑎2 = 1+ 𝑀𝑎2
𝑃 2 𝜌 2

Equation 6 Equation 7

critical properties are properties of a fluid at a
location where the Mach Number is 1 (at the throat)
𝑇0 𝑃0 𝜌0
and the ratios , , in equations 5, 6, 7 are
𝑇 𝑃 𝜌
called critical ratios
Since Ma=1 at throat:
From equation 6: From equation 7:
k 1
𝑃0 𝑘−1 𝜌0 𝑘−1 k−1
From equation 5: = 1+
k−1
= 1+
𝑃 2 𝜌 2
𝑇0 𝑘−1
=1+ 𝑘 1
𝑇 2 𝑃∗ 2 𝑘−1 𝜌∗
2 𝑘−1
= =
𝑇∗ 2 𝑇0 𝑘+1 𝜌0 𝑘+1
=
𝑇0 𝑘 + 1
Equation 6-2 Equation 7-2
Equation 5-2
These ratios are evaluated for various values of k and
are listed in Table 12–2. (Cengel and Chimbala)
SAMPLE
PROBLEM

Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications – Cengel and Cimbala


FROM EXAMPLE 12-3

Carbon dioxide flows steadily through a varying cross-


sectional area duct such as a nozzle shown in Fig. 12–12 at a
mass flow rate of 3 kg/s. The carbon dioxide enters the duct at
a pressure of 1400 kPa and 200°C with a low velocity, and it
expands in the nozzle to a pressure of 200 kPa. The duct is
designed so that the flow can be approximated as isentropic.
EXAMPLE 12-4

Calculate the critical pressure and


temperature of carbon dioxide for
the flow conditions described in
Example 12–3 (Fig. 12–19).
EXAMPLE 12-4

ASSUMPTIONS:
◆ CO2 is an ideal gas with constant heat specifics
◆ Flow through the duct is steady, one-dimentional, and isentropic

REQUIRED:
◆ Critical temperature (T*)
◆ Critical Pressure (P*)
EXAMPLE 12-4

From table A-1, CO2 at 25°C: k = 1.288


𝑃∗ 2 𝑘
=( )𝑘 −1
𝑇∗ 2 𝑃0 𝑘+1
=
𝑇0 𝑘+1
1.288
2(473 𝐾) 2 1.288 −1
𝑇∗ = 𝑃∗ = 1400 𝑘𝑃𝑎
1.288 + 1 1.288 + 1

𝑇 ∗ = 413.46 𝐾 𝑃∗ = 767.07 𝑘𝑃𝑎


THE EFFECTS OF
BACK PRESSURE
For One Dimensional Isentropic Flows Through
Nozzles

Back Pressure (𝑷𝒃 ) is the pressure applied at the
nozzle discharge region
PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION ALONG A CONVERGING
NOZZLE
PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION ALONG A CONVERGING
NOZZLE

◆ If the back pressure


𝑃𝑏 is equal to 𝑃1 ,
which is equal to 𝑃𝑟 ,
there is no flow and
the pressure
distribution is
uniform along the
nozzle
PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION ALONG A CONVERGING
NOZZLE

◆ When the back


pressure is reduced
to P2, the exit plane
pressure Pe also
drops to P2. This
causes the pressure
along the nozzle to
decrease in the flow
direction.
PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION ALONG A CONVERGING
NOZZLE

◆ When the back


pressure is reduced
to P3 the mass flow
reaches a maximum
value and the flow is
said to be choked.

Choked Flow is when 𝑃𝑒 =P* (back flow is equal to the
pressure required to increase the fluid velocity to the
speed of sound at the exit plane), the mass flow reaches
a maximum value and the flow
PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION ALONG A CONVERGING
NOZZLE

◆ Further reduction of
the back pressure to
level P4 or below
does not result in
additional changes
in the pressure
distribution, or
anything else along
the nozzle length.
MASS FLOW RATE ALONG A CONVERGING NOZZLE
𝑃 𝑃
𝑚ሶ = 𝐴 (𝑀𝑎 ∗ 𝑐 ) = 𝐴 (𝑀𝑎 𝑘𝑅𝑚 𝑇)
𝑅𝑚 𝑇 𝑅𝑚 𝑇
MASS BALANCE:
𝑚ሶ 1 = 𝑚ሶ 2 Recall from Equations 5-2 and 6-2:
𝑘
𝑚ሶ = 𝜌 𝐴 𝑣 𝑇 ∗
2 ∗
𝑃 2 𝑘−1
𝑚 = 𝑎𝑛𝑑 =
𝑚ሶ = 𝐴𝑣 𝑇0 𝑘 + 1 𝑃0 𝑘+1
𝑉
𝐴𝑀𝑎𝑃0 𝑘/𝑅𝑚 𝑇0
Since: 𝑃𝑉 = 𝑁𝑅𝑇 𝑚ሶ = 𝑘+1
𝑣 𝑘−1 𝑀𝑎2 2 𝑘−1
𝑀𝑎 = 1+
𝑐 2
𝑐 = 𝑘𝑅𝑇 Equation 8
MAXIMUM MASS FLOW RATE

𝑑𝑚
To optimize: =0
𝑑𝑀𝑎
𝑀𝑎 = 1 −
𝑘+1

𝑘+1 2 𝑘−1
𝑚𝑚𝑎𝑥
ሶ = 𝐴 𝑃0 𝑘/𝑅𝑚 𝑇0
To Equation 8: 2

𝐴𝑃0 𝑘/𝑅𝑚 𝑇0
𝑚ሶ = 𝑘+1 Equation 9

𝑘 + 1 2 𝑘−1
where 𝐴∗ is the cross sectional area of
2
the throat. Since Ma is equal to 1 at the
throat.
MASS FLOW RATE ALONG A CONVERGING NOZZLE

𝑚ሶ reaches a maximum
at 𝑃𝑏 = 𝑃∗

𝑚ሶ remains
constant at 𝑃𝑏 /𝑃0 𝑚ሶ increases with
values less than decreasing Pb /𝑃0
critical ratio
EXIT PRESSURE OF A CONVERGING NOZZLE

From the graph shown:


𝑃𝑏 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑃𝑏 > 𝑃∗
𝑃𝑒 = ቊ ∗
𝑃 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑃𝑏 < 𝑃∗
EXIT PRESSURE OF A CONVERGING NOZZLE

back pressure lower than the


critical pressure cannot be
sensed in the nozzle upstream
flow and does not affect the flow
rate
VARIATION OF MASS FLOWRATE WITH INLET
PROPERTIES
EFFECTS OF STAGNATION T AND P ON MASS FLOWRATE
Recall from Equations 8 and 9:
𝑘+1
𝐴𝑀𝑎𝑃0 𝑘/𝑅𝑇0 𝑘+1 2 𝑘−1
𝑚ሶ = 𝑘+1
and 𝑚ሶ = 𝐴∗ 𝑃0 𝑘/𝑅𝑇0
2
𝑘−1 𝑀𝑎2 2 𝑘−1
1+
2
Combining both equations:
𝑘+1
𝐴 1 2 𝑘−1 2(𝑘−1)
= 1+ 𝑀𝑎2

𝐴 𝑀𝑎 𝑘+1 2

Equation 10
Table A–13 gives
values of A/A* as a
function of the Mach
number for air (k=1.4).
(Cengel and Chimbala)
RATIO OF LOCAL VELOCITY TO SPEED OF SOUND AT THE
THROAT
𝑣
𝑀𝑎∗ =
𝑐∗
It can also be expressed as: Combining:
𝑣 𝑐 𝑐
𝑀𝑎∗ = ∗ = 𝑀𝑎 ∗ ∗
𝑘+1
𝑐 𝑐 𝑐 𝑀𝑎 = 𝑀𝑎
𝑀𝑎 𝑘𝑅𝑇 2 + 𝐾 − 1 𝑀𝑎2

𝑀𝑎 =
𝑘𝑅𝑇 ∗
Equation 11
Recall from Equations 5-2:
𝑇∗ 2
=
𝑇0 𝑘 + 1
SAMPLE
PROBLEM

Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications – Cengel and Cimbala


EXAMPLE 12-5

Air at 1 MPa and 600°C enters a


converging nozzle, shown in Fig.
12–24, with a velocity of 150 m/s.
Determine the mass flow rate
through the nozzle for a nozzle
throat area of 50 𝑐𝑚2 when the
back pressure is (a) 0.7 Mpa and
(b) 0.4 MPa.
EXAMPLE 12-4

ASSUMPTIONS:
◆ Air is an ideal gas with constant heat specifics at room temp
◆ Flow through the duct is steady, one-dimentional, and isentropic

REQUIRED:
◆ Mass Flowrate (𝑚)
ሶ when back pressure is 0.7 MPa
◆ Mass Flowrate (𝑚)ሶ when back pressure is 0.4 MPa
EXAMPLE 12-5

SOLUTIONS: Solving for Stagnation T and P:


𝑘
Solving for Stagnation T and P: 𝑇0 𝑘−1
𝑃0 = 𝑃𝑖
𝑣𝑖2 𝑇𝑖
𝑇0 = 𝑇𝑖 + 1.4
2𝐶𝑝 884𝐾 1.4−1
150𝑚 2 𝑃0 = 1𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝑠2 1𝑘𝐽 873𝐾
𝑇0 = 873𝐾 + 1.005𝑘𝐽 (1000𝑚2/𝑠2)
2 𝑘𝑔
∙𝐾 𝑃0 = 1.045𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝑇0 = 884𝐾
Air from Table 12-2:
Since assumed isentropic, stagnation 𝑃∗
Temperature and Pressure remains constant = 0.5283
throughout the nozzle 𝑃0
EXAMPLE 12-4
EXAMPLE 12-5

CASE A: Since:
Is 𝑃𝑏 /𝑃0 > 𝑃∗ /𝑃0 ? 𝑃𝑏 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑃𝑏 > 𝑃∗
𝑃𝑒 = ቊ ∗
𝑃𝑏 0.7𝑀𝑃𝑎 𝑃 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑃𝑏 < 𝑃∗
= = 0.670
𝑃0 1.045𝑀𝑃𝑎 Then:
𝑃𝑡 = 𝑃𝑏 = 0.7𝑀𝑃𝑎
So: 𝑃𝑡 0.7𝑀𝑃𝑎
= = 0.670
𝑃0 1.045MPa
𝑃𝑏 𝑃∗
> From Table A-13:
𝑃0 𝑃0 𝑇𝑡
𝑀𝑎𝑡 = 0.778 𝑎𝑛𝑑 = 0.892
𝑇0
EXAMPLE 12-4
EXAMPLE 12-5

Recall that:
𝐴𝑀𝑎𝑃0 𝑘/𝑅𝑇0
𝑚ሶ = 𝑘+1
𝑘−1 2
𝑀𝑎 2 𝑘−1
1+ 2

0.287𝑘𝐽
(50𝑐𝑚2 )(0.778)(1.045𝑀𝑃𝑎) 1.4/( ∙ 𝐾)(884𝐾)
𝑘𝑔
𝑚ሶ = 1.4+1
1.4 − 1 2
(0.778) 2 1.4−1
1+ 2
𝑘𝑔
𝑚ሶ = 6.77
𝑠
EXAMPLE 12-5

CASE B:
Is 𝑃𝑏 /𝑃0 > 𝑃∗ /𝑃0 ?
Since:
𝑃𝑏 0.4𝑀𝑃𝑎
= = 0.383 𝑃𝑏 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑃𝑏 > 𝑃∗
𝑃0 1.045𝑀𝑃𝑎 𝑃𝑒 = ቊ ∗
𝑃 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑃𝑏 < 𝑃∗
Then:
So: 𝑃𝑡 = 𝑃∗
𝑀𝑎 = 1
𝑃𝑏 𝑃∗
<
𝑃0 𝑃0
EXAMPLE 12-5

Recall that:
𝑘+1
𝑘+1 2 𝑘−1
𝑚ሶ = 𝐴∗ 𝑃0 𝑘/𝑅𝑇0
2

1.4+1
0.287𝑘𝐽 1.4 + 1 2 1.4−1
𝑚ሶ = (50𝑐𝑚2 )(1.045𝑀𝑃𝑎) 1.4// ∙𝐾 884𝐾
𝑘𝑔 2
𝑘𝑔
𝑚ሶ = 7.10
𝑠
12-6
Nitrogen enters a duct with varying flow area at T1 =
400 K, P1 = 100 kPa and Ma1 = 0.3.Assuming steady isentropic
flow, determine T2 , P2 , and Ma2 at a location where the flow area
has been reduced by 20 percent.

Assumptions:
• Nitrogen is an ideal gas with k = 1.4.
• Flow through the nozzle is steady, one – dimensional, and
isentropic.
At Ma1 = 0.3

A1
= 2.0351
A∗
P1
= 0.9395
P0
T1
= 0.9823
T0

A 2 A 2 A1
= ·
A∗ A1 A∗
A2 0.8A1
= · 2.0351
A∗ A1
A2
= 1.6281
A∗
A2
At A∗
= 1.6281

Ma2 = 0.391
P2
= 0.9000
P0
T2
= 0.9703
T0

T2 T2 /T0
=
T1 T1 /T0
T2 /T0 0.9703
T2 = T1 = (400 K)( )
T1 /T0 0.9823
T2 = 395.11 K
A2
At A∗
= 1.6281

Ma2 = 0.391
P2
= 0.9000
P0
T2
= 0.9703
T0

P2 P2 /P0
=
P1 P1 /P0
P2 /P0 0.9000
P2 = P1 = (100 kPa)( )
P1 /P0 0.9395
P2 = 95.7956 kPa
Converging – diverging nozzle
It is used to accelerate hot, pressurized gas passing
through it to a higher supersonic speed in the axial
direction.
It is used in some types of steam turbines and rocket
engine nozzles.

M<1 M>1

M=1
The effects of back pressure
on the flow through a
converging – diverging nozzle
12-7
Air enters a converging–diverging nozzle at 1.0 Mpa and 800 K
with a negligible velocity. The flow is steady, one-dimensional,
and isentropic with k = 1.4. For an exit Mach number of Ma = 2
and a throat area of 20 cm2 , determine (a) the throat
conditions, (b) the exit plane conditions, including the exit
area, and (c) the mass flow rate through the nozzle.
Assumptions:
◆ Air is an ideal gas with constant specific heats at room temperature.
◆ Flow through the nozzle is steady, one – dimensional, and isentropic.

• Heat capacity ratio of air is given to be k = 1.4. The gas


constant of air is 0.287 kJ/kg.K
The exit Ma is given to be 2. Therefore, the flow must be sonic at the
throat and supersonic in the diverging section of the nozzle. Since
the inlet velocity is negligible, the stagnation pressure and
stagnation temperature are the same as the inlet temperature and
pressure, P0 = 1.0 MPa and T0 = 800K

From ideal gas law:


P0 1000 kPa kg
𝜌0 = = = 4.355
RT0 kPa. m3 m3
(0.287 )(800K)
kg. K
At the throat of the nozzle Ma = 1

P∗
= 0.5283
P0
T∗
= 0.8333
T0
ρ∗
= 0.6339
ρ0
Compressible Flows
FOR FLOW OF IDEAL GAS

𝑣1 𝑣 𝑣 + 𝑑𝑣 𝑣2
𝑑𝐸
= ෍ 𝐸ሶ 𝑖𝑛 − ෍ 𝐸ሶ 𝑜𝑢𝑡 + 𝑄ሶ + 𝑊ሶ
𝑑𝑡
Over a 30 m length of a 150 mm vacuum line carrying air at 295
k, the pressure falls from 0.4 kN/m2 to 0.13 kN/m2. If the relative
roughness ε/D is 0.003 what is the approximate flowrate?

T = 295 K

Air 𝜖
D=150mm = 0.003
𝐷
𝑘𝑁
𝑃1 = 0.4 𝑘𝑁
𝑚2 𝑃2 = 0.13
L = 30m 𝑚2
𝑁∙𝑠
𝜇 = 1.8𝑥10−5 2
𝑚

Assumptions:
-Flow is at steady state, isothermal and turbulent
-Pipe is horizontal
-Methane is an ideal gas
-Fluid is compressible
𝑓
2

Substituting to the equation:


𝑓
2

𝑓
2

Check if this flowrate is possible

𝑅 𝐿 𝑓𝐿 30 𝑚
8 =8 = 8 0.0052 = 8.32
𝜌𝑣 2 𝐷 2𝐷 0.15 𝑚
A flow of 50 m3/s methane, measured at 288 K and 101.3 kN/m2, has to be delivered along
a 0.6m diameter line, 3.0 km long with a relative roughness of 0.0001, linking a
compressor and a processing unit. The methane is to be discharged at the plant at 288 K
and 170 kN/m2 and it leaves the compressor at 297 K. What pressure must be developed
at the compressor in order to achieve this flowrate?

𝑁∙𝑠
𝜇293𝐾 = 0.01𝑥10−3
𝑚2
1 2 3
𝜖
= 0.0001
𝐷 𝑃1 =? 𝑃2 = 101.32 𝑘𝑁ൗ 2 𝑃3 = 170 𝑘𝑁ൗ 2
𝑚 𝑚
𝑇1 = 297 𝐾 𝑇1 = 288 𝐾 𝑇3 = 288 𝐾
Methane
D=0.6m

L = 3 km

Assumptions:
-Flow is at steady state, isothermal and turbulent
-Pipe is horizontal
-Methane is an ideal gas
-Fluid is compressible
𝑓
2

𝑃1 𝑉෠1
𝐷𝑣𝜌
𝜇

𝑓
= 0.0015
2
𝑅 𝐿 𝑓𝐿
8 = 8 = 60
𝜌𝑣 2 𝐷 2𝐷

𝑅 𝐿
8 = 60
𝜌𝑣 2 𝐷