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According to Carter B . Good View: ”Individual differences stand for variations or deviations among
individuals in regard to single characteristics or a number of characteristics .”
According to Charles Darwin’s View : “No two individuals of the same race are quite alike, we may
compare millions of faces and each will be distinct.”
So, we can say individual differences are those differences which in their totality distinguish one
individual from another.
This graph shows most people fall in the category of average height.Thus,we can say the
differences in psychological characteristics are often consistent and form a stable
pattern .People develop unique characteristics due to their genetic makeup and
environment in which they are brought up.
Inter-Individual differences Intra-Individual differences

When individuals differ from one When variations are found within the
another in respect of physical same individual or when individual
,cognitive and psychological traits we differs from one ability to another
term these differences as inter within his/her own self . These
individual differences. differences are called intra-individual
 Personality:
Characteristics of individual that help us to describe and explain ,why one person
is e.g. shy while another person is outgoing.
 Cognitive Style:
They are concerned with manner in which an individual process information.
 Locus of Control:
Individual differ in terms of internal factors(their own act, which are within their
control) or external factors(factors outside individual).
 Achievement Motivation:
The differences in mental ability such as intelligence in terms of motivational
 Rates of Growth:
The differential growth rate in terms of physical, mental and personality
 Physical and Psychological differences:
Individuals vary in physique ,i.e., some are tall and some are short, fat and thin,
strong and weak, black and fair, etc.
 Difference in motor ability:
Some children are interested more vigorously in mechanical task, others may be
interested in technical one or vice-versa.
 Race and Nationality Differences :
People living in one nation or state are different from another nation or state in
customs ,traditions ,beliefs ,habits and living patterns.
 Miscellaneous:
People also differ with respect to their development, health, achievement,
attitudes, temperament and regional situation.
 Intelligence Interests
 Aptitude Attitudes
 Creativity Values
 Academic Achievement Social Adjustment
 Intelligence Motivation
1. Intelligence:
It is the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations. It
can be measured with help of some psychological test.
The Four most commonly used tests are:
• Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales
• Wechsler-Adult Intelligence Scale
• Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
• Wechsler Primary & Preschool Scale of Intelligence

I.Q. is a measure of relative intelligence determined by a

standardized test.
Intelligent Quotient= mental age x 100
chorological age
 Gifted:
If mental age > chorological age ,then child is said to be gifted who possess IQs of
130 or above.
 Average:
The individual possessing IQs in between 90 and 30 falls under average category.
 Disabled:
They are categorized as-
• Border line:
IQ ranges between 90-70.
• Mentally Retarded:
IQ ranges between 50-35
• Severely Retarded:
IQ ranges below 35
It is an innate, acquired or learned or developed component of a competency to do a
certain kind of work at a certain level.
Aptitude test are used to evaluate taker’s special abilities inside a designated area.

Creativity is the ability to generate new ideas and
new connections between ideas, and ways to solve
problems in any field or realm of our lives. All people
have the capacity to be creative. We can also nurture
and increase our creativity.

Knowledge is the raw material on which creative

thinking draws, providing a platform from which
creative ideas can be generated.

Project work is favoured and creative thinking

should be taught in complex, real word contexts
related to topics covered in general curriculum.
It refers to the marks secured in a subject or subjects. It is
seen students who have pre-requisite knowledge learn more
effectively then those who lack knowledge.

According to Mathew Effect the academically rich gets richer

and poor continues to be poor. Likewise, differ in their ability to
manipulate to manipulate the knowledge.

Students must possess the abilities related to intelligence,

aptitude and creativity which are important for academic
Individuals differ in their interests, attitudes, values, social adjustment
and motivation. These are non-cognitive factors that influence student
 It is defined as a feeling of pleasure resulting from attending to
something .It is when we draw pleasure in an activity like from reading
a book, playing game, etc.
Physical and psychological characteristics, socio-economic
backgrounds, social pressures, attitudes, learning opportunities are
not same for everyone.Thus, resulting in individual differences.
It is a personality trait which indicates towards individual’s
likes or dislikes. Attitude towards a particular object is
influenced by parents, teachers, school and society in which
the individual lives.

There exist individual differences in individuals in terms of

attitude. It is due to difference in maturity levels, planned and
random experiences, physical surroundings, extent of warmth
exhibited, indulgence in home environment.

3.Value :
Anything that satisfies human desires called a value. In
interest and attitude, students differ in their perception about
various trait and virtues of the society.

Exposure to western lifestyle, TV, social networking sites,

family effect the social, political and economic value system.
 The degree with which a student adjusts to other people and the group with which he
identifies, gives an idea of social adjustment.
 Well-adjusted students are supposed to have learned social skills such as the ability
to effectively deal with both friends and strangers, etc.
 Whereas, the children with poor social behaviour at home generally fail to establish
good social behaviour outside their home.



It is a person’s total view of him or herself. It is
composite of the beliefs, ideas, or perception one
has about oneself.

It is seen that children who are constantly scolded

and rarely shown affection are likely to develop poor
confidence and inferiority confidences.

Whereas the children with positive self-concept rely

on themselves rather than on others are confident
and are willing to accept criticism and suggestions.
 It is a term used for conditions that cause one to begin an activity and pursue it with
vigour and persistence.
 In everyday terms, it refers to the why of the behaviour.
 The concept is used to account for differences in behaviour in the same student and
also differences between similar type of students.
 Various theories of motivation are :Need Deposition Theory, Maslow’s Theory of
Motivation, Theory of achievement Motivation, Attribution Theory.
 It can be categorized into two types:


It is satisfied by internal rein forcers It depends on needs that are
or factors and does not depend on satisfied by external rein forcers.
external goals.
Following are the tests of measurements:
INTELLIGENT TEST: includes verbal, non verbal and performance tests
APTITUDE TEST: measures the possibilities of success of an individual
ACHIEVEMENT TEST :measures student’s academic achievement in different
PERSONALITY TEST : assesses personality of an individual to whether a child is
introvert or extrovert
INTEREST INVENTORIES :measures differences among individuals about their
ATTITUDE TEST :judges internal feelings of a individual towards certain person
and object
Various other tests like Adjustment Test, Value Test, Moral Judgement Test,
Emotion Test and Memory Test
 Size of the Class :
Knowing individual differences will help the teacher in limiting the size of the class
to pay adequate personal attention to the child.
 Homogeneity in Grouping :
Teacher can make homogeneous groups according to the level of ability of the child
and can plan his/her teaching effectively.
 Attention towards the interests, aptitudes and abilities of the student
 Methods of Teaching :
Teacher can adopt suitable methodology like assignments, demonstrations,
activities depending upon the suitability for the class.
 Proper attention towards Personality and Physique of the students
 Provision of self-learning at their own rate :
Teacher can take of the differences in retention power and rate of learning of each
Curriculum :
Teachers will design the curriculum keeping in mind the individual differences.
Organization of special classes for exceptional and special children
Home Assignment and Guidance :
Teachers should give the home task of difficulty level as per the ability of the student.
They must be given proper guidance for the home task.
Role of the teacher and Individual Differences:
Teachers must employ their ingenuity to meet the needs and abilities of all his/her
students, to plan different types of in and out of school activities to help children.

Thus, if the teacher is careful, alert and dedicated then he/she can meet the individual
differences effectively.