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By Chang Fang Yi and Mok Jee Ning

 Ozone hole
 Increasing levels of cholofluorocarbon (CFC)
in the atmosphere
 Very active chemicals that contain chlorine,
carbon and fluorine

 Very stable and can remain in the

environment for as long as 75 – 100 years

 CFCs are used in air conditioners,

refrigerators, propellants in aerosol cans and
making plastic foams
 Prolonged exposure to ultraviolets rays can
lead to higher risks of :-
o Skin cancer
o Cataracts
o Sunburns

 It also weakens the immune system and the

ability of the body to resist infectious
 Skin cancer

 Cataracts
 Leaf cells and chlorophyll are easily damaged
 Lowers rate of photosynthesis and reduce
crop yields
 Ultraviolet rays kill microorganisms and phytoplankton that
are at the bottom of the food chain
 Increase in temperature on Earth
 Scientists believe that increased UV light
causes damage to amphibians such as toads
because they lay eggs that lack shells in
shallow ponds
 UV light kills many eggs of some species by
damaging unprotected DNA
 Higher UV levels might kill more eggs and put
amphibian population at risk
1. Reduce or stop usage of CFCs
2. Replace the use of CFC with
hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and
hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Unlike CFCs,
these gases break down in the atmosphere
and return to the Earth in the form of