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# SOLID AND STRUCTURAL

MECHANICS IV
(MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
Introduction
Purpose
The purpose of this course is to enable the student to;
1. learn the concepts of shear stress, shear deflection and shear centre
2. familiarize with the theory behind struts (columns) and parameters involved in
their design.
3. analyze statically indeterminate beams and structures

Learning outcomes
At the end of this course, the student should be able to;
1. solve problems relating to columns and be able to design the same
2. analyze and design structures which are statically indeterminate
3. design simple plates and cells from a structural perspective
Course description

Shear stresses and deflection: Concepts of shear flow, horizontal and vertical shear
stresses. Shear stress distribution in thin walled cross-sections. Shear center of open thin
walled cross-sections. Shear deflection of beams using the slope and energy methods.
Total deflection of beams.

Shear stresses due to torsion: Shear stress due to torsion. Torsion of non-circular
sections. Shear stress distribution due to torsion of thin-walled non-circular closed cross-
section; single cell and multi-cell cross-section.

Struts: Stability, Critical load, Euler’s crippling load for struts with different end
constraints, struts with initial curvature, struts with eccentric loading and secant formula,
method and approximate engineering methods, modified methods of superposition
Course description

## Statically indeterminate beams: Analysis using double integration, step function,

moment area, superposition and Clapeyrons three moment equation.

## Plates and Shells

Plates: Simple concepts of the general plate problem such as stress, curvature and
moments relation. Cylindrical and spherical bending. Bending of rectangular plates
and axi-symmetrically loaded circular plates simple cases.
Shells: Simple membrane action, symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and
cylindrical shells.
References
Prescribed text books
1. Gere & Timoshenko (1990) Mechanics of Materials, Boston: PWS - Kent Publishers
3rd Ed.
2. Case J., Chilver L. & Carl T. F. R (1999) Strength of Materials and Structures.
Elsevier, 4th Ed.

References
1. Benham P.P. and Crawford R.J. (1987) Mechanics of Engineering Materials, John
Wiley & Sons, Rev. Ed.
2. E. J. Hearn (1997) Mechanics of Materials part 2, 3rd Ed.
3. Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology
Horizontal and Vertical Shear Stress
 In addition to the bending (axial) stress which develops in a loaded
beam, there is also a shear stress which develops, including both a
Vertical Shear Stress, and a Horizontal (longitudinal) Shear Stress.
 At any given point in the beam, the values of vertical shear stress and
the horizontal shear stress must be equal, at that point, for static
equilibrium.
Horizontal and Vertical Shear Stress
𝑉𝑄
- Horizontal Shear Stress (𝜏) = where
𝐼𝑏

## V = Shear force at location along the beam where we wish to find

from the horizontal shear stress

## A = cross sectional area, from point where we wish to find the

shear stress at, to an outer edge of the beam cross section (top
or bottom)

## b = width of the beam at the point we wish to determine the shear

stress.
Examples
• Example 1
In Diagram 1, we have shown a simply supported 20 ft. beam with a load of 10,000
lb. acting downward at the center of the beam. The beam used is a rectangular 2"
by 4" steel beam. Determine (a) the maximum Horizontal Shear Stress which
develops in the beam due to the loading. (b) the Horizontal Shear Stress 3 inches
above the bottom of the beam.

Step 1: Out first step in solving this problem is to apply static equilibrium
conditions to determine the external support reactions. Two support forces will
support the load at the center equally with forces of 5000 lb. each as shown in
Diagram 2.
𝑉𝑄
 We will now apply the Horizontal Shear Stress formula: Shear Stress ,
𝐼𝑏
maximum shear stress, occurs at the neutral axis of the beam:

V = maximum shear force = 5,000 ft-lb. (from the shear force diagram)
I = moment of inertia of cross section; for rectangle
I = (1/12) bd3 = 1/12 (2" * 4"3) = 10.67 in4.
b = width of beam section where we wish to find shear stress at; b= 2 in.
a = area from point we wish to find shear stress at (neutral axis) to an outer edge
of beam
a= (2" x 2")= 4 in2.
y' = distance from neutral axis to the centroid of the area "a" which we used; y'= 1
in. (See Diagram 4)
Placing the values into the equation, we find:
Maximum Horizontal Shear Stress = VQ/Ib = (5000 lb)*(4 in2)*(1 in)/ (10.67 in4)(2
in)= 937 lb/in2

Part II We now would also like to determine the Horizontal Shear Stress 3 inches
above the bottom of the beam at the position in the beam. We again apply the
Horizontal Shear Stress formula: Horizontal Shear Stress = VQ'/Ib
We wish to find the shear stress 3 inches above the bottom of the beam cross section.
(See Diagram 5)
V = shear force = 5,000 ft-lb. (from the shear force diagram)
I = (1/12) bd3 = 1/12 (2" * 4"3) = 10.67 in4.
b = 2 in.
a = (2" x 1")= 2 in2.
y'= 1.5 in. (See Diagram 5)

Then the horizontal shear stress 3 inches above the bottom of the beam is:
Horizontal Shear Stress = Vay'/Ib = (5000 lb)*(2 in2)*(1.5 in)/ (10.67
in4)(2 in)= 703 lb/in2

##  Notice, the horizontal shear stress value becomes smaller as we move

toward the outer edge of the beam cross section.
Shearing Stresses in Thin-Walled Members
Consider a segment of a wide-flange beam subjected to
the vertical shear V.
Shear stress in any given point is given by;

𝑉𝑄
𝜏=
𝐼𝑡
Shear flow
 It is the gradient of a shear stress force throughout the
body
 It represents the longitudinal force per unit length
transmitted across a section at a level y1 from the
neutral axis.
 It is given by q = 𝜏t
Where q is the shear flow, t is beam thickness.

6 - 12
Shearing Stresses in Thin-Walled Members

##  For a wide-flange beam, the shear flow increases

symmetrically from zero at A and A’, reaches a
maximum at C and the decreases to zero at E and
E’.
 For a box beam, q grows smoothly from zero at
A to a maximum at C and C’ and then decreases
back to zero at E.
𝑉𝑄
q = 𝜏t =
𝐼

## Where V is the shear force, Q is statical moment of

area and I is the second moment of inertia

6 - 13
Sample Problem 6.3

SOLUTION:
Q  4.31in 0.770 in 4.815 in 
 15.98 in 3

## •The shear stress at a,



VQ 50 kips  15.98 in 3 
Knowing that the vertical shear is 50
kips in a W10x68 rolled-steel beam,
It

 
394 in 4 0.770 in 

## determine the horizontal shearing   2.63 ksi

stress in the top flange at the point a.
Shear Center
 Shear center is the point through which the line of action of the
resultant force of the shear stresses passes.
 It is different from the centroid of a x-section
 For sections having two axes of symmetry, the shear centre coincides
with the centroid of the section.
 It is important for assymetric thin walled x-section. These x-sections
are good in bending but weak in torsion.
 For sections having only one axis of symmetry, the shear centre lies
on the axis of symmetry, but does not coincide with the centroid.
 Whenever a section is subjected to additional torsion, we must locate
the shear center and check for its shear stress exceeding permissible
limits.
Shear center of different cross- sections

## Shear center for symmetrical thin-walled sections

Shear center for thin-walled sections having only one axis of symmetry
Shear center of different cross- sections

## Location of shear center in various cross-sections

Shear center of different cross- sections
•Beam loaded in a vertical plane
of symmetry deforms in the
symmetry plane without twisting.

My VQ
x    ave 
I It

## •Beam without a vertical plane

of symmetry bends and twists

My VQ
x    ave 
I It

6 - 19
•If the shear load is applied such that the beam
does not twist, then the shear stress distribution
satisfies

VQ D B E
 ave  V   q ds F   q ds    q ds   F 
It B A D

## •F and F’ indicate a couple Fh and the need for

the application of a torque as well as the shear
F h  Ve

## •When the force P is applied at a distance e to the

left of the web centerline, the member bends in a
vertical plane without twisting.

6 - 20
Example 6.06
• Determine the shear stress distribution for
V = 2.5 kips.
q VQ
 
t It
• Shearing stresses in the flanges,
VQ V h Vh
  st   s
It It 2 2I
Vhb 6Vb
B 
12  
2 1 th2 6b  h  th6b  h 
62.5 kips 4 in 
  2.22 ksi
0.15 in 6 in 6  4 in  6 in 
• Shearing stress in the web,

 max  
 
VQ V 8 ht 4b  h  3V 4b  h 
1

It 1
12
th 6b  h t 2th6b  h 
2

## 32.5 kips 4  4 in  6 in 

  3.06 ksi
20.15 in 6 in 6  6 in  6 in 
6 - 21
Shear stresses due to torsion
Shear: Shear stress due to torsion
25

## Shear stress distribution due to torsion of thin-walled non-

*5.7 THIN-WALLED TUBES HAVING CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS
circular closed cross-section

##  Thin-walled tubes of noncircular shape are used to construct lightweight

frameworks such as those in aircraft
 This section will analyze such shafts with a closed x-section
 As walls are thin, we assume stress is uniformly distributed across the
thickness of the tube
26

## *5.7 THIN-WALLED TUBES HAVING CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS

Shear flow
• Force equilibrium requires the
forces shown to be of equal
magnitude but opposite direction,
thus AtA = BtB
• This product is called shear flow q,
and can be expressed as

q = avgt

sectional area
27

T
avg = 2tA
m

## avg = average shear stress acting over thickness of tube

T = resultant internal torque at x-section
t = thickness of tube where avg is to be determined
Am = mean area enclosed within boundary of centerline of
tube’s thickness
28

## Average shear stress

Since q = avgt, the shear flow throughout the x-section is

T
q = 2A
m

Angle of twist
Can be determined using energy methods

TL
 = 4A 2G
m
O
ds
t ∫
29

## *5.7 THIN-WALLED TUBES HAVING CLOSED CROSS SECTIONS

IMPORTANT
• Shear flow q is a product of tube’s thickness and
average shear stress. This value is constant at all
points along tube’s x-section. Thus, largest average
shear stress occurs where tube’s thickness is
smallest
• Both shear flow and average shear stress act
tangent to wall of tube at all points in a direction to
contribute to resultant torque
30

EXAMPLE 5.16
Square aluminum tube as shown.
Determine average shear stress in the tube at point
A if it is subjected to a torque of 85 N·m. Also,
Take Gal = 26 GPa.
31

## EXAMPLE 5.16 (SOLN)

Average shear stress
Am = (50 mm)(50 mm) = 2500 mm2
T
avg = 2tA = ... = 1.7 N/mm2
m

## Since t is constant except at corners,

average shear stress is same at all
points on x-section.
Note that avg acts upward on darker-
shaded face, since it contributes to
internal resultant torque T at the
section
32

EXAMPLE
Angle of twist5.16 (SOLN)

TL
∫ds
 = 4A 2G O t = ... = 0.196(10-4) mm-1 O∫ ds
m

## Here, integral represents length around

centerline boundary of tube, thus

##  = 0.196(10-4) mm-1[4(50 mm)] = 3.92 (10-3) rad

Example 2.
Example 2 contn..