Sunteți pe pagina 1din 26

ORGANIZATIONAL

CHANGE, STRESS
MANAGEMENT AND
HOW NOT TO GO
INSANE
Learning Objectives
• Describe the forces that stimulate change
• Study first-order and second-order change
• Learn how individuals and organizations resist
change
• Examine innovative organizations
• Characterize a learning organization
• Describe potential sources of stress
• Learn how individual variables moderate the
stress-outcome relationship
Prentice Hall, 2001
The Downsizing Job Market
Question Responses
Have you or someone in your household Reduced hours = 15%
been forced to work fewer hours or take a Cut in pay = 19%
cut in pay? Both = 7%

Yes = 54%
Have you or someone in your household
been required to work more hours than
usual? Cut back severely = 20%
Cut back moderately = 45%
Has the fear of losing your job caused you
to cut back your spending?
Get more education or
training = 93%
What changes would you be willing to Work longer hours = 82%
make to keep Take fewer vacation days = 71%
your present job? Accept smaller benefits = 53%
Prentice Hall, 2001 Accept a lower wage = 44%

.
Workforce
World
Technology
Politics
Forces For
Change
Social Economic
Trends Shocks
Competition

Prentice Hall, 2001


Planned and Unplanned Organizational
Changes

Organizational
Change

planned Changes Unplanned Changes


• Changes in products and • Changing employee
services demographics
• Changes in administrative • Performance gaps
systems • Governmental regulations
• Changes in organizational • Economic competition in the
size or structure global arena
• Introduction of new
technologies
• Advances in information
processing and
communication
Prentice Hall, 2001
Managing Planned Change

First-Order Second-Order
Change Change

Linear Multilevel

Continuous Discontinuous

Incremental Radical
Prentice Hall, 2001
Structure, Technology, and People as
Targets of Organizational Change

Structure

Technology
Organizational
Change

People

Prentice Hall, 2001


What Can Change Agents Change?

Structure Technology

Physical
People
Setting
Prentice Hall, 2001
Resistance to Change

Selective Force of
Information Habit
Processing

Individual

Fear of Need for


the Unknown Security
Economic
Factors
Prentice Hall, 2001
Resistance to Change
Group Inertia

Threat to Structural
Existing Inertia
Relationships

Organizational

Threat to Limited
Existing Focus
Allocations Threat of Change
to Expertise
Prentice Hall, 2001
Overcoming
Resistance to Change
Education and
Participation
Communication

Facilitation
Negotiation
and Support

Manipulation
Coercion
and Cooptation
Prentice Hall, 2001
Organizational Change

Unfreezing Changing Refreezing

Lewin’s Three-Step Process


Prentice Hall, 2001
Unfreezing the Status Quo

Desired
State
Restraining
Forces

Status
Quo
Driving
Forces

Time
Prentice Hall, 2001
Action Research Process

One: Three:
Diagnosis Feedback
Five:
Evaluation

Two: Four:
Analysis Action

Prentice Hall, 2001


Organizational Development

• Respect for people

• Trust and support

• Power equalization

• Confrontation

• Participation

Prentice Hall, 2001


Five OD Interventions

• Intergroup development

• Process consultation

• Sensitivity training

• Survey feedback

• Team building

Prentice Hall, 2001


Survey Feedback: An Overview

Data Collection Feedback Develop Action Plans


Employees Through group
Feelings about the
complete discussions,
organization are
surveys to provide specific plans for
summarized and
information about overcoming problems
shared with all
problems in their are identified
employees
organization and developed

Prentice Hall, 2001

.
Sources of Innovation

Human Resources

Structural Variables

Organizational Culture
Prentice Hall, 2001
What Is a Learning
Organization?

 Definitions

 Advantages

 Characteristics

Prentice Hall, 2001


Establishing
Strategy

Managing Redesigning
Learning Structure

Reshaping
Culture
Prentice Hall, 2001
Managing Change: It’s
Culture Bound!
• Is change possible?

• How long will it take?

• Does culture influence resistance?

• Does culture influence implementation?

• Does culture influence idea champions?


Prentice Hall, 2001
Constraints Demands

What Is Stress?

Uncertainty Importance
Prentice Hall, 2001
A Model of Stress
Potential Sources Consequences

Environmental Individual Psychological


Factors Differences Symptoms

Organizational Experienced Physiological


Factors Stress Symptoms

Individual Behavioral
Factors Symptoms
Prentice Hall, 2001
Time Physical
Management Exercise

Individual Stress
Management

Relaxation Social
Training Support
Prentice Hall, 2001
Organizational Stress Management

Goal Setting

Wellness Job
Programs Redesigning

Organizational Employee
Communication Involvement
Selection
and Placement

Prentice Hall, 2001


Follow Up Session
• Constructive Criticism Issues